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    Protocols for Reducing and Regenerating Colon health—Reduction in Body Mass
    There are things needed to be applied In the area of reduction—and with reduction of body mass, there will be a reduction to the amount of poisons, toxins, build up and inflammation—So when applying these protocols do them at least once a month at any time of the month and watch unwanted health conditions disappear—and a new vigor come back.
    Here is the NO list: NO : Bread(s) or any Facsimile of bread( crackers donuts, tacos, pita, breads ) – Pasta –Rice –Corn – Cereal ( not even oatmeal during this time )—No Stores bought Juices,-No Pop ( Soda for the easterners ) No Milk or Dairy Products that are Sugar or Fat Free—No Sugar (Brown or White or Pasteurized Honey ) NO MICROWAVE ( not to be used any time—totally Damages the Body from cellular level to tissues and DNA damaging ) Canola Oil – Vegetable Oil – Soybean oil ( or any Soy whatsoever or any Derivatives – TVP –HVP – AVP –HPP – MSG –Disodium Guanylate – Disodium Inosinate-Bananas – Grapes – Raisons – Watermelon—
    Here is the YES List: Yes to -Meat – Poultry –Fish –Lamb – Eggs – Yogurt ( Plain and with Fat ) Kefir ( plain and with Fat ) Whey Protein – Gelatin Broths ( Plain or Vanilla Without Artificial Sweetners –Aspartame—Splenda – Aceslfame Potassium ) Cottage Cheese ( unless you have a yeast or fungal infection ) Cream – Olive oil – Butter – Ghee – Almond Oil – Pumpkin Seed Oil – Macadamian Nut Oil – Apricot oil – Sesame Seed Oil – Coconut Oil- Palm Oil – Animal Fat ( try to make sure the animals are GRASS FED not GRAIN FED—the fat then will be beneficial if the fat is from a grass Fed Animal ) Fruit with Fibre ( Apple, Peaches, Plums, Pears, Apricot, Nectarines etc PEEL BEFORE CONSUMING TO MINIMIZE PESTICIDE OR WAXES even if organic)Citrus Fruits – Oranges – Lemons – Pommelo’s – Grapefruit – Tangerines- Mannelos, etc Berries ( Wash and clean with either Peroxide. GSE, Vinegar, Lemon Juice- Use an Iodine Spray ) Veggies all kinds (Wash and clean with either Peroxide. GSE, Vinegar, Lemon Juice- Use an Iodine Spray ) Make Juice fresh and Home made Use Sprouts—Seeds – Nuts – Make Nut or Seed butters—
    Do this for 5-10 days and afterwards if you wish to consume rice or pasta or polenta then introduce them back slow and minimize the consumption—breads if you consume then utilize Rye, Barley, or Oat and again Minimally—the idea is to get off breads and cereals which are actually Fermenting inside and potentially causing DNA damage and Restructuring— Potato Can be used as long as it is not fried—broiled—boiled—mashed-or baked this will assist in the cleansing of the colon as well as provide energy
    Remarkable Effects of Fat Loss on the Immune System
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 19, 2010) — Australian scientists have shown for the first time that even modest weight loss reverses many of the damaging changes often seen in the immune cells of obese people, particularly those with Type 2 diabetes.—The immune system is made up of many different kinds of cells that protect the body from germs, viruses and other invaders. These cells need to co-exist in a certain balance for good health to be maintained. Many factors, including diet and excess body fat, can tip this balance, creating immune cells that can attack, rather than protect, our bodies. It has been known for some time that excess body fat, particularly abdominal fat, triggers the production of ‘pro-inflammatory’ immune cells, which circulate in the blood and can damage our bodies. In addition, other inflammatory immune cells, known as macrophages, are also activated within fat tissue.—The recent study looked at obese people with Type 2 diabetes or prediabetes who were limited to a diet of between 1000 and 1600 calories a day for 24 weeks. Gastric banding was performed at 12 weeks to help restrict food intake further. The study determined the effects of weight loss on immune cells—Undertaken by Dr Alex Viardot and Associate Professor Katherine Samaras from Sydney’s Garvan Institute of Medical Research, the results showed an 80% reduction of pro-inflammatory T-helper cells, as well as reduced activation of other circulating immune cells (T cells, monocytes and neutrophils) and decreased activation of macrophages in fat. They are published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, now online.—-“Excess weight disorders now affect 50% of adult Australians, with obesity being the major cause of Type 2 diabetes and some cancers,” said Associate Professor Samaras.”The situation has reached crisis point, and people must be made aware that excess fat will affect their immune systems and therefore their survival.””We have found that a modest weight loss of about 6 kg is enough to bring the pro- inflammatory nature of circulating immune cells back to that found in lean people.”—-“These inflammatory cells are involved in promoting coronary artery disease and other illnesses associated with obesity.”—“This is the first time it has been shown that modest weight reduction reverses some of the very adverse inflammatory changes we see in obese people with diabetes.”—-“We also showed that the activation status of immune cells found in fat predicted how much weight people would lose following a calorie restricted diet and bariatric surgery. Those with more activated immune cells lost less weight.” “It’s the first time this has been described and is important because it helps us understand why some people lose weight more easily than others, and that inflammation is involved in regulating the response to bariatric surgery.”—The Garvan study reinforces a message we hear regularly — to optimise your health, keep your weight and waist in the healthy range. Story Source: Adapted from materials provided by Garvan Institute. Journal Reference: A. Viardot, R. V. Lord, K. Samaras. The Effects of Weight Loss and Gastric Banding on the Innate and Adaptive Immune System in Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2010; DOI: 10.1210/jc.2009-2371
    Food Vs. Fuel- Growing Grain for Food Is More Energy Efficient
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 20, 2010) — Using productive farmland to grow crops for food instead of fuel is more energy efficient, Michigan State University scientists concluded, after analyzing 17 years’ worth of data to help settle the food versus fuel debate.—“It’s 36 percent more efficient to grow grain for food than for fuel,” said Ilya Gelfand, an MSU postdoctoral researcher and lead author of the study. “The ideal is to grow corn for food, then leave half the leftover stalks and leaves on the field for soil conservation and produce cellulosic ethanol with the other half.”—Other studies have looked at energy efficiencies for crops over shorter time periods, but this MSU study is the first to consider energy balances of an entire cropping system over many years. The results are published in the April 19 online issue of the journal Environmental Science & Technology.—“It comes down to what’s the most efficient use of the land,” said Phil Robertson, University Distinguished Professor of crop and soil sciences and one of the paper’s authors. “Given finite land resources, will it be more efficient to use productive farmland for food or fuel? One compromise would be to use productive farmland for both — to use the grain for food and the other parts of the plant for fuel where possible. Another would be to reserve productive farmland for food and to grow biofuel grasses — cellulosic biomass — on less productive land.”—He, Gelfand and Sieglinde Snapp, another co-author and an MSU associate professor of crop and soil sciences, analyzed data collected from 1989 to 2007 at the W.K. Kellogg Long Term Ecological Research site. That National Science Foundation-funded project studies ecology and environmental biology to provide a better understanding of both natural and managed systems. It is the only agricultural program in the 26-site NSF national LTER network.—The scientists compared the energy inputs and outputs of producing corn, soybeans and wheat grown using four systems: conventional tillage, no-till, low chemical input and organic, and then using all harvested plant material for either food or biofuel production. They also looked at energy balances for growing alfalfa, an important forage plant that can be used either for biofuel or for beef cattle feed.—The analysis showed that using no-till production to grow grain for food was the most energy-efficient system for food or fuel production. Avoiding plowing with no-till management reduces tractor fuel use during production.—Producing a kilogram of corn for human food provides more energy than converting the corn to either ethanol by processing or to meat by feeding it to animals. Growing alfalfa for biofuel is 60 percent more efficient than using it as cattle feed, according to the study.—Robertson and Gelfand also are members of the Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center, a partnership between Michigan State and the University of Wisconsin-Madison funded by the U.S. Department of Energy to conduct basic research aimed at solving some of the most complex problems in converting natural materials to energy.—The U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 calls for biofuels to comprise 22 percent of the nation’s transportation fuels by 2022.”This research is aimed at policymakers who have to decide how and where biofuels should be grown and the best way to encourage farmers to follow those suggestions,” Robertson said.–Research by MSU agricultural economics professor Scott Swinton earlier found that the most profitable cellulosic biofuel crop right now is corn stalks and leaves.—“Our research suggests that this is an energy-efficient strategy as well, so long as the grain is used for food,” Robertson said. “But there are not enough corn stalks to meet expected energy needs and federal policy also may decide to offer incentives to grow crops that offer more environmental benefits than corn, including incentives to grow grasses on less productive land.–“The promise of biofuels made from biomass is huge, from both climate mitigation and economic perspectives,” he continued. “But the promise could come up short if we don’t pay attention to details such as the land on which they are grown.”–The research is funded by the GLBRC, the NSF and the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station.—–Story Source:—Adapted from materials provided by Michigan State University, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS. —Journal Reference: -Gelfand et al. Energy Efficiency of Conventional, Organic, and Alternative Cropping Systems for Food and Fuel at a Site in the U.S. Midwest. Environmental Science & Technology, 2010; 100419163028031 DOI: 10.1021/es903385g
    Depression Medication– Patients Report 20 Times More Side Effects Than Recorded in Charts
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 20, 2010) — A study from Rhode Island Hospital shows that patients report side effects from medication for the treatment of depression 20 times more than psychiatrists have recorded in the charts. The researchers recommend the use of a self-administered patient questionnaire in clinical practice to improve the recognition of side effects for patients in treatment. The study is published in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Volume 71, No. 4, now available online ahead of print. One of the most frequent reasons for the discontinuation of medication to treat depression is the side effects that patients may experience. The premature discontinuation of medication is also associated with poorer treatment outcomes. In his recent study, lead researcher Mark Zimmerman, MD, director of outpatient psychiatry at Rhode Island Hospital, notes that despite the clinical importance of detecting side effects, few studies have examined the adequacy of the detection and documentation methods currently in use among clinicians.–Zimmerman and his colleagues asked 300 patients in ongoing treatment for depression to complete a self-administered version of the Toronto Side Effects Scale (TSES). The patients rated the frequency of the 31 side effects and the degree of trouble they experienced. Those patients’ charts were then examined to extract side effects information recorded by the treating psychiatrist.—The findings indicate that the mean number of side effects reported by the patients on the TSES was 20 times higher than the number recorded by the psychiatrist. When the self-reported side effects were limited to “frequently occurring” or “very bothersome” the rate was still found to be two to three times higher than recorded in their charts.–Zimmerman, who is also an associate professor of psychiatry and human behavior at The Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, says, “Despite the importance that side effects have on premature medication discontinuation, there is some evidence that clinicians may not do a thorough job of eliciting information regarding their presence. This study finds that clinicians do not record in their progress notes most side effects reported on a side effects questionnaire..” —While there may be several explanations for this, Zimmerman says, “Our research found that the only specific side effect that was regularly inquired about by clinicians was on sexual dysfunction, presumably because of concerns that some patients may be too embarrassed to spontaneously report that without prompting.” The researchers also suggest that patients stop reporting to psychiatrists the side effects that they have grown accustomed to, but patients reported these side effects in the self-report scale because there were specific questions about them. –The researchers also question whether side effect frequencies reported in industry-sponsored studies may underestimate the prevalence of side effects from medication. As a result, clinicians may not be accurately informing patients of the potential likelihood of such side effects, and that lack of adequate preparation may result in patients prematurely discontinuing their medication.–Zimmerman says, “As a result of this study, we believe that ongoing dialogue about side effects during treatment will help to reduce premature medication discontinuation and would help reduce depression relapse rates. Incorporating a self-report questionnaire like the TSES may be helpful to adopt into clinical practice for the treatment of depression.”—Other researchers involved in the study along with Zimmerman include Janine Galione, BS, Naureen Attiullah, MD, Michael Friedman, MD, Cristina Toba, MD, and Moataz Rahgeb, MD, all of Rhode Island Hospital the Alpert Medical School.–Story Source: Adapted from materials provided by Lifespan, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.—Journal Reference: Mark Zimmerman et al. Underrecognition of Clinically Significant Side Effects in Depressed Outpatients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2010;71(4):484%u2013490 DOI: 10.4088/JCP.08m04978blu
    I– My personal take on this is that it would not matter irregardless on how much dialog that goes on if the side effect is intolerable then that person who is in the medical care will no longer use the drug—Most people are aware of the implications these days to trust a doctor, pharmacist or the Pharmaceutical industry—the analogy I present is this —equating to the drug industry— that if you are afflicted the drug will cover the condition —meanwhile the condition continues to get worse and to grow more toxic or unhealthy so then the new prescription( s) because now you have developed new symptoms and need a host of band aids to cover the initial affliction and it continues to break you down—the drugs at best can only cover up whatever it is ailing you —the real health comes from modifying behavior—changing the things that are causing the break down and then re instating the right nutrients or nutrients from Vitamins and other supplements to rebuild the system and to continue to be in health
    (Crocus sativus L.) ++
    Activities (Saffron) — Abortifacient (2; PHR; PH2); Analgesic (f; APA; CRC; MAD); Antidepressant (f; PNC); Antidote (f; MAD); Antiedemic (1; APA); Antihysteric (f; CRC); Antioxidant (1; PR14:149); Antiradicular (1; PR14:149); Antiseptic (f; CRC); Antispasmodic (f; APA; CRC; HHB); Antitumor (1; PR14:149); Aphrodisiac (f; APA; CRC; MAD); Balsamic (f; CRC); Cardiotonic (f; CRC; EFS; MAD); Carminative (f; CRC; PNC); Diaphoretic (f; APA; CRC); Digestive (f; APA); Ecbolic (f; CRC); Emmenagogue (f; CRC; HHB; PNC); Emollient (f; APA); Expectorant (f; APA; CRC); Gastrogogue (f; PHR; PH2); Hemostat (f; MAD); Hypocholesterolemic (1; APA); Hypolipemic (1; PR14:149); Hypotensive (1; APA); Myorelaxant (f; APA); Narcotic (f; CRC; SKJ); Nervine (f; CRC); Neuroprotective (1; PR14:149); Sedative (f; APA; CRC; HHB); Stimulant (f; CRC; HHB); Stomachic (f; CRC; HHB); Toxic (f; CRC); Uterotonic (1; PHR; PH2). Indications (Saffron) — Adenopathy (f; JLH); Aegilops (f; JLH); Amenorrhea (1; CRC; MAD; PH2); Asthma (f; MAD); Bladder (f; CRC); Bleeding (f; DAA; MAD); Bronchosis (f; PH2); Burn (f; JLH); Cacoethes (f; JLH); Cancer (1; APA; PR14:149); Cancer, abdomen (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, bladder (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, breast (1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cancer, colon (1; APA; JLH); Cancer, diaphragm (1; APA; JLH); Cancer, ear (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, eye (1; APA; JLH); Cancer, kidney (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, larynx (1; APA; JLH); Cancer, liver (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, mouth (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, neck (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, spleen (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, stomach (1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cancer, testicle (1 APA; JLH); Cancer, throat (1; APA; JLH); Cancer, tonsil (1; APA; CRC); Cancer, uterus (1; APA; CRC; JLH); Cardiopathy (f; APA); Catarrh (f; CRC; SKJ); Cerebrosis (1; APA); Childbirth (f; DAA; PH2); Cholera (f; CRC); Chorea (f; HHB; MAD); Cold (f; CRC); Condyloma (f; DAA); Conjunctivosis (f; MAD); Cough (f; DAA; MAD); Cramp (f; APA; CRC; DAA; HHB); Cystosis (f; JLH); Depression (f; CRC; DAA; PNC); Dermatosis (f; CRC); Diabetes (f; CRC); Dysmenorrhea (f; DAA; HHB; MAD; PNC); Edema (1; APA); Enterosis (f; JLH); Epistaxis (f; MAD); Fear (f; CRC; DAA); Fever (f; APA; CRC; PH2); Fibroid (f; JLH); Gas (f; CRC; MAD; PNC); Gastrosis (f; JLH); Gout (f; MAD); Hangover (f; LIL); Headache (f; PH2); Hematosis (f; CRC); Hemoptysis (f; DAA; MAD); Hepatosis (f; CRC; JLH; SKJ); High Blood Pressure (1; APA); High Cholesterol (1; APA); Hysteria (f; CRC; DAA; MAD); Induration (f; JLH); Inflammation (f; JLH); Insomnia (f; APA; CRC; HHB); Lacrimosis (f; JLH); Laryngosis (f; JLH); Leukemia (f; JLH); Lochiostasis (f; PH2); Lymphoma (1; APA; JLH); Measles (f; CRC; DAA; MAD); Melancholy (f; CRC; HHB); Menorrhagia (f; HHB; PH2); Menoxenia (f; CRC); Nephrosis (f; JLH); Nervousness (f; APA; CRC; HHB); Neurosis (f; CRC); Obesity (1; PR14:149); Ophthalmia (f; JLH); Orchosis (f; JLH); Pain (f; APA; CRC; DAA; MAD); Parotosis (f; JLH); Pertussis (f; BIB; DAA; MAD); Phymata (f; JLH); Plague (f; MAD); Puerperium (f; CRC); Sclerosis (f; CRC); Shock (f; CRC; DAA); Snakebite (f; SKJ); Sore Throat (f; PH2); Spasm (f; CRC); Splenosis (f; CRC; JLH); Swelling (1; APA); Tonsilosis (f; JLH); Tumor (1; PR14:149); Twitching (f; MAD); Uterosis (f; CRC; DAA; JLH); VD (f; CRC; DAA); Vertigo (f; MAD); Vomiting (f; PH2); Wart (f; CRC). Dosages (Saffron) — 10–15 stigmata/cup water (APA); 0.5–1.5 g day (APA; HHB); 0.5–2.5 g saffron (PNC); 0.1–1 g powdered saffron (MAD); 15–16 drops tincture (MAD). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Saffron) — Class 2b. Abortifacient, emmenagogue, and uterotonic. Severe side effects may result from ingesting 5 g saffron (LD = 20 g) (AHP).“Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages” (PH2). Controversial. The 200 mg/kg dose of saffron alleged to extend the life of cancerous mice translates to 22,000 mg or 22 grams saffron with this 100-kg rat named Jim Duke. Commission E reports no risks for doses up to 1.5 g; however, 5 g is toxic, 10 g is abortive, and 20 g is lethal (AEH; PHR). Conversely, Tucker and DeBaggio report that “ingesting 0.05 oz (1.5 g) of saffron has resulted in death” (TAD). Paradoxically, the life-saving dose is lethal! Preferring to err on the safe side,
    F22-week, multicenter, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of Crocus sativus in the treatment of mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease.
    Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2010 Jan;207(4):637-43 Authors: Akhondzadeh S, Shafiee Sabet M, Harirchian MH, Togha M, Cheraghmakani H, Razeghi S, Hejazi SS, Yousefi MH, Alimardani R, Jamshidi A, Rezazadeh SA, Yousefi A, Zare F, Moradi A, Vossoughi A
    RATIONALE: There is increasing evidence to suggest the possible efficacy of Crocus sativus (saffron) in the management of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present investigation was to assess the efficacy of C. sativus in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate AD. METHODS: Fifty-four Persian-speaking adults 55 years of age or older who were living in the community were eligible to participate in a 22-week, double-blind study of parallel groups of patients with AD. The main efficacy measures were the change in the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale and Clinical Dementia Rating Scale-Sums of Boxes scores compared with baseline. Adverse events (AEs) were systematically recorded. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a capsule saffron 30 mg/day (15 mg twice per day) or donepezil 10 mg/day (5 mg twice per day). RESULTS: Saffron at this dose was found to be effective similar to donepezil in the treatment of mild-to-moderate AD after 22 weeks. The frequency of AEs was similar between saffron extract and donepezil groups with the exception of vomiting, which occurred significantly more frequently in the donepezil group. CONCLUSION: This phase II study provides preliminary evidence of a possible therapeutic effect of saffron extract in the treatment of patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer’s disease. This trial is registered with the Iranian Clinical Trials Registry
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    Show of the week 4-29- 2010
    Poisoning by Prescription Drugs on the Rise
    Prescription Pain Killers Are Involved In More Drug Overdose Deaths Than Either Cocaine Or Heroin In U.S
    Deaths from Opioid Use Have Doubled– Five-Fold Increase in Oxycodone Deaths
    Cuba Touts New Medicine as Treatment for Cancer, AIDS
    Poisoning by Prescription Drugs on the Rise
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 7, 2010) — Poisoning is now the second leading cause of unintentional injury death in the U.S. While several recent high-profile Hollywood celebrity cases have brought the problem to public attention, the rates of unintentional poisoning deaths have been on the rise for more than 15 years, and in fact, unintentional poisoning has surpassed motor vehicle crashes as the leading cause of unintentional injury death among people 35-54 years of age.—-In a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Preventive Medicine, researchers found that hospitalizations for poisoning by prescription opioids, sedatives and tranquilizers in the U.S. have increased by 65% from 1999 to 2006.–“Deaths and hospitalizations associated with prescription drug misuse have reached epidemic proportions,” said the study’s lead author, Jeffrey H. Coben, MD, of the West Virginia University School of Medicine. “It is essential that health care providers, pharmacists, insurance providers, state and federal agencies, and the general public all work together to address this crisis. Prescription medications are just as powerful and dangerous as other notorious street drugs, and we need to ensure people are aware of these dangers and that treatment services are available for those with substance abuse problems.”—In the first comprehensive examination of nationwide hospitalizations associated with these prescription medications, researchers examined data gathered from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), which contains records for approximately 8 million hospitalizations per year. By using standard diagnosis codes from the ICD-9-CM, the authors extracted from the NIS all poisonings by drugs, medicinal, and biological substances reported from 1999-2006, and further categorized the specific types of drugs in each case. It was also possible to determine whether the poisoning was diagnosed as intentional, unintentional or undetermined.—Dr. Coben believes that while the data reveals a fast-growing problem, there’s an urgent need for more in-depth research on this wave of injuries and deaths. Writing in the article, he said, “Interviews with survivors could provide important additional details regarding the pathways to abuse of these drugs, the methods used to obtain the medications, the sequencing and combination of drugs that result in overdose, and the immediate precursors to these serious events. The association between hospitalization for prescription opioids, sedatives, and tranquilizers and subsequent morbidity and mortality is another area in need of further research.”–While the majority of hospitalized poisonings are classified as unintentional, substantial increases were also demonstrated for intentional overdoses associated with these drugs, likely reflecting their widespread availability in community settings.—From 1999-2006, total estimated hospitalizations in the U.S. for poisoning by prescription opioids, sedatives, and tranquilizers increased by 65%; while unintentional poisonings by these drugs increased by 37%. In comparison, during this same period, hospitalizations for poisoning by other drugs, medicinal and biological substances increased by 33%, while all other hospitalizations increased by just over 11%. Unintentional poisonings by other substances increased by 21%. Intentional poisonings from prescription opioids, sedatives, and tranquilizers rose by a total of 130% compared to a 53% increase in intentional poisonings from other substances.—The largest percentage increase in hospitalizations for poisoning for a specific drug was observed for methadone (400%). Poisonings by benzodiazepines increased 39%. Hospitalizations for poisoning by barbiturates actually decreased 41%, as did hospitalizations for poisoning by antidepressants (a decrease of 13%).–Story Source:–Adapted from materials provided by Elsevier Health Sciences, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–Journal Reference: Jeffrey H. Coben, Stephen M. Davis, Paul M. Furbee, Rosanna D. Sikora, Roger D. Tillotson, Robert M. Bossarte. Hospitalizations for Poisoning by Prescription Opioids, Sedatives, and Tranquilizers. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2010; 38 (5) DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.01.022
    Prescription Pain Killers Are Involved In More Drug Overdose Deaths Than Either Cocaine Or Heroin In U.S.
    ScienceDaily (July 24, 2006) — Trends analysis of drug poisoning deaths has helped explain a national epidemic of overdose deaths in the USA that began in the 1990s, concludes Leonard Paulozzi and colleagues at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, USA. The contribution of prescription pain killers to the epidemic has only become clear recently. This research is published this week in the journal, Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety.—Drugs called “opioids” are frequently prescribed to relieve pain, but if abused they can kill. Over the past 15 years, sales of opioid pain killers, including oxycodone, hydrocodone, methadone and fentanyl, have increased, and deaths from these drugs have increased in parallel.—In 2002, over 16,000 people died in the USA as a result of drug overdoses, with most deaths related to opioids, heroin, and cocaine. Opioids surpassed both cocaine and heroin in extent of involvement in these drug overdoses between 1999 and 2002.—-The situation appears to be accelerating. Between 1979 and 1990 the rate of deaths attributed to unintentional drug poisoning increased by an average of 5.3% each year. Between 1990 and 2002, the rate increased by 18.1% per year. The contribution played by opioids is also increasing. Between 1999 and 2002 the number of overdose death certificates that mention poisoning by opioid pain killers went up by 91.2%. While the pain killer category showed the greatest increase, death certificates pointing a finger of blame at heroin and cocaine also increased by 12.4% and 22.8% respectively.—In an accompanying ‘comment’ article, David Joranson and Aaron Gilson of the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Pain & Policy Studies Group, of Madison, Wisconsin. They caution against increasing unwarranted fears of using opioid analgesics in pain management, noting that much of the abuse of opioid analgesics is by recreational and street users and individuals with psychiatric conditions rather than pain patients.—Joranson and Gilson also point to the large quantity of opioid analgesics stolen from pharmacies every year, saying that “overdose deaths involving prescription medications do not necessarily mean they were prescribed. It is also crucial to know that most overdose deaths involve several drugs and these data cannot attribute the cause to a particular drug.”—In a second commentary, Scott Fishman, Professor of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine at University of California, Davis concludes that drug abuse and under treated pain are both public health crises, but the solution to one need not undermine the other. “The least we can do is make sure that the casualties of the war on drugs are not suffering patients who legitimately deserve relief,” he says. —Story Source: Adapted from materials provided by John Wiley & Sons, Inc..
    Deaths from Opioid Use Have Doubled– Five-Fold Increase in Oxycodone Deaths
    ScienceDaily (Dec. 14, 2009) — Deaths from opioid use in Ontario, Canada, have doubled since 1991 and the addition of long-acting oxycodone to the drug formulary was associated with a 5-fold increase in oxycodone-related deaths, found a new study in CMAJ (Canadian Medical Association Journal). Most of these additional deaths were accidental.–Opioids are among the most commonly prescribed medications in Canada and are often used for patients with chronic non-malignant pain. Other studies have argued that prescribing is not a major contributor to the adverse health effects of opioid abuse, yet this study suggests that increased rates of opioid prescriptions are a significant factor in accidental opioid-related deaths. –The study looked at prescribing data from 1991 to 2007 from IMS Health Canada, which collects information from almost two-thirds of Canadian pharmacies, and deaths attributed to opioid use from records of the Office of the Chief Coroner of Ontario between 1991 and 2004. It also linked the coroner’s data to health care databases to track patients’ medical visits.–Prescriptions for opioid pain medications increased by 29%, with codeine the most frequently prescribed, although the number of prescriptions for that drug declined during the study period. Oxycodone prescriptions rose more than 850%, much more rapidly than any other opioid, and accounted for 32% of the almost 7.2 million prescriptions for opioids dispensed in 2006.–Between 1991 and 2004, 7099 deaths with complete records were attributed to alcohol and/or drugs. In 3406 of these deaths — 61.9% — opioids were implicated as cause of death. The median age of death was 40 years and 67% were men. Suicide was a factor in 23.6% of deaths.—“The rise in opioid-related deaths was due in large part to inadvertent toxicity,” write Dr. Irfan Dhalla, of the University of Toronto and coauthors. “There was no significant increase in the number of deaths from suicide involving opioids over the study period.”—After linking the coroner’s data to health care databases, the researchers included 3066 deaths. Many (66.4%) of these patients had seen a physician at least once in the 4 weeks preceding their death, with diagnosis of mental health problems and pain-related complaints the most common reasons for medical attention.–“The societal burden of opioid-related mortality and morbidity in Canada is substantial,” write the authors. “In our study, the annual incidence of opioid-related deaths in 2004 (27.2 million) falls between the incidence of death from HIV infection (12 per million) and sepsis (40 per million).”–They conclude that the frequency of visits to physicians and opioid prescriptions in the month before death suggest a missed opportunity for prevention.–In a related commentary, Dr. Benedikt Fischer of Simon Fraser University and coauthor write “the pre-eminent risk in most deaths was from the use of multiple drugs involving prescription opioids and other substances that are widely and legally dispensed. As prescription drugs are involved in more overdose deaths than either heroin or cocaine in North America, the profile of the people who are dying may be changing from marginalized people to more “middle class.”–The authors argue that governments must lead in developing a preventative strategy for this different demographic and refocus the federal drug policy that currently targets marginalized people.
    Story Source:—-Adapted from materials provided by Canadian Medical Association Journal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–Journal References: Irfan A. Dhalla, Muhammad M. Mamdani, Marco L.A. Sivilotti, Alex Kopp, Omar Qureshi, David N. Juurlink. Prescribing of opioid analgesics and related mortality before and after the introduction of long-acting oxycodone. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2009; 181 (12): 891 DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.090784—-Benedikt Fischer, Jürgen Rehm. Deaths related to the use of prescription opioids. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 2009; DOI: 10.1503/cmaj.091791
    Cuba Touts New Medicine as Treatment for Cancer, AIDS
    HAVANA – State-run Cuban media outlets announced Tuesday the distribution on the island of a “natural” medicine that can serve to fight AIDS, cancer, malaria, diabetes, arthritis, rheumatism and even memory loss.—“A batch of 160,000 tablets of ‘anamu,’ a new immunostimulatory herbal medicine produced by the Oriente pharmaceutical laboratory, will help patients with cancer and AIDS,” the official AIN news agency said.—-It added that anamu – Petiveria alliacea, also commonly known as “garlic weed” due to its strong garlic-like odor – in the form of tea, is also efficacious as an “anti-spasmotic, diuretic, stimulant and sudorific, local analgesic and anti-inflamatory in different skin complaints, and it is used against arthritis, malaria, rheumatism and memory problems.”—-“The tablet, 400 milligrams and completely natural, will be supplied initially in oncology treatment and for patients with the AIDS virus in the province of Santiago de Cuba, where its effectiveness will be verified, according to its immune response … in the human organism.”—AIN quotes Martha Zoe, a specialist in natural medicine, who explained that the pills are made from powdered leaves and young stems of anamu, a grassy herb that grows wild in Cuba, as well as in tropical areas of the Caribbean, South America and Africa. —-“The tablets already have the first health registration, backed by ethnomedical reports on the plant and research linked with its traditional use and reported benefits,” the report adds. —The Cuban health care system, one of the keystones of the revolution led by Fidel Castro in 1959, already administers other similar products to patients, including a recent “homeopathic complex” that allegedly increases the body’s defenses against the AH1N1 flu virus. EFE
    (Carica papaya L.) +++ Synonyms: C. peltata Hook. & Arn., C. posoposa L., Papaya carica Gaertn. Activities (Papaya) — Abortifacient (1; VAG; WBB; 60P); Allergenic (1; PHR; PNC); Amebicide (1; TRA); Analgesic (1; PH2; TRA); Antibacterial (1; AAB; APA; TRA); Anticonvulsant (1; TRA; 60P); Antidiptheric (1; TRA); Antiedemic (1; KOM; PH2); Antifertility (1; 60P); Antiimplantation (1; TRA); Antiinflammatory (1; APA; PH2; TRA); Antioxidant (1; APA); Antipyretic (f; HHB; JFM; WBB); Antiseptic (1; APA; PH2; TRA; WBB; 60P); Antispasmodic (1; TRA); Antitetanic (1; TRA); Antitumor (1; TRA; 60P); Antiulcer (1; APA; PH2); Ascaricide (1; AAB; WBB); Bronchodilator (1; TRA); Candidicide (1; AAB; APA; TRA); Cardiac (f; WBB); Cardiodepressant (1; AAB); Cardiotonic (1; HHB); Carminative (f; WBB); Chronotropic (1; TRA); Cicatrizant (1; TRA); Contraceptive (1; TRA); Digestive (1; APA; PNC; WAM); Diuretic (1; KOM; TRA; WBB); Embryotoxic (1; PH2); Emmenagogue (f; JFM; PH2; WBB); Fibrinolytic (1; PH2); Fungicide (1; AAB; APA; HHB; TRA); Hypotensive (1; TRA); Immunostimulant (f; APA); Laxative (f; AAB; HHB; JFM; WBB); Myorelaxant (f; 60P); Pectoral (f; JFM); Proteolytic (1; 60P; APA; TRA WBB); Sedative (f; KOM); Taenicide (f; WBB); Teratogenic (1; PH2); Tranquilizer (1; TRA); Uterorelaxant (1; TRA); Vermifuge (1; APA; KOM; PH2; TRA; VAG; WBB; 60P); Vulnerary (1; AAB; PNC). Indications (Papaya) — Abscess (f; KOM); Adenopathy (f; JLH; KOM); Adnexosis (f; KOM); Aging (f; KOM); Ameba (1; TRA); Anorexia (f; KOM); Anthrax (f; WBB); Ascaris (1; AAB; WBB); Asthma (f; HHB; JFM; WBB); Atherosclerosis (f; KOM); Bacteria (1; AAB; APA; TRA); Boil (f; WBB); Bronchosis (f; JFM; KOM; PH2); Burn (f; KOM; WBB); Callus (f; JFM); Cancer (1; JLH; TRA; 60P); Cancer, uterus (f; CRC); Candida (1; AAB; APA; TRA); Cardiopathy (f; KOM); Cholecystosis (f; KOM); Circulosis (f; KOM); Cold (f; JFM); Conjunctivosis (f; PNC); Constipation (f; AAB; HHB; JFM; KOM; WBB); Convulsion (1; TRA; 60P); Corn (f; AAB; JLH); Cough (f; JFM; PH2); Cramp (1; TRA); Cystosis (f; WBB); Dehydration (f; VAG); Depression (f; KOM); Dermatosis (f; JFM; WBB); Diarrhea (f; JFM); Discosis (1; JAD); Duodenosis (f; PH2); Dyscrasia (f; KOM); Dysentery (f; WBB); Dyspepsia (1; KOM; PH2; PNC; WAM); Dysuria (f; JFM); Earache (f; WBB); Edema (1; KOM; PH2); Enterosis (f; JFM; PHR; PH2; WBB); Fever (f; HHB; JFM; WBB); Fistula (f; KOM); Flu (f; KOM); Fontanelle (f; ZIM); Freckle (f; APA; JFM); Fungus (1; AAB; APA; HHB; TRA); Furuncle (f; TRA); Gas (f; KOM); Gastrosis (f; PHR; PH2); Gonorrhea (1; TRA; VAG; WBB); Heartburn (1; FNF; TGF); Hematoma (f; KOM); Hemorrhoid (f; KOM; PH2; WBB); Hepatosis (f; AAB; JFM; KOM); High Blood Pressure (1; JFM; TRA; WBB); Hodgkin’s Disease (f; KOM); Immunodepression (f; APA); Infection (1; AAB APA; HHB; KOM; PHR; TRA); Infertility (1; APA); Inflammation (1; APA; JFM; KOM; PHR; PH2; TRA); Insomnia (f; KOM); Jaundice (f; WBB); Leukemia (f; KOM); Lymphoma (f; KOM); Malaria (f; JFM); Metastasis (f; KOM); Mycosis (1; AAB; APA; HHB; TRA); Nausea (1; WAM); Nephrosis (f; HHB; WBB); Nervousness (1; KOM; TRA); Neurasthenia (f; KOM); Neurosis (f; KOM); Pain (1; CRC; PH2; TRA); Pancreatosis (f; PHR; PH2); Parasite (1; 60P; PHR; PH2; WAM); Pharyngosis (f; KOM); Phlebitis (f; KOM); Proctosis (f; KOM); Psoriasis (f; APA); Respirosis (f; KOM; WBB); Rheumatism (f; KOM; WBB); Ringworm (1; APA; JFM); Roemeld Syndrome (f; KOM); Sclerosis (f; JLH); Shigella (1; AAB); Sore Throat (f; JFM; KOM); Splenomegaly (f; JFM; WBB); Splenosis (f; JFM); Staphylococcus (1; AAB); Stomatosis (f; KOM); Stone (f; PH2); Swelling (1; KOM; PH2); Syphilis (f; HHB; WBB); Tapeworm (f; WBB); Thirst (f; CRC); Thrombosis (f; KOM); Tuberculosis (1; TRA); Tumor (1; JLH; KOM; TRA; 60P); Ulcer (1; APA; PHR; PH2); Urethrosis (f; KOM; TRA); UTI (f; PH2); Vaginosis (f; APA); Varicosis (f; KOM); VD (f; AAB; JFM; WBB); Wart (f; AAB; JFM; WBB); Water Retention (f; JFM); Worm (1; APA; KOM; PH2; PNC; TRA; VAG; WBB; 60P); Wound (1; KOM; TRA; WBB); Yaws (f; WBB); Yeast (1; AAB; APA; TRA). Commission E, listing more than a dozen folkloric indications, on p. 361, does not even recommend papain, because of insufficient proof of efficacy (KOM). Dosages (Papaya) — 1–2 tsp dry leaf/cup water (APA); 1–3 tsp fruit juice (APA); 1–2 tbsp fresh fruit (PED); 1.5–3 g dry fruit (PED); 2.5–5 ml elixir of papaya (PNC); 2.5–5 ml glycerin of papain (PNC); 10–50 mg papain (APA); “Papain may be effective in high doses (daily dose = 1500 mg”) (KOM). Contraindications, Interactions, and Side Effects (Papaya) — Class 1 (AHP). None known –(WAM). “Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapetic dosages” (PH2). Admitting no risks for the leaf, Commission E disallows for lack of proof of efficacy (KOM). May interact with warfarin (PH2). There are reports of perforated esophagus following over ingestion of fruits (APA). Papain can cause severe stomach inflammation if taken internally, dermatosis externally. Allergic reactions including asthma possible (PH2). Not to be used during pregnancy (PH2). See accounts for papain in FNF and KOM. Papaya seeds can reverse sterility without affecting libido