tools of light

Allergies/immunotoxicity
type of concern product conditions reference
Limited evidence of skin and immune system toxicity CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review), 2006

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

type of concern product conditions reference
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity products that may be aerosolized (airborne) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
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Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

type of concern product conditions reference
Classified as skin irritant National Library of Medicine HazMap
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Developmental/reproductive toxicity
type of concern product conditions reference
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Kaibogaku Zasshi 1962
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Cancer

type of concern product conditions reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section A, Supplement 1981
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Violations, Restrictions & Warnings

type of concern product conditions reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
 

Endocrine disruption

type of concern product conditions reference
One or more animal studies show endocrine system disruption at high doses RTECS®- Toxic Substance Mechanisms 1995
Neurotoxicity
type of concern product conditions reference
One or more animal studies show brain and nervous system effects at high doses RTECS®- Journal of Pediatrics 1978
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Enhanced skin absorption

type of concern product conditions reference
Penetration enhancer Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Multiple, additive exposure sources

type of concern product conditions reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

type of concern product conditions reference
Safety assessment was based on related chemical Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
1,195 studies on toxicity in PubMed see search results ->
Systemic contact dermatitis from propylene glycol. Lowther AMcCormick TNedorost S. University Hospitals Department of Dermatology, Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH, USA.--A 39-year-old woman presented with pruritic eczematous plaques on her face, neck, and right hand that she had had for approximately 2 months, following an abrasive injury caused by the deployment of an airbag in a car accident. Results of patch testing were positive for several medicaments and propylene glycol (PG). The patient's condition cleared after discontinuation of all topical products containing PG and her other identified allergens, but she noted flares of her contact dermatitis following the ingestion of foods containing PG. A subset of patients will have a recurrence of dermatitis after the ingestion of a contact sensitizer. Recurrent dermatitis despite complete avoidance of identified topical allergens and a history of recurrent eczema at the patch-test site are clues to the diagnosis of systemic contact dermatitis. Even weak patch reactions to PG, if they persist to a day-7 reading, should be considered potentially relevant. Avoidance of dietary PG includes attention to labels on food and medication and the avoidance of certain foods in restaurants when ingredients cannot be verified.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

type of concern product conditions reference
Limited evidence of skin and immune system toxicity CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review), 2006

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

type of concern product conditions reference
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity products that may be aerosolized (airborne) Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004
show more

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

type of concern product conditions reference
Classified as skin irritant National Library of Medicine HazMap
show more

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

type of concern product conditions reference
One or more animal studies show reproductive effects at moderate doses RTECS®- Kaibogaku Zasshi 1962
show more
Cancer
type of concern product conditions reference
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results RTECS®- Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section A, Supplement 1981
show more

Violations, Restrictions & Warnings

type of concern product conditions reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
Endocrine disruption
type of concern product conditions reference
One or more animal studies show endocrine system disruption at high doses RTECS®- Toxic Substance Mechanisms 1995
Neurotoxicity

Enhanced skin absorption

type of concern product conditions reference
Penetration enhancer Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Multiple, additive exposure sources

type of concern product conditions reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food FDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

type of concern product conditions reference
Safety assessment was based on related chemical Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
1,195 studies on toxicity in PubMed see search results -> PubMed
Government, industry, academic studies and classifications
government/industry list/academic study appears on list as classification(s)
FDA Food Additive Status PROPYLENE GLYCOL • miscellaneous • Substances generally recognized as safe in foods but limited in standardized foods where the standard provides for its use - CFR184.1666 • refers to part number under Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 169 (169.175; 169.176; 169.177; 169.178; 169.180; 169.181) • Vanilla Extract • Carrier for enzyme modified soy protein • refers to part number under Title 21 Code of Federal Regulations 582.1666 - In animal feeds
Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments PROPYLENE GLYCOL •Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications •Determined safe for use in cosmetics up to a specified concentration limit •Penetration enhancer - alters skin structure, allows other chemicals to penetrate deeper into the skin •Safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) is based on safety or product use data for a different, related ingredient
FDA Everything Added to Food PROPYLENE GLYCOL • Fully up-to-date toxicology information has been sought.
National Library of Medicine HazMap PROPYLENE GLYCOL •Skin Sensitizer - An agent that can induce an allergic reaction in the skin or lungs: Yes; •Lacrimator - A substance that irritates the eyes and induces the flow of tears: Yes;
NTP - Risks to Human Reproduction PROPYLENE GLYCOL REPRO: Negligible concern || DEVELOPMENT: Negligible concern
CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review), 2006 PROPYLENE GLYCOL Propylene glycol was found to provoke allergic reactions in patients with eczema and other skin allergies.
Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, 2004 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • Respiratory Toxicity Hazards: suspected
RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V 1977 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1984 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • brain and nervous system - Ataxia (rat LD50) • respiratory - Respiratory depression (rat LD50) • brain and nervous system - Tetany (rat LD50)
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1984 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • brain and nervous system - Ataxia (rabbit LDLo) • respiratory - Respiratory depression (rabbit LDLo) • brain and nervous system - Tetany (rabbit LDLo)
RTECS®- Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section A, Supplement 1981 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (mouse scu) • mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: DNA Inhibition (mouse scu)
RTECS®- Arzneimittel-Forschung 1976 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 1974 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rabbit LD50)
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1947 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • kidney or renal system - Changes in both tubules and glomeruli (mouse LD50) • blood - Changes in spleen (mouse LD50) • respiratory - Chronic pulmonary edema (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • sense organ - Primary eye irritant (rabbit )
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • mutagenic - Positive mutation assay: Cytogenetic Analysis (hamster fbr)
RTECS®- Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974 17JUN1974 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1941 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (guinea pig LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1970 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • skin - Primary skin irritant ( human )
RTECS®- Journal of Pediatrics 1978 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • brain and nervous system - General anesthetic (child TDLo) • brain and nervous system - Changes in surface EEG (child TDLo) • brain and nervous system - Convulsions or effect on seizure threshold (child TDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1932 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • brain and nervous system - Coma (rabbit LDLo) • respiratory - Respiratory stimulation (rabbit LDLo) • brain and nervous system - Somnolence (general depressed activity) (rabbit LDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1937 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • cardiovascular - Other changes (chicken LDLo)
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1939 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2000 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • skin - Primary skin irritant (child )
RTECS®- Kaibogaku Zasshi 1962 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • reproductive - Fetotoxicity (mouse TDLo) • reproductive - Post-implantation mortality (mouse TDLo)
RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina 1981 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • brain and nervous system - Changes in motor activity (specific assay) (mouse LD50) • respiratory - Cyanosis (mouse LD50) • brain and nervous system - Muscle contraction or spasticity (mouse LD50)
RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina 1981 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rabbit LD50)
RTECS®- Pediatrics 1983 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • metabolic - Other changes (infant TDLo)
RTECS®- Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol 1974 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rabbit LD50)
RTECS®- Toxic Substance Mechanisms 1995 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • endocrine system - Hyperglycemia (rat TDLo) • biochemical - Phosphatases (rat TDLo) • biochemical - Transaminases (rat TDLo)
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1978 PROPYLENE GLYCOL • broad systemic - Broad systemic toxicity (rat LD50)
 

references

government/industry list/academic study reference
FDA Food Additive Status FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
Cosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
FDA Everything Added to Food FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2006. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
National Library of Medicine HazMap NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
NTP - Risks to Human Reproduction NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2006. NTP Center for the Evaluation fo Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR). NTP-CERHR Reports and Monographs.
Open scientific literature CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
Scorecard.org Toxicity Information Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. Minimal risk Levels for Hazardous Substances. January 2004. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/mrls.html, 2004
RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V 1977 RTECS®- "Cutaneous Toxicity, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference, 1976," Drill, V.A., and P. Lazar, eds., New York, Academic Press, Inc. 1977 -,127,1977
RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J 1986 RTECS®- "Prehled Prumyslove Toxikologie; Organicke Latky," Marhold, J., Prague, Czechoslovakia, Avicenum, 1986 -,206,1986
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1984 RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994 -,149,1984
RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia" 1984 RTECS®- "Vrednie chemichescie veshestva, galogen I kislorod sodergashie organicheskie soedinenia". (Hazardous substances. Galogen and oxygen containing substances), Bandman A.L. et al., Chimia, 1994 -,150,1984
RTECS®- Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section A, Supplement 1981 RTECS®- Acta Pathologica et Microbiologica Scandinavica, Section A, Supplement. (Copenhagen, Denmark) No.210-274, 1970-81. For publisher information, see ACPADQ. 274,304,1981
RTECS®- Arzneimittel-Forschung 1976 RTECS®- Arzneimittel-Forschung. Drug Research. (Editio Cantor Verlag, Postfach 1255, W-7960 Aulendorf, Fed. Rep. Ger.) V.1- 1951- 26,1581,1976
RTECS®- FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series 1974 RTECS®- FAO Nutrition Meetings Report Series. (Rome, Italy) No.?-57, 1948-77. Discontinued. 53A,491,1974
RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 1947 RTECS®- Federation Proceedings, Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. (Bethesda, MD) V.1-46, 1942-87. 6,342,1947
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1982 RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 20,573,1982
RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology 1984 RTECS®- Food and Chemical Toxicology. (Pergamon Press Inc., Maxwell House, Fairview Park, Elmsford, NY 10523) V.20- 1982- 22,623,1984
RTECS®- Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974 17JUN1974 RTECS®- Interagency Collaborative Group on Environmental Carcinogenesis, National Cancer Institute, Memorandum, June 17, 1974 17JUN1974
RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 1941 RTECS®- Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology. (Cambridge, MA) V.18-31, 1936-49. For publisher information, see AEHLAU. 23,259,1941
RTECS®- Journal of Investigative Dermatology 1970 RTECS®- Journal of Investigative Dermatology. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1938- 55,190,1970
RTECS®- Journal of Pediatrics 1978 RTECS®- Journal of Pediatrics. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141) V.1- 1932- 93,515,1978
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1932 RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- 44,109,1932
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1937 RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- 60,312,1937
RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 1939 RTECS®- Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. (Williams & Wilkins Co., 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, MD 21202) V.1- 1909/10- 65,89,1939
RTECS®- Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2000 RTECS®- Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. (C.V. Mosby Co., 11830 Westline Industrial Dr., St. Louis, MO 63141) 1979- 42,355,2000
RTECS®- Kaibogaku Zasshi 1962 RTECS®- Kaibogaku Zasshi. Journal of Anatomy. (Nippon Kaibo Gakkai, c/o Tokyo Daigaku Igakubu, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113, Japan) V.1- 1928- 37,239,1962
RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina 1981 RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. (Izdatel'stvo Naukova Dumka, Kiev, USSR) No.1- 1975- 8,46,1981
RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina 1981 RTECS®- Kriobiologiya i Kriomeditsina. Cryobiology and Cryomedicine. (Izdatel'stvo Naukova Dumka, Kiev, USSR) No.1- 1975- 9,36,1981
RTECS®- National Technical Information Service RTECS®- National Technical Information Service. (Springfield, VA 22161) Formerly U.S. Clearinghouse for Scientific & Technical Information. PB280-477
RTECS®- Pediatrics 1983 RTECS®- Pediatrics. (American Academy of Pediatrics, P.O. Box 1034, Evanston, IL 60204) V.1- 1948- 72,353,1983
RTECS®- Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol 1974 RTECS®- Raw Material Data Handbook, Vol.1: Organic Solvents, 1974. (National Assoc. of Printing Ink Research Institute, Francis McDonald Sinclair Memorial Laboratory, Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA 18015) 1,101,1974
RTECS®- Toxic Substance Mechanisms 1995 RTECS®- Toxic Substance Mechanisms. (Taylor & Francis, 1900 Frost Rd., Suite 101, Bristol, PA 19007) V.14- 1995- 14,13,1995
RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 1978 RTECS®- Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. (Academic Press, Inc., 1 E. First St., Duluth, MN 55802) V.1- 1959- 45,362,1978
    Diet Of Whipping Cream, Butter, Oil Can Help Control Epileptic Seizures In Many Children ScienceDaily (Apr. 8, 2009) — A new study by researchers at The Medical College of Wisconsin and Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin has shown that the highly regimented ketogenic diet, a high-fat nutritional therapy used to limit seizures, requires long-term medical management and strong parental commitment to achieve both sufficient nutrition and improved seizure control in children.---The study, by Mary L. Zupanc, M.D., professor of pediatrics and medical director of the pediatric epilepsy program, and Beth Zupec-Kania, R.D., C.D., appeared in the Nov. 4, 2008, issue of Epilepsia. Their approach to the diet includes a thorough diet history and metabolic assessment of the child, long-term seizure, nutrition, and medical monitoring, and vitamin/mineral supplementation.---“This diet cannot be tried by parents without close medical management and follow-up,” cautions Dr. Zupanc. “It requires careful metabolic monitoring and precise supplementation of missing nutrients.”--Their approach has been effective, as seen in an as yet unpublished study of 43 patients at Children’s Hospital, between the ages of twelve months and 15 years. Of these children who started on the ketogenic diet between 2002 and 2006, half had a greater than 90 percent reduction in seizure frequency. The majority of the children who responded to the diet had either a severe form of childhood epilepsy called Lennox-Gastaut syndrome or symptomatic generalized epilepsy. Their brain activity, as measured by electro encephalograms also improved significantly, paralleling the dramatic changes in seizure control. “Lack of compliance or of consistent medical monitoring can lead to poor growth, impaired nutrition and seizure recurrence,” says Dr. Zupanc. “There has to be careful monitoring and consistent communication between the dietitian and the physician managing the diet. Metabolic screening should be performed after the first month and every three months afterward. The family should keep a detailed seizure diary. Growth and weight parameters require ongoing monitoring, as do side effects such as lethargy or nausea, which may indicate a hidden metabolic defect.”--The carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet also requires strong parental support, according to Zupec-Kania. “Fat comprises between 80 and 90 percent of the diet’s calories and is provided by foods such as whipping cream, butter and seed oils. The remaining calories are allocated to essential protein requirements from meat and fish, and secondarily to low-carbohydrate vegetables and fruit,” she says. “The elimination of carbohydrate-rich foods such as simple sugars, bread, pasta, cereals grains and milk makes this diet difficult for many patients to follow.”ATKINS DIET--While the mechanism of seizure control by the ketogenic diet is not fully understood, the diet forces the body to accumulate large amounts of compounds such as acetone and acetoacidic acid, ( Vinegar or Yogurt ) produced by the oxidation of fatty acids. The diet also restricts the intake of micronutrients such as vitamin D, calcium and phosphorous, which may already be low in those on long-term anti-epileptic drug therapy.----Adapted from materials provided by Medical College of Wisconsin, via Newswise   Recipe ---Immune enhancer with Garlic –Iodine –and Vinegar---Take 1 whole bulb of garlic---peel and load into a blender—then add 2 cups of vinegar 6 drops of lugols iodine and then blend til the mix is totally liquified---5-8 minutes—strain and use 1 tsp increments daily to alleviate circulatory issues---digestion---thyroid—lung---brain---arteries---liver—antiparacitical—antiviral—increases uptake of calcium and magnesium in the colon—increases fat conversion into energy—anti estrogen---arsenic remover---protects against cancer---protects chromosomes—anti mucous---antiaging