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    MYTH #6:
    Saturated fats cause heart disease and cancer, and low-fat, low-cholesterol diets are healthier for people.
    Despite claims that primitive societies are/were largely vegetarian, diets of native peoples the world over are rich in saturated fats and animal foods (28) and, as noted above, heart disease and cancer are primarily modern diseases. Saturated fat consumption, therefore, cannot logically cause these diseases. As with the poorly done studies of the Inuit, modern-day researchers fail to take into account other dietary factors of people who have heart disease and cancer. As a result, the harmful effects of eating refined sugar, nutrient-poor “foods,” trans-fats (found in margarine and hydrogenated oils) and vegetable oils get mixed up with animal fat consumption. It is commonly believed that saturated fats and cholesterol “clog arteries”, but such ideas have been shown to be false by such scientists as Linus Pauling, George Mann, John Yudkin, Abram Hoffer, Mary Enig and others (29). On the contrary, studies have shown that arterial plaque is primarily composed of UNsaturated fats, particularly polyunsaturated onesand not the saturated fat of animals, palm or coconut (30). Trans-fatty acids, as opposed to saturated fats, have been shown by researchers such as Enig, Mann and Fred Kummerow to be causative factors in atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, cancer and other assorted diseases (31).  A recent study of thousands of Swedish women showed no correlation between saturated fat consumption and increased risk for breast cancerHowever, the study did show a strong link between vegetable oil intake and higher breast cancer rates (32). The Framingham Heart Study is often cited as proof that dietary cholesterol and saturated fat intake cause heart disease and ill health. Involving about 6,000 people, the study compared two groups over several years at five-year intervals. One group consumed little cholesterol and saturated fat, while the other consumed high amounts. Surprisingly, Dr William Castelli, the study’s director, is quoted in the Archives of Internal Medicine (July 1992) as saying: In Framingham, Mass., the more saturated fat one ate, the more cholesterol one ate, the more calories one ate, the lower the person’s serum cholesterol … we found that the people who ate the most cholesterol ate the most saturated fat, ate the most calories, weighed the least and were the most physically active.  It is true that the study did show that those who weighed more and had higher serum cholesterol levels were more at risk for heart disease, but weight gain and cholesterol levels had an inverse correlation with dietary fat and cholesterol intake. In other words, there was no correlation at all (33). In a similar vein, the US Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial, sponsored by the National Heart and Lung Institute, compared mortality rates and eating habits of 12,000+ men. Those who ate less saturated fat and cholesterol showed a slightly reduced rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), but had an overall mortality rate much higher than the other men in the study (34).  The few studies that indicate a correlation between saturated fat reduction and a lower CHD rate also clearly document a sizeable increase in deaths from cancer, suicide, violence and brain haemorrhage (34). Like the bone density experiments, such things are not told to the public. Low-fat/cholesterol diets, therefore, are decidedly not healthier for people. Studies have proven over and over that such diets are associated with depression, cancer, psychological problems, fatigue, violence and suicide (35). Children on low-fat diets suffer from growth problems, failure to thrive, and learning disabilities (36). Despite this, sources from Dr. Benjamin Spock to the American Heart Association recommend low-fat diets for children! One can only lament the fate of those unfortunate youngsters who will be raised by unknowing parents taken in by such misinformation. There are many health benefits to saturated fats, depending on the fat in question. Coconut oil, for example, is rich in lauric acid, a potent antifungal and antimicrobial substance. Coconut also contains appreciable amounts of caprylic acid, also an effective antifungal (37). Butter from free-range cows is rich in trace minerals, especially selenium, as well as all of the fat-soluble vitamins and beneficial fatty acids that protect against cancer and fungal infections (38). In general, however, saturated fats provide a good energy source for the vital organs, protect arteries against damage by the atherogenic lipoprotein (a), are rich in fat-soluble vitamins, help raise HDL levels in the blood, and make possible the utilisation of essential fatty acids. They are excellent for cooking, as they are chemically stable and do not break down under heat, unlike polyunsaturated vegetable oils. Omitting them from one’s diet, then, is ill-advised (39).
    MYTH #7:
    Vegetarians live longer and have more energy and endurance than meat-eaters.
    Surprising as it may seem, some prior studies have shown the annual all-cause death rate of vegetarian men to be slightly more than that of non-vegetarian men (0.93% vs 0.89%). Similarly, the annual all-cause death rate of vegetarian women was shown to be significantly higher than that of non-vegetarian women (0.86% vs 0.54%). (40) Russell Smith, PhD, referred to in myth # 5, in his authoritative study on heart disease, showed that as animal product consumption increased among some study groups, death rates decreased! Such results were not obtained among vegetarian subjects. For example, in a study published by Burr and Sweetnam in 1982, analysis of mortality data revealed that, although vegetarians had a slightly (.11%) lower rate of heart disease than non-vegetarians, the all-cause death rate was much HIGHER for vegetarians (41). It is usually claimed that the lives of predominantly meat-eating peoples are short-lived, but the Aborigines of Australia, who traditionally eat a diet rich in animal products, are known for their longevity (at least before colonization by Europeans). Within Aboriginal society, there is a special caste of the elderly (42). Obviously, if no old people existed, no such group would have existed. Dr. Price has numerous photographs of elderly native peoples from around the world (42). Explorers such as Vilhjalmur Stefansson reported great longevity among the Inuit (again, before colonisation). (43) Similarly, the Russians of the Caucasus mountains live to great ages on a diet of fatty pork and whole milk products. The Hunzas, also known for their robust health and longevity, eat substantial portions of goat’s milk which has a higher saturated fat content than cow’s milk (44). In contrast, the largely vegetarian inhabitants of southern India have the shortest life-spans in the world (45). Dr Weston Price, DDS, travelled around the world in the 1920s and 1930s, investigating native diets. Without exception, he found a strong correlation among diets rich in animal fats, with robust health and athletic ability. Special foods for Swiss athletes, for example, included bowls of fresh, raw cream! In Africa, Dr Price discovered that groups whose diets were rich in fatty fish and organ meats, like liver, consistently carried off the prizes in athletic contests, and that meat-eating tribes always dominated peoples whose diets were largely vegetarian (42). It is popular in sports nutrition to recommend “carb loading” for athletes, to increase their endurance levels. But recent studies done in New York and South Africa show that the opposite is true: athletes who “carb loaded” had significantly less endurance than those who “fat loaded” before athletic events (46).
    MYTH #8:
    The “cave man” diet was low-fat and/or vegetarian.
    Our Neolithic ancestors were hunter-gatherers, and two schools of thought have developed as to what their diet was like. One group argues for a high-fat and animal-based diet supplemented with seasonal fruits, berries, nuts, root vegetables and wild grasses. The other argues that primitive peoples consumed small amounts of lean meats and large amounts of plant foods. Once again, such notions of a “low-fat diet” are hard to reconcile with what we know of modern-day hunter-gatherer societies. Present-day African tribes readily consume the fatty portions of animals, especially organs such as the brain, liver and tongue. The Aborigines, another hunter-gatherer society, also have a diet rich in saturated animal fats (47). Explorers such as Stefansson reported that the Innuit and North American Indian tribes would worry when their caches of caribou were too lean: they knew sickness would follow if they did not consume enough fat (48). Canadian Indians would deliberately hunt older male caribou and elk, for these animals carried a 50-pound slab of back fat on them which the Indians would eat with relish. Native Americans would also refrain from hunting bison in the springtime (when the animals’ fat stores were low, due to scarce food supply during the winter), preferring to hunt, kill and consume them in the fall when they were fattened up. More interesting is the way political prisoners are sometimes tortured in South and Central America: they’re fed a diet of lean meat and they die quickly. Why? Without the fat-soluble vitamins contained in animal lipids, the body is unable to utilise and synthesise the proteins and other nutrients present in the meat (49). On his journeys, Dr Price never once found a totally vegetarian culture. Anthropological data support this: throughout the globe, all societies show a preference for animal foods and fats and people only turn to vegetarianism when they have to (50). Nutritional anthropologist H. Leon Abrams, Jr, has shown that prehistoric man’s quest for more animal foods spurred his expansion over the Earth, and that he apparently hunted certain species to extinction (50). Price also found that those peoples who, out of necessity, consumed more grains and legumes, had higher rates of dental decay than those who consumed more animal products (51). Archaeological evidence supports this finding: skulls of prehistoric peoples who were largely vegetarian have teeth containing caries and abscesses and show evidence of tuberculosis (50, 51). Based on all of this evidence, it is certain that the diets of our ancestors, the progenitors of humanity, ate a very NON-vegetarian diet that was rich in saturated animal fat.
    MYTH #9:
    Meat and saturated fat consumption have increased in the 20th century, with a corresponding increase in heart disease and cancer.
    Statistics do not bear out such fancies. Butter consumption has plummeted from 18 lb (8.165 kg) per person a year in 1900, to less than 5 lb (2.27 kg) per person a year today (52). Additionally, Westerners, urged on by government health agencies, have reduced their intake of eggs, cream, lard, beef and pork. Chicken consumption has risen in the past few decades, but chicken is low in saturated fat (chicken skin contains primarily polyunsaturated fat). Furthermore, a survey of cookbooks published in the last century shows that people of earlier times ate plenty of animal foods and saturated fats. For example, in the Baptist Ladies Cook Book (Monmouth, Illinois, 1895), virtually every recipe calls for butter, cream or lard. Recipes for creamed vegetables are numerous as well. A scan of the Searchlight Recipe Book (Capper Publications, 1931) also has similar recipes: creamed liver, creamed cucumbers, hearts braised in buttermilk, etc. British Jews, as shown by the Jewish Housewives Cookbook (London, 1846), also had diets rich in cream, butter, eggs, and lamb and beef tallows. One recipe for German waffles, for example, calls for an entire pound of butter! A recipe for Oyster Pie from the Baptist cookbook calls for a quart of cream and a dozen eggs, and so forth and so on. It does not appear, then, that meat or saturated fat consumption has risen in this century. What has gone up, however, is consumption of margarine and other trans-fatty acids, lifeless, packaged “foods,” processed vegetable oils, pasteurised/homogenised milk, commercially raised livestock and plant foods, and refined sugar. These, along with exposure to a growing number of environmental poisons, are our real culprits in the modern epidemics of cancer and coronary heart disease (and other chronic illnesses) [53].
    MYTH #10:
    Soy products are adequate substitutes for meat and dairy products.
    The billion-dollar soy industry has profited immensely from the anti-cholesterol, anti-meat gospel of current nutritional thought. Whereas, not so long ago, soy was an Asian phenomenon, now soy products proliferate in the North American market. While the traditionally fermented soy products of miso, shoyu, tempeh and natto are definitely healthful in measured amounts, the hyper-processed soy “foods” are not. Non-fermented soybeans are extremely high in phytic acid (54), an anti-nutrient that binds to minerals in the digestive tract and carries them out of the body. Vegetarians are known for their high rates of iron and zinc deficiencies (55).  Soybeans are also rich in trypsin inhibitors, which hinder protein digestion. Textured vegetable protein (TVP), soy “milk” and soy protein powders, and popular vegetarian meat and milk substitutes are entirely fragmented foods made by treating soybeans with high heat and various alkaline washes to extract the beans’ fat content or to neutralise their potent enzyme inhibitors. These practices completely denature the beans’ protein content, rendering it very hard to digest. MSG, a neurotoxin, is routinely added to TVP to make it taste like the various foods it imitates (56). On a purely nutritional level, soybeans, like all legumes, are deficient in cysteine and methionine, vital sulphur-containing amino acids (56). Soybeans are also lacking in tryptophan, another essential amino acid (56). Furthermore, soybeans contain no vitamins A or D, required by the body to assimilate and utilise the beans’ proteins (56). It is probably for this reason that Asian cultures that do consume soybeans usually combine them with fish or fish brothsThe New Zealand government is considering removing soy formula from the market and making it available only by prescription (58). —Though research is still ongoing, some recent studies have indicated that soy’s phyto-oestrogens could be causative factors in breast cancer and infantile leukaemia (59). Regardless, soy’s phyto-oestrogens, or isoflavones, have been shown to depress thyroid function and cause infertility in some animals (60). As a practitioner, I have seen more than my share of vegetarians with hypothyroidism. They invariably rely on soy foods to get their protein.
    MYTH #11:
    The human body is not designed for meat consumption.
    Some vegetarian groups claim that since humans possess grinding teeth like herbivorous animals and longer intestines than carnivorous animals, this proves the human body is better suited for vegetarianism (61). This argument fails to note several human physiological features which clearly indicate a design for animal product consumption. First and foremost is our stomach’s production of hydrochloric acid, something not found in herbivoresHCL activates protein-splitting enzymesFurther, the human pancreas manufactures a full range of digestive enzymes to handle a wide variety of foods, both animal and vegetable. While humans may have longer intestines than animal carnivores, they are not as long as herbivores; nor do we possess multiple stomachs like many herbivores, nor do we chew cud. Our physiology definitely indicates a mixed feeder, or an omnivore, much the same as our relatives, the mountain gorilla and chimpanzee (who have been observed eating small animals and, in some cases, other primates) [62].
    MYTH #12:
    Eating animal flesh causes violent, aggressive behaviour in humans.
    Some authorities on vegetarian diet, such as Dr Ralph Ballantine in Transition to Vegetarianism (63), claim that the fear and terror (if any, see myth #15) an animal experiences at death is somehow “transferred” into its flesh and organs and “becomes” a part of the person who eats it. In addition to the fact that no scientific studies exist to support such a theory, these thinkers would do well to remember the numerous studies that show that low saturated-fat consumption CAUSES violent behaviour in people (see notes to myth #7). Furthermore, in his travels, Dr Price always noted the extreme happiness and ingratiating natures of the peoples he encountered, most of whom were heavy meat-eaters (see references to Weston Price in notes).
    MYTH #13:
    Animal products contain numerous, harmful toxins.
    A recent vegetarian newsletter claimed the following: “Most people don’t realise that meat products are loaded with poisons and toxins! Meat, fish and eggs all decompose and putrefy extremely rapidly. As soon as an animal is killed, self-destruct enzymes are released, causing the formation of denatured substances called ptyloamines, which cause cancer.” (64) This article then went on to mention “mad cow disease” (BSE), parasites, salmonella, hormones, nitrates and pesticides as toxins in animal products. If meat, fish and eggs do indeed generate cancerous “ptyloamines,” it is very strange that people have not been dying in droves from cancer for the past million years. Such sensationalistic and nonsensical claims cannot be supported by historical fact.  Hormones, nitrates and pesticides are present in commercially raised animal products (as well as commercially raised fruits, grains and vegetables) and are definitely things to be concerned about. However, one can avoid these chemicals by taking care to consume range-fed, organic meats, eggs and dairy products which do not contain harmful, man-made toxins. Parasites are easily avoided by taking normal precautions in food preparations. Pickling or fermenting meats, as is custom in traditional societies, always protects against parasites. In his travels, Dr Price always found healthy, disease-free and parasite-free peoples eating raw meat and dairy products as part of their diets. Similarly, Dr Francis Pottenger, in his experiments with cats, demonstrated that the healthiest, happiest cats were the ones on the all-raw-food diet. The cats eating cooked meats and pasteurised milk sickened and died and had numerous parasites. Salmonella can be transmitted by plant products as well as animal (65). Mad Cow Disease is probably not caused by cows eating animal parts with their food, a feeding method that has been done for over 100 years. British organic farmer Mark Purdey has argued convincingly that cows that get Mad Cow Disease are the very ones that have had a particular organophosphate insecticide applied to their backs (see notes to myth #1) or have grazed on soils that lack magnesium but contain high levels of aluminium. Small outbreaks of “mad cow disease” have also occurred among people who reside near cement and chemical factories and in certain areas with volcanic soils. Purdey theorises that the organophosphate pesticides got into the cows’ fat through a spraying program, and then were ingested by the cows again with the animal part feeding. Seen this way, it is the insecticides, via the parts feeding (and not the parts themselves), that has caused this outbreak. As noted before, cows have been eating ground up animal parts in their feeds for over 100 years. It was never a problem before the introduction of these particular insecticides (66).
    MYTH #14:
    Eating meat or animal products is less “spiritual” than eating only plant foods.
    It is often claimed that those who eat meat or animal products are somehow less “spiritually evolved” than those who do not. Though this is not a nutritional or academic issue, those who do include animal products in their diet are often made to feel inferior in some way. This issue, therefore, is worth addressing. Several world religions place no restrictions on animal consumption; and nor did their founders. The Jews eat lamb at their most holy festival, the Passover. Muslims also celebrate Ramadan with lamb before entering into their fast. Jesus Christ, like other Jews, partook of meat at the Last Supper (according to the canonical Gospels). It is true that some forms of Buddhism do place strictures on meat consumption, but dairy products are almost always allowed. Similar tenets are found in Hinduism. As part of the Samhain celebration, Celtic pagans would slaughter the weaker animals of the herds and cure their meat for the oncoming winter. It is not true, therefore, that eating animal foods is always connected with “spiritual inferiority.” Nevertheless, it is often claimed that, since eating meat involves the taking of a life, it is somehow tantamount to murder. Leaving aside the religious philosophies that often permeate this issue, what appears to be at hand is an understanding of the life force and how it works. Modern peoples (vegetarian and non-vegetarian) have lost touch with what it takes to survive in our world, something native peoples never lose sight of. We do not necessarily hunt or clean our meats: we purchase steaks and chops at the supermarket. We do not necessarily toil in rice paddies: we buy bags of brown rice; and so forth, and so on. When Native Americans would kill a game animal for food, they would routinely offer a prayer of thanks to the animal’s spirit for giving its life so that they could live. In our world, life feeds off life. Destruction is always balanced with generation. This is a good thing: unchecked, the life force becomes cancerous. If animal food consumption is viewed in this manner, it is hardly murder, but sacrifice. Modern peoples would do well to remember this.
    MYTH #15:
    Eating animal foods is inhumane.
    Without question, commercially raised livestock live in deplorable conditions where sickness and suffering are common. Additionally, some prescription drugs are derived from animals (e.g., Premarin) in torturous ways. In America, at least, livestock animals are exempted from anti-cruelty laws and, typically, commercially raised livestock animals are slaughtered in ways that promote adrenaline release, which could have harmful effects on the people who eventually consume them. In countries like Korea, food animals such as dogs are killed in horrific ways, i.e., beaten to death with a club. Our recommendations for animal foods consumption most definitely do not endorse such practices. As noted in our discussion of myth #1, commercial farming of livestock results in an unhealthy food product, whether that product be meat, milk, butter, cream or eggs. Our ancestors did not consume such substandard foodstuffs, and neither should we. It is possible to raise animals humanely. This is why organic, “free-range” farming is to be encouraged: it is cleaner and more efficient, and produces healthier animals and foodstuffs from those animals. Each person should make every effort, then, to purchase organically raised livestock (and plant foods). Not only does this better support our bodies, as organic foods are more nutrient-dense and are free from hormone and pesticide residues, but this also supports smaller farms and is therefore better for the economy (67). Orthodox Jewish and Muslim slaughtering methods (kosher and hallal, respectively) are similar to those practised by organic farms, in that the animals are slain in a state of tranquillity‹unlike their unfortunate battery-farm cousins. Such practices minimise, if not eliminate, the release of harmful stress hormones and are therefore more humane to the animal and more healthful to us. Nevertheless, many people have philosophical problems with eating animal flesh, and these sentiments must be respected. Dairy products and eggs, though, are not the result of an animal’s death and are fine alternatives for these people.
    As a cleansing diet, vegetarianism is a good choice. Several health conditions (e.g., gout) can often be ameliorated by a temporary reduction in animal products with an increase of plant foodsBut such measures must not be continuous throughout life: there are vital nutrients found only in animal products that we must ingest for optimal health. Furthermore, there is no one diet that will work for every person. Some vegetarians and vegans, in their zeal to get converts, are blind to this biochemical fact. “Biochemical individuality” is a subject worth clarifying. Coined by biochemist Roger Williams, PhD, the term refers to the fact that different people require different nutrients based on their unique genetic make-up. Ethnic and racial background figure in this concept as well. (The current theory of blood type influencing nutritional needs is false, as discussed below.) A diet that works for one may not work as well for someone else. As a practitioner, I’ve seen several patients following a low-fat, low-protein, high-carbohydrate diet with severe health problems: obesity, candidiasis, hypothyroidism, leaky gut syndrome, anaemia and generalised fatigue. Most of these people have been vegetarians. Because of the widespread rhetoric that a vegetarian diet is “always healthier” than a diet that includes meat or animal products, these people see no reason to change their diet, even though that is the cause of their problems. What these people actually need for optimal health is more animal foods and fewer carbohydrates! Conversely, some people do very well on little or no meat and remain healthy as lacto-vegetarians or lacto-ovo-vegetarians. The reason for this is because these diets are healthier for those people, not because they’re healthier in general. However, a total absence of animal products, whether meat, fish, insects, eggs, butter or dairy, is to be avoided. Though it may take years, problems will eventually ensue for these people. The reason for this is simple evolution: humanity evolved eating animal foods and fats as part of its diet, and our bodies are suited and accustomed to them. One cannot change evolution in a few years.  When it comes to good nutrition, it’s best to stick with the tried and true, rather than the untested and new. Humanity has been consuming animal products and saturated fats for thousands of years as part of its diet. Today’s health-conscious person needs to follow humanity’s historical example and make ample room for all of the gifts of life provided to us by our animal friends.
    There is a nutritional “fad” at the present time, spurred on by the book, Eat Right 4 Your Type, by Peter D’Adamo, ND (Putnam; USA, 1996). The main tenet of the book is that the four major blood types (O, A, B, AB) evolved sequentially as humans colonised the Earth. Anthropologists, however, have disputed this and have produced considerable evidence that all four types were present at the same time. On top of this obvious difficulty is the reality that there are well over 400 blood types found in human beings! Though most of these are confined to small groups of isolated peoples, the fact remains that such diversity argues against the blood type/nutrition theory. Clinically, I have seen patients who have had a lack of stomach acid who were type Os. According to the theory, type Os should produce plenty of HCL acid to handle more meats. Additionally, I have seen blood type A’s with no HCL acid deficiencies. According to the theory, type A’s should have low HCL levels. Such experiences strongly argue against the blood typing/food theory.  For more detail on this subject, I refer readers to the article, “Eat Right 4 Your Type Hype,” by Sally Eauclaire Osborne, published in The Price-Pottenger Nutrition Journal, Winter 1998, link to “Eat Right 4 Your Type Hype,” by Sally Eauclaire Osborne.
    Author’s Notes:
    The author would like to thank Sally Fallon, MA; Lee Clifford, MS, CCN; and H. Leon Abrams, Jr., for their gracious assistance in this paper. This paper was not sponsored or paid for by the meat or dairy industries. –About the Author: Stephen Byrnes is a naturopathic doctor and registered nutritional consultant who enjoys robust health on a diet that includes butter, cream, eggs, meat, whole milk dairy products, and offal. He is the author of Healthy Hearts: Natural Medicine for Your Ticker, Digestion to the Max!, and Overcoming AIDS with Natural Medicine (available off of, as well as numerous magazine articles, published worldwide.
    References and Sources
    Myth #1:
    1. Sally Fallon, Mary Enig and Patricia Connolly, Nourishing Traditions, ProMotion Publishing, USA, 1995, p. 5.
    2. Purdey, Mark, “The Vegan Ecological Wasteland,” Journal of the Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation [hereafter referred to as Jnl of PPNF], Winter 1998; “Are Organophosphate Pesticides Involved in the Causation of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE)? Jnl of Nutritional Medicine 4:43-82, 1994.
    3. Fallon, et al, op. cit., p. 6
    4. Purdey, op cit.
    5. Ibid
    Myth #2:
    6. Dunne, L. The Nutrition Almanac, 3rd ed. (McGraw Hill; New York), p. 32-33; Garrison, R. & Somer, E. The Nutrition Desk Reference, 3rd ed., (Keats Publishing; CT), p. 126.
    7. Scheer, James. Health Freedom News, (Monrovia, CA), March 1991, p. 7.
    8. Smith, Allan. Soybeans: Chemistry & Technology, vol 1 (Avi Publishing Co; CT), 1972, pp. 184-188.
    9. Rowland, David. Digestion: Inner Pathway to Health (Health Naturally Publications; Canada), 1996, p. 22.
    10. Specker, B.L. et al., Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 47:89-92 (1998); Van den Berg, H. et al., Lancet 1:242-3 (1998); Abrams, H. Leon, “Vegetarianism: An Anthropological/ Nutritional Evaluation,” Journal of Applied Nutrition 32:2, (1980) p. 59.
    11. Dunne, op cit, p. 31.
    Myth #3:
    12. Fallon and Enig, “Tripping Lightly Down the Prostaglandin Pathways,” Jnl of PPNF, Fall 1996; Lands, W.E.M., “Biochemistry & physiology of n-3 fatty acids,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 6, May 1992, pp. 2530-2536.
    13. Fallon & Enig, ibid.
    14. Food Technology, October 1988, p. 134; Kabara, J.J. The Pharmacological Effects of Lipids (Amer Oil Chemists Society; IL), 1978, pp. 1-14.
    15. Horrobin, DF. Reviews in Pure and Applied Pharmacological Sciences, vol 4 (Freund Publishing House; 1983), pp. 339-383; Harmon, D. et. al., Jnl of Amer Geriat Soc, 1976 24:1: pp. 292-298; Meerson, Z, et al., Bulletin Exper Biol Med, 1983 96:9: pp. 70-71.
    Myth #4:
    16. Fallon, Sally, “Vitamin A Vagary,” Jnl of PPNF, Summer 1995; Dunne, op cit, p. 14.
    17. Jennings, I.W., Vitamins in Endocrine Metabolism, Charles Thomas, 1970, pp. 39-57, 84-85.
    Myth #5:
    18. Price, Weston. Nutrition and Physical Degeneration (Keats Publishing; CT), 1943.
    19. Smith, Russell. Diet, Blood, Cholesterol and Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review of the Literature, Vector Enterprises, 1991.
    20. Spencer, Herta and Lois Kramer, “Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis,” Jnl of Nutr. 116:316-319 (1986); “Further Studies of the Effect of a High Protein Diet as Meat on Calcium Metabolism,” Am. Jnl Clin. Nutr. 924-929, June 1983.
    21. Kahn, et al., Amer Jnl Epidem, 1984, 119:775; Snowden, et al., Preventive Medicine, 1984, 13:490. Quotation from Kahn is printed in Smith, op cit.
    22. Smith, op. cit. See also “Vegetarian Studies — A Summary” by Smith, Jnl of PPNF, Winter 1998.
    23. Abrams, op cit., p. 62
    24. Lyon, et al., New Eng Jnl Med, 294:129, 1976.
    25. Enig, et. al, Federation Proceedings, 37:2215, 1978.
    26. Ibid. See also Price, op cit.
    27. “7th Day Adventists & Cancer,” Am. Jnl Clin. Nutr. 59:1136S-1142S (1994).
    Myth #6:
    28. Abrams,Leon. “The Preference for Animal Protein and Fat,” Food and Evolution (Temple University Press; PA), 1987; see also Price, op cit.
    29. Fallon and Enig, “The Oiling of America,” Nexus, Dec 1998Jan 1999 and FebMar 1999; Yudkin, John, Pure, White and Deadly, (Davis Poynter, London), 1972; Pauling, Linus, How to Live Longer and Feel Better, (Avon Books, New York), 1985; Hoffer and Walker, Putting It All Together: The New Orthomolecular Nutrition, Keats Publishing, CT), 1995; Mann, George, (ed). Coronary Heart Disease: The Dietary Sense and Nonsense (Veritas Society; London), 1993; Cleave, T.L., The Saccharine Disease, (Keats Publishing; CT),1975.
    30. Lancet 344:1195 (1994)
    31.Mann, George, “Metabolic Consequences of Dietary Trans-fatty Acids,” Lancet 343:1268-71 (1994); Enig, Mary et al., Fed. Proc. 37:2215, July 1978; Kummerow, F. “Nutritional Effects of Isomeric Fats,” Dietary Fats and Health, Horisberger and Bracco, eds. (Amer Oil Chem Soc; IL), 1983, pp. 391-402.
    32. Wolk, A. et al., Arch of Inter Med, 158:41 (1998); see also Chris Mudd’s Cholesterol and Your Health (American lite Co; OK), 1990, for a thorough discussion of studies that show high polyunsaturate intake with increased cancer rates.
    33. Hubert, H. et al., Circulation 67:968 (1983)
    34. Jnl of American Med. Assoc. 248(12):1465, September 24, 1982
    35. Lancet 339:3/2/92
    36. Food Chem. News, October 3, 1994
    37. Fallon, Enig, and Connolly, op. cit., pp. 17-18.
    38. Ibid, pp. 14-15.
    39. Enig, Mary, “Trans-Fats and Saturated Fats: Not the Same,” Jnl of PPNF, Winter 1998.
    Myth #7:
    40. “Death Rates of Vegetarians,” Am. Jnl Epidemiol. 97:372 (1973)
    41. Smith, op. cit.; Burr and Sweetnam, Amer Jnl Clin Nutr, 1982, 36:873.
    42. Price, op. cit.; Fallon, S. “Nasty, Brutish, and Short?” The Ecologist, (London), Jan/Feb 1999; Enig & Fallon, “Australian Aborigines,” Jnl of PPNF, Summer 1998.
    43. Stefansson, V., The Fat of the Land, Macmillan, New York, 1956
    44. Pitskhelauri, G.Z., The Long Living of Soviet Georgia, Human Sciences Press, New York, 1982; Moore, Thomas. Lifespan: What Really Affects Human Longevity (Simon & Schuster; NY), 1990.
    45. Abrams, “Vegetarianism,” pp. 74-77.
    46. “Carb Loading for Athletes? Not Such a Good Idea,” Jnl of PPNF, Fall 1996
    Myth #8:
    47. Abrams, H. Leon, “The Preference for . . .”; Fallon & Enig, “Australian Aborigines.”
    48. Stefansson, op. cit.
    49. Stefansson, op cit.; Fallon and Enig, “The Cave Man Diet,” Jnl of PPNF, Summer 1997.
    50. Abrams, “Vegetarianism” and “Preference for . . .”
    51. Price, op cit.
    Myth #9:
    52. Rizek, et al., “Fat in Today’s Food Supply,” Jnl Amer. Oil Chem. Soc., 51:244 (1974).
    53. See note 29 and 30, as well papers listed at
    Myth #10:
    54. Tiney, E.H., “Proximate Composition and Mineral and Phytate Contents of Legumes Grown in Sudan,” Jnl of Food Comp. and Analysis, vol. 2, 1989, pp. 67-78; Leviton, Richard, Tofu, Tempeh, Miso and Other Soy Foods, (Keats Publishing, CT),1982; Grant, T.G., Progress in Food and Nutrition Science 13:317-348 (1989); Fallon, Sally and Enig, Mary, “Soy Products for Dairy Products? Not So Fast,” Health Freedom News, September 1995; Anderson, Robert and Wolf, Walter, “Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins, and isoflavones related to soybean processing,” Jnl of Nutr., March 1995, 518S-588S.
    55. Abrams, “Vegetarianism . . .,” pp. 60-61; Wilson, MD, Lawrence. “Evidence for Traditional Diets from Hair Mineral Analysis,” Jnl of PPNF, Spring 1999.
    56. Fallon and Enig, “Soy Products . . .,”
    57. Fitzpatrick, Mike, “Soy Isoflavones: Panacea or Poison?” Jnl of PPNF, Fall 1998; see also papers on></a><br>58.%20See%20<a%20href=
    59. Leukemia 13:317-20 (1999); Hsieh, et al., Cancer Res, 1998, Sept 1, 58:17, 3833-8
    60. Ishizuki, et al., Nippon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi, 1991, May 20, 67:5, 622-9; Divi, et al., Biochem Pharmacol, 1997, Nov. 15, 54:10, 1087-96; Fitzpatrick, op cit.
    Myth #11:
    61. “Why Not Meat? (Part 2),” Down to Earth News, Dec/Jan 1998, pp. 1-4; Ballantine, Ralph, Transition to Vegetarianism, Himalayan Institute Press, PA, 1994.
    62. Abrams, “Vegetarianism . . .,” pp. 75-76.
    Myth #12:
    63. Ballantine, op. cit.
    Myth #13:
    64. “Why Not Meat? (Part 3),” Down to Earth News, Feb/March 1999, pp. 1-3.
    65. Pottenger, Francis, Pottenger’s Cats, (Price-Pottenger Nutrition Foundation, CA), 1997 (reprint).66. Purdey, op. cit.; Sally Fallon, personal communication.
    Myth #15:
    67. See Biodynamics, March/April 1998, for a report on the horrors of commercial hog farming, as well as its drain on local economies and the environment. Also in this article are the benefits of “free-run,” organically raised hogs. You can also check out – for a horrendous exposé on commercial hog
    RECIPE for a Nutritional FAT
    Recipe idea for including Fats—when you buy a fat Soluble vitamin Like Vitamin D—Vitamin E—Cq10—Vitamin A—Vitamin K— take the vitamins you just bought and open them up or crush them to get the powder out—and blend them into to your Coconut oils—Butter—Palm Oils—Ghee—Olive oils—Avocado or Pumpkin Seed Oils –Almond and Apricot—Flax—Walnut—Perilla oils
    By blending them in these oils what will actually happen is that they will be utilized by the body more effectively allowing for better cellular health as well as over all organ and tissue health—you may start to see that a lot of the skin conditions may disappear—a lot of the neurosis and brain dysfunction may as well heal on there own—you may see a reduction in body mass without any effort or cravings—you may see even the brain start to respond more effectively—immune system be more proactive and effective in prevention or even restoration.—–take ( based on the strength of the capsule or caplet or tablet) 3-5 caplets of Vitamin A 5000 IU at 5 caplets that is 25,000 IU’s of vitamin A then add to a blender butter and perhaps another oil ( you chose —rice bran ( loaded with toctrienols) olive ( loaded with polyphenols and vitamin E ) and add 3 table spoon to a 4 tablespoon of butter—blend together till soft and liquidified and to thicken just add more butter to get it back to being thinker orrr even add coconut oil—once thickened then pour into a glass jar and let set either out or in a a fridge—this will re solidify the fat and now every time you spoon it—straight up or spread it—you will get the added bonus of the nutrients—you can add as many varied supplements or just one—Cq10+ rosemary essential oil 1-2 drops—and lemon essential oil 1-2 drops = heart and brain and immune enhancing and antioxidant recipe

    Canada’s Food Safety System Fails International Comparisons, Expert Argues

    ScienceDaily (Jan. 25, 2010) — Canada’s food safety system is reactive, lags behind other countries, and investment is needed to ensure it can adequately protect Canadians, states an article in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal).—Foodborne illness surveillance is needed to ensure safety from gastrointestinal infections caused by bacteria such as toxigenic E.coli, Salmonella, Campylobacter and Listeria. As there is no national foodborne illness surveillance program in Canada, the estimated 11 million cases of foodborne illness every year are based on surveys of self-reported gastrointestinal illness. More accurate data are needed to execute meaningful intervention.—European Union countries, the US and Australia have surveillance systems that allow them to collect information on food vehicles and organisms that cause foodborne illness, something Canada cannot currently do. Canada’s multi-government system with national, provincial and local governments that share responsibility for health, as well as monitor the safety and quality of food are key reasons that we have a fragmented system with poor focusThe US suffers from the same problem, yet does a better (though not perfect) job.—“Multijurisdictional fragmentation of both food inspection and foodborne illness surveillance are obstacles to safe food that can be overcome with determination and commitment,” writes Dr. Richard A Holley from the Department of Food Science at the University of Manitoba.—While Canada does have a single national food inspection authority, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency, it shares responsibility for food inspection with provincial and municipal governments.—“The large size of the country, regional differences in population density and availability of infrastructure complicate attempts to implement and administer both foodborne illness surveillance and uniform food inspection programs,” writes the author.—Government must invest to develop a proactively cooperative foodborne illness surveillance system and use the data to establish insightful, uniform, risk- and science-based food safety policy across the country.
    Adapted from materials provided by Canadian Medical Association Journal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–
    Canadian Medical Association Journal (2010, January 25). Canada’s food safety system fails international comparisons, expert argues. ScienceDaily. Retrieved January 26, 2010, from­ /releases/2010/01/100125123225.htm