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    Pharmaceutical Drugs
     
    Red Wine may reduce the absorption of Cyclosporine (causing Cyclosporine treatment to be less effective). Therefore Red Wine should not be consumed by persons receiving Cyclosporine treatment.
     
    Red Wine Compared to White Wine
     
    The color of Wine is not related to the color of the Grapes used in its manufacture – the color of Wine is actually governed by the method of manufacture.
     
    Red Wine White Wine*
    Type of Grape: Red Grapes or White Grapes
     
    Part of Grape Used: Whole Grape (including Skin, Seeds and part of the String) Juice of the Grape only
    Production Method: Whole Grapes are crushed and left together for two to three weeks, during which the pigments (Anthocyanins) and OPCs (from the Skin and Seeds) gradually dissolve into the Wine during the process known as maceration. After extraction of juice, the seeds and skins are discarded and the juice is fermented to eventually produce wine.
    Nutrient Differences: Finished product contains a large amount of Anthocyanins and OPCs. Finished product contains approximately 3% of the quantity of OPCs and Tannins as Red Wine. Methanol: 200 ppm Methanol (the compound that may be responsible for Hangovers). 50 ppm Methanol.
     
    Some Eastern European countries produce macerated White Wine which is manufactured by a similar process to Red Wine using White Grapes, resulting in a White Wine that includes a much greater quantity of OPC than unmacerated White Wine.
     
     
    Optimal Consumption of Wine
     
    Studies that have demonstrated health benefits for Red Wine indicate that the protective level of Red Wine consumption occurs at approximately two glasses per day (250 ml per day). Consumption of Red Wine in excess of two glasses pay day may initiate the negative effects of excessive Alcohol (ethanol).
     
    Commercial Availability of Supplemental Wine Extracts
     
    Red Wine extracts are available from health food and nutrition outlets in the form of:
     
    – 300 mg capsules.
    – 500 mg capsules
     
    Supplemental Red Wine extracts are usually labeled as Red Wine Polyphenols and are often standardized to contain 20% – 100% Polyphenols (including up to 35% Anthocyanosides).
     
    Description
     
    Resveratrol is a type of Phytoalexin (a class of Polyphenol compounds produced as a part of a plant’s defense system against disease). Resveratrol is produced (in the plants in which it is present) during times of environmental stress, such as adverse weather, insect attack, animal attack or pathogenic attack. It is both water-soluble and fat-soluble.
     
     
    Health Benefits of Resveratrol
     
    Aging Process
     
    Resveratrol may retard the progression of the Aging Process.
     
    Resveratrol may possess Life Extension properties (due to its ability to increase the activity of Sir2p).
     
    Cardiovascular System
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent Arrhythmias.
     
    Resveratrol may prevent Atherosclerosis.
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit abnormal Blood Clotting.
     
    Resveratrol may help to protect the Heart from the toxic effects of Free Radicals (due to the Antioxidant effects of Resveratrol):
     
    Resveratrol may help to protect the Heart from (cardiac) Fibrosis.
     
    Resveratrol may reduce the toxic effects of Ischemia/Reperfusion injury in the Brain after (ischemic) Stroke.
     
    Digestive System
     
    Resveratrol may alleviate (acute) Pancreatitis.
     
    Ears/Hearing
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent Noise-Induced Hearing Loss.
     
    Excretory System
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent Diabetic Nephropathy.
     
     
     
     
    Immune System
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent various forms of Cancer.
     
    Resveratrol may prevent Cancer via several mechanisms: it may act as an antimutagen; it may stimulates phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes (i.e. it may possess anti-initiation activity)it may induce cell differentiation in Cancer cells (i.e. it possesses anti-progression activity).
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent Breast Cancer. One of the means by which Resveratrol may help to prevent Breast Cancer is by functioning as a Phytoestrogen – specifically it appears to beneficially interfere with the activity of Estradiol. It binds to Receptors that would otherwise bind to Estradiol and thereby prevents Estradiol from relaying Cancer cell promotion “messages”.
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the further progression of Colon Cancer.
     
    Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Esophageal Cancer cells. references
    – Resveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the Cells involved in Gliomas
     
    õResveratrol may help to prevent Kidney Cancer and may retard the further progression of Kidney Cancer.
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the further progression of (the Acute Promyelocytic form of) Leukemia and may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia cells.

    Resveratrol may help to prevent and treat Liver Cancer (due to its ability to stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Liver Cancer cells. references
     
    õResveratrol may help to “shrink” the tumors involved in Lung Cancer, may stimulate the Apoptosis (cellular death) of Lung Cancer cells and may inhibit the metastasis of Lung Cancer. references
     
    õResveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Multiple Myeloma cells.
     
    õResveratrol may be useful for the treatment of Neuroblastoma.
    õResveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Ovarian Cancer cells.
     
    õResveratrol may help to prevent and treat Pancreatic Cancer (due to its ability to stimulate the apoptosis (cell death) of Pancreatic Cancer cells. references
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the growth of Prostate Cancer cells.
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the proliferation of Rhabdomyosarcoma cells.
     
    õResveratrol may help to prevent Skin Cancer:
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the growth of Melanoma.
     
    õResveratrol may stimulate the apoptosis (death) of Thyroid Cancer cells.

    Part of Resveratrol’s anti-Cancer effect may be derived from its ability to inhibit Nuclear Factor-
    Kappa B (NF-Kappa B).
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit some types of Detrimental Fungi:
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit/kill Candida albicans.
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the replication of Herpes Simplex Viruses:
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1.
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the replication of the Herpes Simplex Virus Type 2.
     
    õResveratrol may suppress Inflammation. references
     
    õResveratrol may inhibit the replication of Influenza Viruses (and may therefore help to prevent Influenza
     
    Metabolism
     
    Resveratrol possesses Antioxidant properties:
     
    Resveratrol scavenges Peroxyl Free Radicals.
     
    Resveratrol may lower total serum Cholesterol levels:
     
    Resveratrol may increase HDL Cholesterol levels.
     
    Resveratrol may prevent the oxidation of LDL Cholesterol.
     
    Resveratrol may facilitate weight loss in persons afflicted with Obesity (due to Resveratrol increasing the activity of Sir2p).
     
    Nervous System
     
    õResveratrol may be useful for the prevention/treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease (by inhibiting the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein in the Brain).
     
    Respiratory System
     
    Resveratrol may help to prevent/treat Chronic Obstructory Pulmonary Disease (COPD) (by inhibiting the increased production of Interleukin 8 that occurs during COPD).
     
    Resveratrol may Enhance the Function of these Substances
     
     
     
     
    Enzymes
     
    õResveratrol may increase Quinone Reductase levels (this is one of the means by which Resveratrol may exert anti-cancer effects).
     
    Resveratrol may increase the activity of Sir2p.
     
    Glycosides
     
    Resveratrol is a component of Polydatin: Polydatin is the Glycoside of Resveratrol.
     
    Lipids
     
    Resveratrol may enhance the ability of Butyric Acid to prevent Colon Cancer. references
     
    Second Messengers
     
    Resveratrol elevates Cyclic AMP (cAMP) levels.
     
    Resveratrol may Inhibit these Potentially Toxic Substances
     
    Amines
     
    Resveratrol may reduce the toxicity (carcinogenicity) of Nitrosamines.
     
    Electromagnetic Radiation
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the ability of UV-B to damage the Skin.
     
    Environmental Toxins
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the conversion of Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) to carcinogens.
     
    Enzymes
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) catalyzed Thromboxane synthesis. references
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit Ornithine Decarboxylase.
     
    Immune System Chemicals
     
    Resverarol may inhibit the release of Interleukin 8 in respiratory system epithelial cells.
     
    Lipids
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the production of Thromboxane A2.
     
    Neurotoxins
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Kainic Acid.
     
    Proteins
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit Activator Protein-1. [more info]
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the neurotoxic effects of Amyloid-Beta Protein in the Brain.
     
    Resveratrol may inhibit the production of Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (NF-Kappa B).
     
    õResveratrol may reduce intracellular and secreted levels of Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA).
     
    Dietary Sources of Resveratrol
     
    (mg of Resveratrol per 100 grams)
     
     
    Alcoholic Beverages: Red Wine *
    Fruits: Grapes **7.5 Raisins Mulberry Cranberry Blueberry Bilberry
    Herbs: Hu Zhang Yucca Japanese Knotweed ***
    Nuts: Peanuts 0.25
     
    The Resveratrol content of Red Wine is approximately 0.1 – 15.0 mg per liter – pinot noir grapes appear to have the highest content of all Red Wines while very few White Wines contain any Resveratrol. The Resveratrol content of Wine is related to the length of time the Grape skins are present during the fermentation process. Therefore the concentration is significantly higher in Red Wine than in White Wine because the skins are removed earlier during White Wine production, thereby reducing the amount that is extracted. references
     
    ** Resveratrol is present in Grape skins, seeds, stalks, vines and roots (but not the flesh of the fruit). The highest concentration of Resveratrol is found in Grape skins. Grape juice contains very little resveratrol compared to Red Wine. The resveratrol content of Grape Skins is 50 – 100 mcg per gram (5,000 – 10,000 mcg per 100 grams [5 – 10 mg per 100 grams]). references
     
    *** Japanese Knotweed is claimed to be the highest known source of Resveratrol (containing 1,000 times the Resveratrol content of Grapes).
     
    Bioavailability
     
    Dietary Resveratrol (especially from Grape juice) is well-absorbed when consumed orally. references
     
    Dosage Recommendations
     
    The usual therapeutic dosage of Resveratrol ranges from 4 – 45 mg per day.
     
    Commercial Availability of Resveratrol Supplements
     
    “Singular” Oral Resveratrol Products
     
    Resveratrol is available from health food stores and mail order supplement companies (mainly only in the USA) in the form of:
     
    – 10 mg tablets (derived from 500 mg of Japanese Knotweed).
    – 10 mg capsules (derived from 50 mg of Japanese Knotweed)
    – 15 mg capsules (derived from 100 mg of Japanese Knotweed (20:1 extract) standardized to contain 15% Resveratrol)
    loose powder containing 5% Resveratrol derived from Japanese Knotweed
     
    Chemical Data
     
    Resveratrol is classed as a Phytoalexin.
     
    Chemical Names
     
    3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene
    Trans 3,5,4-trihydroxystilbene