Milk Thistle Remedial Therapies
Silybin and dehydrosilybin decrease glucose uptake by inhibiting GLUT proteins.
Zhan T, Digel M, Küch EM, Stremmel W, Füllekrug J.
Molecular Cell Biology Laboratory Internal Medicine IV, Im Neuenheimer Feld 345, University of Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg, Germany.
Silybin, the major flavonoid of Silybum marianum, is widely used to treat liver diseases such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis-associated insulin resistance. Research so far has focused on its anti-oxidant properties. Here, we demonstrate that silybin and its derivative dehydrosilybin inhibit glucose uptake in several model systems. Both flavonoids dose-dependently reduce basal and insulin-dependent glucose uptake of 3T3-L1 adipocytes, with dehydrosilybin showing significantly stronger inhibition. However, insulin signaling was not impaired, and immunofluorescence and subcellular fractionation showed that insulin-induced translocation of GLUT4 to the plasma membrane is also unchanged. Likewise, hexokinase activity was not affected suggesting that silybin and dehydrosilybin interfere directly with glucose transport across the plasma membrane. Expression of GLUT4 in CHO cells counteracted the inhibition of glucose uptake by both flavonoids. Moreover, treatment of CHO cells with silybin and dehydrosilybin reduced cell viability which was partially rescued by GLUT4 expression. Kinetic analysis revealed that silybin and dehydrosilybin inhibit GLUT4 mediated glucose transport in a competitive manner with Ki = 60 µM and 116 µM, respectively. We conclude that silybin and dehydrosilybin inhibit cellular glucose uptake by directly interacting with GLUT transporters. Glucose starvation offers a novel explanation for the anti-cancer effects of silybin. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.–PMID: 21140442 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
SUPERFOOD-JELLO—Using Gelatin we are going to make a super food—what we are going to do is measure off 1 cup of water—add to the blender-1/8 cup-1/4 cup of gelatin—Now add any herb you like—any dried fruit or vege you have made—any supplement to this—and then blend for 5 minutes at high speed—pour into a bowel or glass jar—allow to set til hard—then consume at leasure—the only thing that gelatin will not harden with is papapya or pineapple or any fruitor vege that is high in protolytic enzymes
Remedy Adaptogen—an adaptogen is what gives you strength or endurance or both—and can make you more resistant to becoming ill and can assist in healing an infirmary or ailment—some adpatogens are Ginseng—Rhodiola-Cordyceps—B1-B12-Creatine—B5-Fo Ti- Astragulus-Ginger-Garlic-Onion-Shizandra Berry-Goji Berry-Hawthorn Berry—
What you are going to do is choose any of the above or whatever you utilize or discover—and make a tea out of these or blend them in a juice extract ( either one you make or bought at places where they sell this ) for instance a grape extract that would be used in making wine add ¼ cup—add 3-4 oz of the tea or water ( you can go either way with this ) and add Carrot Powder/Parika/Blueberry—then add the gelatin and water and blend for 5-7 minutes or til everything is smoothly fused –pour into a glass bowl—let chill and you have A Super food that is great on the eyes and heart and brain –and remember gelatin converts to collagen and some of these herbs benefit more when they are combined with gelaton
Repeat the process but this add a different combination—use rosemary –bay leaf-thyme and add in there water and in the blender at 1 cup and blend til smooth orrr make a tea out of this and then use the tea water—with this combo we are enacting the brain and it’s many uses as well as increasing antioxidant levels in the body making us more resistant to becoming ill
Repeat the process but instead use Juice—preferrably home made like carrot or apple and again once the juice is made add to the blender and add 1 /4 cup of gelatin to 1 cup juice—and then add cinnamon and cardamom and nutmeg—this will increase antioxidant level as well as nut meg ,cinnamon, and cardamion will be used for colon issues–Gelatin will carry with it all nutrients and carry them into the cells
This can be done in teas-juices—water—you can make protein puddings using whey and or egg protein and can utilize either honey-maple syrup – xylitol-or stevia as your sweetner nd add whey with either the juice tea –or water
Show of the Week December 20 2010
Vinegar and it’s USES
Vinegar of the 4 thieves
ACV- Mass Reduction Formulas—Body Regulator
Vinegar and it’s USES
Vinegar of the 4 thieves
Epidemics, sudden outbreaks of diseases, have hit populations since humans began living in close proximity. The most infamous of the epidemics were the cyclic plagues or “Black Death” that hit during the Middle Ages starting around 1346. Looking back, we attribute the causes to Yersinia pestis, a plague which has three forms–pneumonic, septicemic, and bubonic–smallpox, influenza, gonorrhea, and tuberculosis. Estimates guess that anywhere from twenty-five to forty percent of the populations were killed with any one plague.—During the dreadful years of the Black Death, a few people found the way to survive the plague that was decimating the population. Among the more colorful of these were four thieves from Marseilles who while plundering for treasures protected themselves with garlic and a concoction of herbs extracted in vinegar. The tale is a fascinating exploration of herbal lore, but there are so many versions of the story that it is up to you to choose which to believe.–
Nostradamus, 1503-1566, was a famous doctor and prophet who not only survived the plague but cured many others with what came to be known as the famous “rose petal pills.” In fact, we do not know very much about the lozenges. They might have included rose hips, a rich source of natural vitamin C, as well as sawdust from green cypress, iris of Florence, cloves, odorated calamus, and perhaps some lign-aloes. Nostradamus owned a perfume manufacturing enterprise, which in his time meant distillation of plants to make essential oils. People who worked in these facilities did not succumb to the plague [U1]. . . and we are just now emerging from our skepticism in such a way as to enable us to understand what is so effective about these highly concentrated aromatic oils.–This formula is so popular in herbal circles that some people have organized “Four Thieves” parties where groups of people produce big batches of the formula during times of epidemics. There are, as one might imagine, many versions of the formula, all, of course, claimed to be authentic.–The famous French aromatherapy doctor, Jean Valnet, has two recipes in his book. He claims the original recipe was revealed by corpse robbers who were caught red-handed in the area around Toulouse in 1628-1631. His story is the more credible of the many one can find. Given the virulence and deadliness of the plague, the judges were astonished by the indifference of the thieves to contagion. Valnet quotes the archives of the Parliament of Toulouse:—-During the Great Plague, four robbers were convicted of going to the houses of plague victims, strangling them in their beds and then looting their dwellings. For this, they were condemned to be burned at the stake, and in order to have their sentence mitigated, they revealed their secret preservative, after which they were hanged.[U2] -Given the source, I choose to believe the Valnet account, but there have obviously been many spins of the tale. Here is the recipe stated to be the original:
Original Recipe for Four Thieves Formula
white wine vinegar
Dr. Valnet has a variation of his own described as an antiseptic vinegar:
Marseilles Vinegar or Four Thieves Vinegar
greater wormwood, Artemesia absinthum
lesser wormwood, Artemesia pontica
camphor (do not use synthetic camphor it is poison!)
crystallized acetic acid
Instructions: steep the plants in the vinegar for 10 days. Force through a sieve. Add the camphor dissolved in the acetic acid, filter.
Valnet says this remedy, i.e., his formula is useful in the prevention of infectious diseases. He says to rub it on the face and hands and burn it in the room. It can also be kept in small bottles that are carried on the person so that the vapors can be inhaled.
Dr. John Christopher had a slightly different story and a variation of the formula that is clearly American, not French. His “Four Thieves” story is that there was a man named Richard Forthave who developed a remedy for the plague that was marketed under his name, a name which was corrupted to “Four Thieves.” There might indeed have been grave robbers who used this remedy to protect themselves while they divested corpses of treasures they would no longer need. The King of France had the thieves arrested and they bought their freedom with the remedy they had been using. Thus, the remedy did not fall into obscurity and has been used for centuries since to protect against contagion.
Dr. John Christopher Plague Formula
apple cider vinegar
garlic juice, fresh
comfrey root concentrate*
lobelia leaf and/or seed concentrate
marshmallow root concentrate
oak bark concentrate
black walnut bark concentrate
mullein leaf concentrate
skullcap leaf concentrate
uva ursi, hydrangea, or gravel root concentrate
Mix the ingredients well!
How to make the concentrates:–Each concentrate should be made individually. Start by soaking the herb for four hours or more in enough distilled water to cover it completely. After soaking, add more distilled water so that the total added equals 16 oz. (.5 liter) water per 4 oz. (113 grams) herb. Use a multiple of these amounts for a larger quantity of formula. Using these amounts approximately one gallon (3.75 liters) of the formula will be produced.–
After adding the appropriate amount of distilled water to the soaked herb, simmer the herb on very low heat in a covered pan or double boiler for thirty minutes. Then strain the liquid into a clean pan. Put the liquid into a double boiler or on very low heat (uncovered) and simmer (steam) it down to one fourth of the original volume (4 oz. 1256 ml). Only after all ingredients have been prepared should the liquids be mixed.—Do not use aluminum, Teflon, or cracked porcelain. Glass, corning ware or stainless steel or whole porcelain are best.
Dosage: 1 tsp. 3 times a day; or 1 tablespoon every 1/2 hour if infected.
unpasteurized apple cider vinegar
black pepper oil
garlic finely diced
ginger finely sliced
Rosemary, being a strong antiseptic, was one of the choice herbs. Wormwood and rue are the bitterest of herbs. Both are antiseptics and vermifuges (kill worms.) Wormwood has been used internally, and excessive amounts can cause convulsions. Lavender and peppermint are high in volatile oils, hence excellent ingredients for a very good insect repellent, as well as being pleasant smelling. Sage, among other good things, is a lymphatic, which is an important fact to remember in case of a bubonic-type disease outbreak. Of course, garlic, as the king of herbs, is a wonder drug. Within its paper-thin wrapping is found a host of beneficial properties, far too many to list. But it does have specific properties that are antiseptic, antimicrobial, antibiotic and, antifungal—chemicals that kill parasites. If I were ever lost in a sick, hostile world, I would not take medicine; I would take garlic. Always keep a sack in your kitchen, and go to the library to learn how to use it.
The Vinegar of the Four Thieves is a super-strong insect repellent. It should be diluted with water to half strength if you spray it directly on your skin. This repellent can be used many ways. Splashed on your socks or shoes will discourage ticks, chiggers, and mites. An herbal cloth kept in your pocket and rubbed on your skin every hour or so would be very beneficial during outdoor work or recreation. Or, a nightly bath with a little herbal vinegar and oil will keep it on your skin for many hours and could prove helpful for families who live in the country or while out on camping trips.
Vinegar of the 4 Thieves
2 quarts of apple cider vinegar
2 tablespoons lavender
2 tablespoons rosemary
2 tablespoons sage
2 tablespoons wormwood
2 tablespoons rue
2 tablespoons mint
2 tablespoons fresh, chopped garlic
Combine dried herbs (except garlic) and vinegar in a one-gallon jar with lid, and soak in the sun for 2 weeks, shaking often. Then strain out the used herbs, and retain the herbal liquid mixture. Add several cloves of crushed garlic, and close lid. Let soak for three days, and strain out the garlic fiber and discard. This liquid tincture needs to be stored in a cool place, like the refrigerator, or it can be preserved by canning. Fill canning jar with boiling liquid tincture to within one-half inch of top. Cap with rubber seal canning lid, tighten ring, and turn hot jar upside down; leave it undisturbed until it cools to room temperature. This will cause the jar to seal. Don’t forget to date and label it.
Four Thieves Vinegar: Antiviral, Germicide and Possible Alternative for Flu Shots
According to herbalist Elizabeth Kastner, “During the height of the plague in France in 1721, it was discovered that the homes of disease victims were being ransacked. At first, no effort was made to find the criminals, since all knew they were fools, soon to die of the plague.
“As time went on, it became apparent that the thieves were continuing in their raids… and quite inexplicably, avoiding falling victim to the disease. Soon, they became highly sought — not due to their crimes, but in an effort to learn their secret.
“When they were finally captured, they refused to speak until a bargain was offered: remain silent and hang. Divulge the secret to their resistance to the deadly plague and walk away.
“It seems that the mother of several of the boys was a midwife and had a recipe which used plants which were easily wildcrafted… yet, she knew that this would change immediately if anyone learned the formula, so she swore her children to secrecy. Her sons saved their necks and shared the recipe for the disinfectant, which is still used in France to this day.”
Given the simple ingredients of Four Thieves Vinegar and with all the yammering about smallpox, bioterrorism diseases, and flu vaccine shortages in the news these days, it seems prudent to me to prepare a home stock of this historical preventative for dread diseases. According to Kastner, the traditional recipe for Four Thieves Vinegar “makes a lot of sense, medicinally speaking.”
You can make your own “Four Thieves Vinegar” by following the simple recipe below.
Use equal parts of the following herbs:
* Melissa (lemon balm)
* A handful of garlic cloves
Blend ingredients in a glass jar and cover completely with organic, unpasteurized apple cider vinegar, which is available in most health food stores. Cold infuse (let sit at room temperature in a cool place) for six weeks and then strain off herbs and garlic.
You can take Four Thieves Vinegar by the teaspoonful, use it as a salad dressing, or even add a spoonful to your bath water for personal protection. Four Thieves Vinegar and warmed organic coconut oil make an excellent salad dressing.
You can also use it as a topical spray to disinfect surfaces — including skin — and/or you can take it as a tincture. All of the ingredients in Four Thieves Vinegar are either potent antibacterials or antivirals!
Four Thieves Vinegar
In my explorations of the history and uses of lavender, I came across some interesting information about Four Thieves Vinegar. I’d heard of it before, but didn’t know what it meant:
ØThe Legend of Four Thieves Vinegar×
One version goes that in the 1630’s, when the plague was raging in France, the town of Toulouse was beset with looters. Four looters were apprehended, but rather than punish them, the judge offered them a deal. Amazed at their continued health after wandering though homes and businesses abandoned by their terrified (or dead) owners, the judge offered to let the thieves go if they gave him the secret of their resistance to the plague.
What was their famous secret? It was a vinegar made from thyme, rosemary, sage, and lavender. This infusion was termed thieves vinegar. Although garlic was added to the mixture later, this basic infusion became famous, and was used for hundreds of years, both internally and externally, to provide protection from the dreaded plague.
ØHow to make Four Thieves Vinegar×
There are a number of recipes available for four thieves vinegar, but the original was probably something like this–Use equal parts thyme, rosemary, sage, and lavender. Place herbs in a jar and cover with (apple cider) vinegar. Seal and place in a cool, dark place for six weeks. Strain into a spray bottle or clean jar and use as a disinfectant.–The original herbal ingredients are all strong antibacterial agents, as is the vinegar.—Variations on the recipe add sweet smelling herbs like mint and lemon balm to the mixture. Garlic was also added, and although it was probably an excellent addition from an antibacterial standpoint, it was not one of the original herbs used.—NOTE: the four thieves originally used vinegared red wine, not apple cider vinegar.[U3]—Natural antiseptics can be made at home instead of buying commercial disinfectants that we are now finding out may cause drug resistance.–
ØPlace a small handful each of dried lavender, rosemary, sage, rue and mint in a large jar, and cover completely with organic apple cider vinegar. Cover tightly and set for six weeks. Strain into a spray bottle. Whereas no home can be made to be sterile, spray the powerfully antiseptic Vinegar of Four Thieves recipe in areas of concern, such as on cutting boards and door knobs, always making sure to avoid your eyes.
ØFour Thieves Vinegar—Easiest and Effective and should super boost the immune system from Viruses—Fungals –Bacterials Microbials
2 QT Apple Cider Vinegar
2 Tbls Lavender
2 Tbls Rosemary
2 Tbls Sage
2 Tbls Wormwood
2 Tbls Rue
2 Tbls Mint
The herbs can be fresh, powdered or whole. Please understand and make sure that you know this is absolutely not for drinking. Wormwood can kill a person. ( The precaution here maybe unwarranted due to the fact that this is vinegar and most people do not go out of there way to gorge themselves on vinegar but rather the alcohol)
Put the herbs in the vinegar. Shake well. Let is sit in the sun for two weeks.
Open. Drop in six cloves of garlic. Cap it. Shake well. Let sit in sun for one week.
Strain. Pour into bottles or jar. Seal with wax or add glycerin to preserve it.
ØFOUR THIEVES VINEGAR: ANTIVIRAL GERMICIDE Possible Alternative for Flu Shots
Current theorists suggest that this formula, now called “Four Thieves Vinegar”, may offer protection against fearsome possible threats, such as the flu, smallpox, and biological weapons, which concern us today, as all of its ingredients are either strong anti-bacterial agents, or have potent anti-viral properties.
FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
1 part lavender, dried
1 part sage, dried
1 part thyme, dried
1 part lemon balm (melissa), dried
1 part hyssop, dried
1 part peppermint, dried
1 handful garlic cloves
Raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar
• In a glass jar, place all dry ingredients.
• Add raw (unpasteurized), organic apple cider vinegar to cover
• Place jar in a cool place and let sit, at room temperature, for six weeks.
• Strain off herbs and garlic, and decant to a glass bottle or jar with a tight fitting lid.
HOW TO USE FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
• Take a teaspoonful several times daily.
• Add to salads either directly or in a salad dressing.
• For personal protection, add a teaspoonful to bath water.
• Use as a topical spray for disinfecting surfaces and/or skin
ALTERNATIVE FOUR THIEVES VINEGAR
white wine vinegar
Essential Oil Mixes
FOUR THIEVES OIL
1 part eucalyptus
1 part rosemary
1 part cinnamon
1 part clove
1 part lemon
Carrier oil (olive, jojoba, or your choice)
10 drops of each oil in a 2 oz. bottle and then top it off a carrier oil of your choice
An alternative recipe:
10 drops Clove Bud Oil
5 drops thyme
10 drops Cinnamon Oil
5 drops Eucalyptus Oil
10 drops Rosemary
Mix with jojoba oil.
• Apply 1-2 drops of Four Thieves on the bottoms of the feet and on the nape of the neck.
• Apply under the arms and on the chest.
• Diffuse for 20 minutes or less at work or at home.
Glycerol, also known as glycerin, is an alcohol compound that is most commonly found in the diet as a component of fat or triglycerides and serves as the backbone onto which fatty acid molecules are attached. Glycerol is marketed as a dietary aid for “hyperhydrating” the body by increasing blood volume and helping to delay dehydration. Therefore, endurance athletes training and competing in hot, humid environments might be interested in the common claims for glycerol that it can increase blood volume, enhance temperature regulation, reduce dehydration, and improve exercise performance in the heat. –For endurance athletes engaged in strenuous training or competition in hot environments, consumption of glycerol-containing beverages may help hydrate tissues, increase blood volume, and delay the fatigue and exhaustion associated with dehydration.—Several studies support the theory that glycerol added to fluids will increase tissue hydration compared with drinking fluid without glycerol added. Following glycerol consumption, heart rate and body core temperature are lower during exercise in the heat (Jimenez 1999), suggesting an ergogenic (performance-enhancing) effect. In long-duration activities, such as running and cycling in the heat, a larger supply of stored water may lead to a delay in dehydration and exhaustion (Wagner, 1999). Both laboratory and field studies confirm the modestly ergogenic effects of glycerol on endurance performance (Inder 1998; Meyer 1995; Montner 1996).. It is important to note that these benefits, although noted for trained endurance athletes exercising in hot, humid environments, are not necessarily observed in athletes who are less well trained or are exercising in more temperate climates (Arnall and Goforth, 1993; Wagner, 1999).—No significant adverse side effects are associated with glycerin diluted with fluids, but some subjects may experience headaches, nausea, and diarrhea following glycerol consumption (Wagner, 1999).—In patients for whom increased blood volume may be undesirable, including those with conditions such as pregnancy, high blood pressure, diabetes, or kidney disease, glycerol supplementation should be avoided. Because the recommended dose of glycerol relates to the amount of total body water, larger people typically require more glycerol to obtain the desired hydration effects. Approximately 1 g of glycerin per kilogram (2.2 Ib) of body weight is diluted in 20-25 ml of liquid.
Natural Sources: Starting materials used for making commercial grade Glycerol Stearate (a normal byproduct of digestion) can be obtained from animal fats and plant oils including soya bean, palm kernel and corn oil ( And Coconut as well). Glycerol Stearate is generally prepared commercially from glycerine and fatty acids derived from corn or hydrogenated soya bean oil and coconut.
Forms: Glycerol Monostearate; Glycerol monohydroxystearate
Therapeutic Uses: – Drug Delivery – Eczema – Emollient – Emulsifier – Moisturizer
Overview: Glycerol stearate is a natural fatty compound often used as an emulsifier, emulsion stabilizer, emollient, moisturizer and viscosity builder in creams and lotions. It is also used as an opacifying and pearlizing agent in cosmetics. Glycerol stearate can be of plant origin (corn-based), animal source or synthetic and is considered to be biodegradable, practically non-toxic orally and causes no skin and minimal eye irritation. It is dispersible in water and is also soluble in oil and alcohol, making it an ideal ingredient for cosmetics. Glycerol monostearate (GMS) is also used as an ingredient in cosmetics as well as in food products. In a clinical trial with over 1,200 patients with eczema, glycerol monostearate was found to produce absolutely no adverse reactions in a test of common emulsifiers (all other emulsifiers tested did cause adverse reactions in a significant percentage of patients). It is used to keep bakery goods fresh, improve flour quality, and as an emulsifying and whopping agent for ready-to-eat products. It is also used in ice cream formulations, starch products, milk products, chewing gum, chocolates and other foods. It also serves as a softer in textiles and as an external lubricant for plastics. Another form of this chemical often used in cosmetics is glycerol monohydroxystearate, an off-white wax with physical properties similar to beeswax. It provides the functional characteristics of glycerol stearate and enhanced properties such as improved emulsion stability, bodying and thickening properties and greater dispersability of colorants and active materials. Semi-synthetic forms of glycerol stearate often use stearic acid isolated from palm oil as a starting material, another waxy fatty acid widely used in cosmetics and soap. The glycerol component of glycerol stearate can be from beef fat, petroleum, or vegetable source and is itself used as a solvent and humectant (maintains the desired moisture level).
Chemistry: Glycerol stearate is a fatty compound (C17H35COO)3C3H5). The formula for the hydrocarbon radical (R) in the fat glycerol stearate is C17H35. Glycerol stearate has a melting point of 58°C / 136°F, an acid value of 15, and an iodine value of 1.5. Fats are technically described as esters of fatty acids and glycerol (soaps are metallic salts of fatty acids). The reaction of glycerol stearate with sodium hydroxide to produce the soap sodium stearate has the following chemical equation: C17H35COO)3C3H5 + 3 NaOH -> C3H5(OH)3 + 3 C17H35COONa. Glycerol monostearate has an acid value of 2% and a maximum iodine value of 5. It is classified as an anionic modified emulsifier recommended for use in oil or water emulsions that are in the pH range of 5 – 9. It has a melting point of between 54º – 60ºC, monoglyceride content between 42-45%, maximum free glycerine content of 10% and water content of 1.5%. Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids (glyceryl monostearate, glyceryl distearate) are a normal part of digestion, prepared commercially from glycerine and fatty acids. These are normally obtained from hydrogenated soya bean oil ( Coconut oil as well )so may be GMP grade.
Glycerol and the skin: holistic approach to its origin and functions.
Fluhr JW, Darlenski R, Surber C. Bioskin, Seydelstr. 18, 10117 Berlin, Germany. [email protected]
Glycerol is a trihydroxy alcohol that has been included for many years in topical dermatological preparations. In addition, endogenous glycerol plays a role in skin hydration, cutaneous elasticity and epidermal barrier repair. The aquaporin-3 transport channel and lipid metabolism in the pilosebaceous unit have been evidenced as potential pathways for endogenous delivery of glycerol and for its metabolism in the skin. Multiple effects of glycerol on the skin have been reported. The diverse actions of the polyol glycerol on the epidermis include improvement of stratum corneum hydration, skin barrier function and skin mechanical properties, inhibition of the stratum corneum lipid phase transition, protection against irritating stimuli, enhancement of desmosomal degradation, and acceleration of wound-healing processes. Even an antimicrobial effect has been demonstrated. Topical application of glycerol-containing products improves skin properties in diseases characterized by xerosis and impaired epidermal barrier function, such as atopic dermatitis. The increase of epidermal hydration by glycerol is critical in skin conditions aggravated by dry and cold environmental conditions, e.g. winter xerosis. This paper provides a review on effects of glycerol on the skin, the mechanisms of its action, and the potential applications of glycerol in dermatology.– PMID: 18510666 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Glycerol-induced hyperhydration: a method for estimating the optimal load of fluid to be ingested before exercise to maximize endurance performance.
McGill Nutrition and Food Science Centre, McGill University Health Centre, Royal Victoria Hospital, Montréal, Québec, Canada. [email protected]
Glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH) has been shown to increase endurance performance (EP). However, EP starts declining at a dehydration level >2% body weight (BW). It thus appears that the use of GIH is only required when athletes anticipate that their fluid intake during exercise would not be sufficient to prevent a loss of BW >2%. In such a scenario, the optimal GIH load to be ingested before exercise would correspond to the amount of fluid that cannot be drunk during exercise and that would be just sufficient to keep the dehydration level <2% BW. No method exists enabling the estimation of the most optimal GIH load to be drunk before exercise to optimize EP. Here, such a method comprising 3 easy steps is presented. Step 1 provides a formula allowing users to determine relative exercise-induced dehydration level based on individual BW, exercise time, and estimated hourly sweat rate and fluid consumption during exercise. Step 2 takes into account the result of step 1 and provides a formula allowing determination of the minimal GIH load required before exercise to prevent a loss of BW >2%. Step 3 consists of identifying, among those pre-selected, a GIH protocol that increases body water by at least the amount computed in step 2. This method will remove much of the guess work involved in the decision-making process of the optimal amount of GIH that should be ingested before exercise by athletes for maximizing EP and will serve as a practical reference tool for all athletes using, and coaches, practitioners, and exercise physiologists recommending the utilization of, GIH as an ergogenic aid.
Glycerin, also called glycerol, is a thick, colorless and odorless liquid derived from fats and oils used in making soap. It’s used in various industries and products, such as antifreeze, sweeteners, dynamite, cosmetics, inks and lubricants. Glycerin is frequently found in skin care products, although there are prescription formulations for specialized health procedures and diseases. Although over-the-counter products containing glycerin are generally safe, prescription glycerin products shouldn’t be used if you have difficulty passing urine or are dehydrated, or have fluid in the lungs or congestive heart failure.
Glycerin is given to patients intravenously to relieve pressure in the brain due to conditions such as stroke, meningitis, encephalitis, Reye’s syndrome and tumors. The treatment has been well studied through the years; a report in the March 1982 Journal of Neurosurgery found glycerol to be effective and safe when used to treat intracranial hypertension, without the dehydrating effects of other methods.
Glycerin suppositories are often prescribed for the short-term treatment of constipation. They work by lubricating and mildly irritating the lining of the intestines, causing the muscles to contract, while pulling water from the intestines into the stool to make it easier for the stools to pass. Side effects from this treatment can include nausea, vomiting, fecal impaction, intestinal obstruction and abdominal pain.
Glycerin has been used since the 1960s as an oral supplement to treat glaucoma and other eye conditions where there is increased pressure. One of the first studies, published in the British Journal of Ophthalmology in 1965, discovered that oral glycerol brought the tension of acute glaucomatous eyes down to normal levels within an hour. Hyperglycemia has been reported after treatment by oral glycerol and it should therefore be used with caution in treating diabetics. Other side effects may include nausea, diarrhea and headaches.
Glycerin is a natural humectant, meaning it easily absorbs water from other sources, particularly useful in treating dry skin. However, when used in its pure form, glycerin can actually increase water loss by attracting water from the lower layers of skin to the surface, where the water is easily be lost into the environment. This is why glycerin and humectants are combined with other ingredients to soften skin,
A study at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Albuquerque in 1996 found that glycerol supplements given to athletes prior to exercise prolonged endurance time and lowered heart rates during exercise activity. A separate, earlier study at the University of New Mexico had already established that giving glycerol to athletes in high-heat conditions reduced urine volume and rectal temperature and increased the sweat rate. This led the researchers to conclude that giving athletes glycerol prior to exercise increases hydration within cells, allowing tissues to remain hydrated during prolonged endurance.
The same humectant qualities glycerin possesses may have a therapeutic benefit for skin diseases. Researchers at the Medical College of Georgia showed that glycerol helps skin cells mature properly, allowing the youngest cells to move up from the deepest layer and eventually grow to mature surface cells that emit lipids to protect the skin. The research, published in the December, 2003 issue of The Journal of Investigative Dermatology, concluded that glycerin may be able to help patients with conditions such as psoriasis and non-melanoma skin cancers that result from the abnormal proliferation and maturation of skin cells.
Summary–Glycerol increases hydration within cells, allowing tissues to remain hydrated during prolonged endurance exercise, when taken in combination with ample amounts of water. It’s also been shown to reveal (or give the illusion of) greater muscle definition and a more vascular appearance.- Other names for Glycerol– glycerine, glycerin— Where to find Glycerol–Glycerol is found in some foods and pharmaceuticals as a sweetening agent, but the amounts are so small they aren’t beneficial.
Why athletes use Glycerol
Endurance athletes, especially marathoners and triathletes, have found glycerol beneficial during long-term strenuous activities by preventing dehydration — a major cause of fatigue. As a “last-minute prep” before photo shoots and such, some bodybuilders and models claim it helps reduce water retention, giving the illusion of increased muscle definition and vascularity.
Ways that Glycerol can enhance Fat Loss:
· Give the illusion of enhanced muscle definition and vascularity
Ways that Glycerol can enhance Energy & Endurance:
· Replace lost fluids, hydrating muscle tissues to reduce fatigue and enhance performance
Lower heart rate and body temperature to support the body during endurance activities
Signs of Glycerol deficiency—No deficiency conditions are known to exist.
Potential uses for Glycerol
Research indicates that Glycerol may be useful in the treatment of: — Dehydration –Glaucoma—
More about Glycerol—Glycerol is the backbone of triglycerides and phospholipids and is naturally produced in our bodies. It has become a popular supplement among endurance athletes because it appears to help prevent dehydration during long-term exercise. More recently, people more interested in showing off their physiques, such as bodybuilders and models, have found that glycerol may help make their muscles look more defined.– How it works-Preliminary studies indicate glycerol draws water into the bloodstream and holds it there, somewhat like a sponge. This can be an enormous advantage for endurance athletes because as much as three to four pounds of fluid can be lost during strenuous exercise. By replacing this fluid during exercise, we may delay fatigue and significantly boost performance levels. Recent studies also suggest glycerol may prevent the breakdown of muscle through its protein-sparing action
Stay cool during hot competition–Staying properly hydrated can also prevent more serious conditions, such as heat exhaustion and even stroke. And it can prevent a drop in your blood plasma levels. Sufficient blood plasma levels are needed to carry vital nutrients and oxygen to muscle cells. A drop in blood plasma levels can increase the time it takes for muscles to recover after exercise, and it may make it more difficult for your skin to cool down quickly.-Studies show that athletes training for more than one hour can exercise longer and maintain a cooler body temperature longer when they supplement with a water-glycerol mixture. Drinking glycerol before exercise may reduce the amount of water lost and protect against dangerous dehydration. Drinking glycerol after exercise may help rehydrate your body more quickly for a faster recovery. In conclusion-Glycerol’s hydrating benefits and potential muscle-definition-enhancing properties may make it a powerful tool for the hard-training athlete. Especially useful when training for long periods of time in hot weather, glycerol may be a potent weapon in the fight against fatigue and dehydration
The amount of glycerol used depends more on bodyweight than anything else. Note, water intake with glycerol is also very important.
· For people who weigh less than 125 lbs, 25 ml is recommended with at least 8 oz of water.
· For those who weigh 125 to 200, 50 ml with at least 16 oz of water is recommended.
· And those over 200 lbs may need up to 75 ml with at least 24 oz of water.
Some experts suggest even more specific amounts with greater amounts of water: about half a milliliter for every pound of bodyweight with 20 times more water than glycerol. For example, a 150-lb person would use 75 ml of glycerol with 1,500 ml of water (that is, a little over 6 cups or 100 oz).
Experts recommend taking glycerol over a period of a few hours during strenuous exercise or a half hour before exercise and again immediately after.
Synergists of Glycerol
Glycerol attracts water like a magnet and thus helps carry water throughout the body with it. Without sufficient water intake, glycerol may actually dehydrate the body, so water and glycerol must be used together.
Safety of Glycerol
Some people report bloating, nausea, and lightheadedness, so you may want to give glycerol a test run several days before competition to see how your body responds.
Toxicity of Glycerol—No known toxicity.
Bans and restrictions- None reported
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