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    Drug Expiration Date
    Does the expiration date on a bottle of a medication mean anything? If a bottle of Tylenol, for example, says something like “Do not use after June 1998,” and it is August 2002, should you take the Tylenol? Should you discard it? Can you get hurt if you take it? Will it simply have lost its potency and do you no good?–In other words, are drug manufacturers being honest with us when they put an expiration date on their medications, or is the practice of dating just another drug industry scam, to get us to buy new medications when the old ones that purportedly have “expired” are still perfectly good?–These are the pressing questions I investigated after my mother-in-law recently said to me, “It doesn’t mean anything,” when I pointed out that the Tylenol she was about to take had “expired” 4 years and a few months ago. I was a bit mocking in my pronouncement — feeling superior that I had noticed the chemical corpse in her cabinet — but she was equally adamant in her reply, and is generally very sage about medical issues.–So I gave her a glass of water with the purportedly “dead” drug, of which she took 2 capsules for a pain in the upper back. About a half hour later she reported the pain seemed to have eased up a bit. I said “You could be having a placebo effect,” not wanting to simply concede she was right about the drug, and also not actually knowing what I was talking about. I was just happy to hear that her pain had eased, even before we had our evening cocktails and hot tub dip (we were in “Leisure World,” near Laguna Beach, California, where the hot tub is bigger than most Manhattan apartments, and “Heaven,” as generally portrayed, would be raucous by comparison).–Upon my return to NYC and high-speed connection, I immediately scoured the medical databases and general literature for the answer to my question about drug expiration labeling. And voila, no sooner than I could say “Screwed again by the pharmaceutical industry,” I had my answer. Here are the simple facts:First, the expiration date, required by law in the United States, beginning in 1979, specifiesonly the date the manufacturer guarantees the full potency and safety of the drug — it does not mean how long the drug is actually “good” or safe to use. Second, medical authorities uniformly say it is safe to take drugs past their expiration date — no matter how “expired” the drugs purportedly are. Except for possibly the rarest of exceptions, you won’t get hurt and you certainly won’t get killed.�–Studies show that expired drugs may lose some of their potency over time, from as little as 5% or less to 50% or more (though usually much less than the latter). Even 10 years after the “expiration date,” most drugs have a good deal of their original potency. So wisdom dictates that if your life does depend on an expired drug, and you must have 100% or so of its original strength, you should probably toss it and get a refill, ” If your life does not depend on an expired drug — such as that for headache, hay fever, or menstrual cramps — take it and see what happens.–One of the largest studies ever conducted that supports the above points about “expired drug” labeling was done by the US military 15 years ago, according to a feature story in the Wall Street Journal (March 29, 2000), reported by Laurie P. Cohen. The military was sitting on a $1 billion stockpile of drugs and facing the daunting process of destroying and replacing its supply every 2 to 3 years, so it began a testing program to see if it could extend the life of its inventory. The testing, conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), ultimately covered more than 100 drugs, prescription and over-the-counter. The results showed that about 90% of them were safe and effective as far as 15 years past their original expiration date.-In light of these results, a former director of the testing program, Francis Flaherty, said he concluded that expiration dates put on by manufacturers typically have no bearing on whether a drug is usable for longer. Mr. Flaherty noted that a drug maker is required to prove only that a drug is still good on whatever expiration date the company chooses to set. The expiration date doesn’t mean, or even suggest, that the drug will stop being effective after that, nor that it will become harmful. “Manufacturers put expiration dates on for marketing, rather than scientific, reasons,” said Mr. Flaherty, a pharmacist at the FDA until his retirement in 1999. “It’s not profitable for them to have products on a shelf for 10 years. They want turnover.”-The FDA cautioned there isn’t enough evidence from the program, which is weighted toward drugs used during combat, to conclude most drugs in consumers’ medicine cabinets are potent beyond the expiration date. Joel Davis, however, a former FDA expiration-date compliance chief, said that with a handful of exceptions — notably nitro-glycerine, insulin, and some liquid antibiotics — most drugs are probably as durable as those the agency has tested for the military. “Most drugs degrade very slowly,” he said. “In all likelihood, you can take a product you have at home and keep it for many years. ” Consider aspirin. Bayer AG puts 2-year or 3-year dates on aspirin and says that it should be discarded after that. However, Chris Allen, a vice president at the Bayer unit that makes aspirin, said the dating is “pretty conservative” ; when Bayer has tested 4-year-old aspirin, it remained 100% effective, he said. So why doesn’t Bayer set a 4-year expiration date? Because the company often changes packaging, and it undertakes “continuous improvement programs,” Mr. Allen said. Each change triggers a need for more expiration-date testing,-and testing each time for a 4-year life would be impractical. Bayer has never tested aspirin beyond 4 years, Mr. Allen said. But Jens Carstensen has. Dr. Carstensen, professor emeritus at the University of Wisconsin ‘s pharmacy school, who wrote what is considered the main text on drug stability, said, “I did a study of different aspirins, and after 5 years, Bayer was still excellent. Aspirin, if made correctly, is very stable.
    Pine Bark Meal
    Boil for a half hour, or until the water turns red from resins. Change water and boil a second time for a half hour. Change water and boil a third time for a half hour. On the last boiling, the bark will be fairly tender and the water will only be light pink. The “bark” will have a color like fresh ham, with a texture exactly like cooked turkey breast. The bark has no particular flavor at all, which makes it an excellent meat substitute with the proper seasonings.
    Pine Needle Soup/Tea
    A handful of pine needles, or 1/4 cup fresh chopped needles steeped in boiling water for 10 to 15 minutes provide 100% of the U.S.R.D.A. of vitamin C. Pine soup (or tea) tastes like the pine forest smells, or add a squeeze of lemon and a little honey to liven it up a bit
    Pine Pie
    From the other half, remove the pine bark and set aside. Melt 1/4 cup of butter in a skillet and add 4 tablespoons of white flour to make a thick paste. Into this add 2 cups of pine chicken broth, adding slowly and stirring in to a nice lumpless gravy. Take an uncooked pie shell and heap it full of the leftover pine bark. Add cooked potatoes and carrots, a coarsely chopped onion, and a handful of peas. Cover it all with the gravy, put a pie shell lid on top, and cook in the oven at 400 for about 40 minutes, or until nicely browned.
    Pine Syrup/ Respiratory Remedy
    To make your own, put a tablespoons of crushed pieces into a jar with 2/3 cup of boiling water. Cover with a loose plastic lid (not metal) and let steep for 2 hours. Add a half cup of brandy and seal. Let the infusion sit overnight. In the morning strain out the bark and add 1 cup of honey to the liquid. Seal and use 2 tablespoons at a time, as needed.
    Treats and Foods with a Twist
    Everyone wants to know what to eat—lets give some ideas and see You will need Peanuts ¼ lb—the essential oil of orange 5 drops and the essential oil of rosemary 5 drops-Ascorbic acid 10 grams and Honey-Sea salt 1 tsp
    Peanut Bit & Honey Mix–Add the essential oils ascorbic acid and peanuts in a blender and pulverize them ( powder or crush finely) then add the Unpasteurized Honey—and allow to blend til it is completely saturated and fused —then pour into a glass jar and seal when it cools it will become a taffy like hardness—this is similar to the ol bit o honeys without the soy or unwanted materials—you can add whey to this and dried egg powder and turn this into a protein bar snack
    Cocoa/Coffee delight—take coffee beans and pulverize them in a blender—and then sift out the un dusted material—if need be re blend them down to you get as much powder out of the harder pieces- add cocoa to this 1/8 cup ( good starting point ) and the add cardamom to this 1 tablespoon ( if you wish to neutralize the caffeine) or add nutmeg ( if you want to increase the stimulation ) Blend and mix for 5 minute pour into a jar and use 1/8 tsp at a time and will feel the alerting impact
    Yogurt and fruit Delight—Make a yochee either with fruit or onion or garlic- blend a portion of yogurt ½ cup and add to blender and add either blueberries or a blueberry jam—blend together till liquefied—then pour through a strainer cloth in a glass jar—and allow to sit over night –this will increase thickness and flavour by allowing the yogurt fluids to pass but retaining the fruit properties as well as the yogurt—add to a glass container and apply this on Icecream or consume straight up or consume with an egg
    Nut and Seed Butter—Add 1-2 oz of oil in ablender—add Vitamin C 10 grams-add 1 tsp of salt –add cinnamon 1 tsp—add Cq10 add 300mgs—Add Tangerine essential oil 5 drops–And then add your seeds mixed or separate—as you start the blending process initially there will be bouncing of the seeds—but then it wil start to thicken –pop the little opening and slowly add more of you r mixed nuts into the blender—and repeat this every 5 minutes til you get a thickened seed-nut butter—use it straight or mix with a coco delight
    Cocoa Delight- Add ¼ cup of Cocoa powder—add Brandy 1 oz- add Vanilla 1 tsp—add 1/8 cup of aloe—and add honey ½ cup and blend—when done you will have a sweet coco delight which can be poured on anything hot or cold
    Apples and Peppermint Sauce— take Peppermint fresh 1 cup and 2 apples ( peeled) and blend together til mushed—consume 3 oz as desired –this will do wonders fro the colon and digestive system
    Gelaton /Egg Broth—dissolve the gelaton in water and heat till hot—Add onion Powder-Tumeric-Black Pepper ( add to your taste levels say 1 tsp of each – add more or less as desired) when boil add 2 whipped eggs—if you want you can add tinctured herbs to this such as parsley or nettle—consume as needed or desired
    These are some ideas expand on what you know and learn
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    Show of the Week July 11 2011
    Dietary Supplement Labeling Act poised for introduction, industry responds
    Mister on NDI guidance: ‘We are terribly disappointed
    Could the trade mount a legal challenge vs NDI guidance
    Mercury Vapor Released from Broken Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs Can Exceed Safe Exposure Levels for Humans
    Compact Fluorescent Lighting: Are We Trading Energy Conservation For Toxic Mercury Emissions
    Dietary Supplement Labeling Act poised for introduction, industry responds
    US Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) is set to introduce the Dietary Supplement Labeling Act to improve the information available to consumers, but industry associations are calling for regulatory enforcement not legislative solutions.–According to a release from Durbin’s office, the bill would direct the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to define ‘conventional foods’, require manufacturers to register dietary supplement products to the FDA, require labels to disclose the known risks of ingredients and display a mandatory warning if the product contains a dietary ingredient that may cause potentially serious adverse events.–The bill also calls for labels to display the batch number, something already adopted as standard industry practice.–“My goal is to take the decision about how a product will be regulated out of the hands of the manufacturer and put it in the hands of the FDA[U1] where it belongs,”said Durbin .“Consumers who don’t scour the fine print on the back of products may never know the difference, but they will be safer as a result of this bill.”[U2]
    “It’s important to note most products labeled as dietary supplements are legitimate health aids. I take a daily vitamin just as millions of Americans do.–“My gripe is not with the array of vitamins available at health stores across the nation; my gripe is with products containing potentially dangerous additives, labeled as ‘dietary supplements’ and marketed to young adults who find them on store shelves right next to conventional food and beverages whose ingredients have been deemed safe by the FDA.[U3]
    “The current system favors the manufacturers of these products to the detriment of consumers – and that needs to change.”
    Legislative solutions vs regulatory enforcement
    Commenting on the details of the release, Michael McGuffin, president of the American Herbal Products Association (AHPA) described the bill as “largely proposing legislative solutions where what is needed is regulatory enforcement.–“Supplements may not be represented as conventional foods and must be labeled to include all information – including safety information – that is material in light of the consequences that may result from their use. And while no one will argue with the wisdom of using product lot numbers, it is already the standard industry practice to do so.”-AHPA added that the most controversial part of the Dietary Supplement Labeling Act may well be its requirement for product registration: Sen Durbin [U4]has sought such a change in the past.”AHPA is in communication with Sen. Durbin’s office, and I will be reviewing the actual legislation as soon as it is available,” added McGuffin.–“As always, AHPA’s primary focus will be on identifying and opposing any legislation that in any way reduces consumer access to safe dietary supplements.”
    Cara Welch, PhD, VP regulatory & scientific affairs for the Natural Products Association (NPA) told NutraIngredients-USA that, without having seen the language of the bill, based on his release there were “some areas where Sen Durbin has a point, like the clarification of conventional foods – we’ve been awaiting this for a number of years – while there are sections we don’t like”.–“What we don’t want to see is new sweeping regulations against the kind of health aids that Sen Durbin says he takes everyday,” she said.–Harry Rice, PhD, director of regulatory & scientific affairs for the United Natural Products Alliance (UNPA), questioned the timing of the legislation.-“Given that the New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) guidance is due to be published this Friday, the timing of the introduction of this legislation is nothing short of deliberate,” said Dr Rice.–“This legislation reeks of Senator Durbin’s longstanding opposition to DSHEA and is likely meant to rattle and erode the public’s faith in dietary supplements.”–Dr Rice added that the statement that dietary supplement manufacturers do not have to prove the safety of their products before selling to consumers was “simply not true”.“Under DSHEA, a company is responsible for determining that the dietary supplement(s) it manufactures or distributes is safe,” he added.-Jonathan Emord of Virginia-based law firm, Emord & Associates, said that the bill was a “classic example of regulatory overkill.—“The FDA has full regulatory power to prevent the sale of adulterated and misbranded foods and dietary supplements[U5]. Something consumed primarily for its taste in the normal daily diet is a food and must satisfy the food additive provisions of the Act.–“A dietary supplement is, by definition, a supplement to the daily diet, not substitutable for a food in common form. The agency routinely makes these distinctions and needs no additional power[U6].“By introducing new powers when old ones are more than sufficient, he invites abuses, including more burden and cost on an industry that is already overwhelmed by the burden and cost of the GMPs and, now, the Food Safety Modernization Act,” added Emord.[U7]
    Transfer of power?
    The release from Sen Durbin’s office focuses predominantly on products in food or beverage forms, such as energy beverages. Durbin describes products like Rockstar Energy Drink and 5-Hour Energy as “foods and beverages taking advantage of the less stringent safety standards for dietary supplements under current law”[U8].–However, Jonathan Emord noted that “FDA has had pending since 2009 a rulemaking to distinguish between beverages and dietary supplements, proof that it has the power and is at work on the very issue Durbin redundantly addresses.
    FDA hands
    Sen Durbin said that his goal “is to take the decision about how a product will be regulated out of the hands of the manufacturer and put it in the hands of the FDA where it belongs.–“Consumers who don’t scour the fine print on the back of products may never know the difference, but they will be safer as a result of this bill,” added the Illinois senator.[U9]
    Mister on NDI guidance: ‘We are terribly disappointed.’
    The amount of safety data the FDA now says it requires to prove new ingredients in supplements are safe goes well beyond what Congress envisaged when it ratified DSHEA and establishes a process “ominously like the one for new food additives”, the Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) has argued.
    CRN chief executive Steve Mister was commenting on the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA’s) long-awaited draft guidance on New Dietary Ingredient (NDI) notifications.–NDI process now ‘sounds an awful lot like food additive petition process’–The Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act (DSHEA) of 1994 requires firms filing NDI notifications to establish a ‘reasonable expectation’ of safety, whereas those filing petitions for new food additives are required to demonstrate ‘reasonable certainty’ that no harm will result from use of the additive[U10], CRN chief executive Steve Mister told–“But if you look at the section on safety requirements in the NDI guidance and all of the studies that are now required, it now sounds an awful lot like the food additives petition process, which is exactly what Congress was trying to avoid.[U11] “It is terribly disheartening to see the FDA going in this direction. They had a chance to create a workable system that would incentivize more companies to follow the law, use the NDI notification process and draw a line between responsible companies and those ignoring the whole process completely. –“But instead they have come up with a document that stifles innovation and will deny consumers access to new products.[U12] We are terribly disappointed.”
    FDA is trying ‘freeze industry in 1994’–As to what constituted an NDI, the fact that changes to the manufacturing process, new solvents or new extraction methods could turn scores of old dietary ingredients assumed to have been ‘grandfathered in’ under DSHEA into NDIs was alarming[U13] enough, he said. “They are trying to freeze industry in 1994 and lock us into extraction processes used 20 years ago.” However, the fact that separate NDI notifications for supplements containing the same NDI are required if the supplement is reformulated in any way, and that notifications are required for finished products, not just ingredients, meant the FDA would be “flooded” with NDI submissions if the guidance were not revised, said Mister. “It really concerns me that ingredient suppliers cannot seek an NDI notification and then allow customers to piggyback off it.”-‘Absolute nonsense with no basis in science’-The section in the guidance claiming that a synthetic copy of a constituent or extract of a herb or botanical is not a dietary ingredient at all – even if it is chemically identical to its ‘natural’ counterpart – was particularly troubling, although not wholly unexpected, he said.–“We were warned about this when the FDA recently argued that synthetic homotaurine was not a dietary ingredient even though it is chemically identical to homotaurine from red algae extract. Again, the FDA is defining incredibly narrowly what constitutes a dietary ingredient, but very broadly what is a ‘new’ dietary ingredient.”[U14] Ullman, Shapiro & Ullman partner Marc Ullman said he was particularly frustrated by this aspect of the guidance: “It really is preposterous, absolute nonsense, with no basis in science. If we’re talking about something that is chemically identical to a botanical extract but is synthesized, there really is no rational basis for taking the position that it is not a dietary ingredient.”
    Could the trade mount a legal challenge vs NDI guidance?
    If the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) does not revise its draft guidance on new dietary ingredients (NDIs) for supplements to reflect industry concerns, the trade might be stuck between a rock and a hard place, admit lawyers.–As the FDA points out at the start of the controversial document, guidance does “not establish legally enforceable responsibilities” but is instead designed to “describe the agency’s current thinking on a topic and should be viewed only as recommendations”.–This meant mounting a legal challenge was difficult, pointed out Ullman, Shapiro & Ullman partner Marc Ullman.–“It’s another case of over onerous regulation in the form of guidance, which prevents the FDA from being sued.”[U15] If the guidance is not substantially revised after the 90-day comment period, he said, “there is no real legal recourse unless the FDA takes action against a company [for failing to adhere to the guidance] and we get a trial.“All the industry can do in the meantime is apply political pressure.”–Is the guidance consistent with the law it seeks to clarify?–Council for Responsible Nutrition (CRN) chief executive Steve Mister said: “It may be that the FDA will enforce its interpretation of the guidance by bringing a case against someone that would enable us to challenge it in court. But we could also ask Congress for clarification over whether the FDA has exceeded its authority under the statute (DSHEA).”[U16]In the meantime, the trade had to use the 90-day comment period to make the case to the FDA that the additional burdens the guidance placed on industry did not increase consumer safety, said Ashish Talati, a partner at law firm Amin Talati.-“I expect the industry is going to push back very hard on this, and I would urge all stakeholders to submit comments.”–De facto pre-market approval system—The FDA did not seem to appreciate that the NDI process was intended by Congress “to be an actual notification system, not a pre-approval process run according to arbitrary rules set up by the FDA[U17]”, noted the Alliance for Natural Health USA.–“In these proposed rules, the FDA has effectively created a de facto pre-market approval system without any of the protections of such a system[U18]. In general, the draft guidance creates a process that is extremely burdensome and redundant and is impossible for the FDA to realistically implement anyway.” Natural Products Association vice president of scientific and regulatory affairs Cara Welch added: “We believe the draft guidance does not match Congress’s clear intent that products made from ingredients on the market prior to DSHEA should remain on the market.”The FDA is asking for far more from the industry to prove that an ingredient was on the market before 1994 than most makers can probably produce. That was not the intent of DSHEA. These requirements will reduce ingredients meeting the established grandfathered status to a regrettably small number.”—Lawyer: ‘I’ll recommend self-affirmed GRAS in lieu of NDI filing’–However, the fact that the FDA has now spelt out that it will accept ingredients that have been self-affirmed as GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) in lieu of a new dietary ingredient (NDI) filing was good news, argued Talati.–This did not impress Ullman: “I am flabbergasted that FDA apparently will accept a self-GRAS without notification to FDA in lieu of the NDI filing.”
    However, Talati said: “I wouldn’t say that this is actually new per se. It’s just that the FDA has never really spelt this out before. It’s always been GRAS for food and NDIs for supplements, and even though a lot of the data might be the same, you make separate filings.–“But now the FDA is making it clear that if you have GRAS [self-affirmed or affirmed by the FDA],you may not have to make an NDI filing as well if you want to use the substance in supplements as well as foods.”—The self-affirmed GRAS process allows firms to conduct a safety assessment of a proposed food substance and self-affirm that it is safe using a panel of qualified experts.—While the safety requirements were equally if not more rigorous for GRAS as for NDI filings, “at least with self-affirmed GRAS you are in control of the process, not the FDA”, said Talati.—“I’ll be recommending to some of my clients to go for self-affirmed GRAS if they can. Not all ingredients will qualify, but going for this may be easier than filing an NDI notification.”
    Mercury Vapor Released from Broken Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs Can Exceed Safe Exposure Levels for Humans, Study Finds
    ScienceDaily (July 6, 2011) — Once broken, a compact fluorescent light bulb continuously releases mercury vapor into the air for weeks to months, and the total amount can exceed safe human exposure levels in a poorly ventilated room, according to study results reported in Environmental Engineering Science, a peer-reviewed online only journal published monthly by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. The amount of liquid mercury (Hg) that leaches from a broken compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) is lower than the level allowed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), so CFLs are not considered hazardous waste. However, Yadong Li and Li Jin, Jackson State University (Jackson, MS) report that the total amount of Hg vapor released from a broken CFL over time can be higher than the amount considered safe for human exposure. They document their findings in the article “Environmental Release of Mercury from Broken Compact Fluorescent Lamps.”-As people can readily inhale vapor-phase mercury, the authors suggest rapid removal of broken CFLs and adequate ventilation, as well as suitable packaging to minimize the risk of breakage of CFLs and to retain Hg vapor if they do break, thereby limiting human exposure.–Tests of eight different brands of CFLs and four different wattages revealed that Hg content varies significantly from brand to brand. To determine the amount of Hg released by a broken CFL, Li and Jin used standard procedures developed by the EPA to measure leaching of mercury in liquids and used an emission monitoring system to detect Hg vapor.”This paper is a very nice holistic analysis of potential risks associated with mercury release from broken CFLs and points to potential human health threats that have not always been considered,” according to Domenico Grasso, PhD, Editor-in-Chief and Vice President for Research, Dean of the Graduate College, University of Vermont (Burlington).-Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., Publishers, via AlphaGalileo.Journal Reference-Yadong Li, Li Jin. Environmental Release of Mercury from Broken Compact Fluorescent Lamps. Environmental Engineering Science, 2011; 110705072037001 DOI: 10.1089/ees.2011.0027
    Compact Fluorescent Lighting: Are We Trading Energy Conservation For Toxic Mercury Emissions?
    Some places may produce more mercury emissions by switching from incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent lighting, a new study suggests. ScienceDaily (Oct. 3, 2008) — A team of Yale scientists has found that certain countries and some U.S. states stand to benefit from the use of compact fluorescent lighting more than others in the fight against global warming. Some places may even produce more mercury emissions by switching from incandescent light bulbs to compact fluorescent lighting.–The study, which appears online October 1 in the journal Environmental Science and Technology, looked at all 50 states and 130 countries to determine the impact of fluorescent lighting on total mercury emissions in those regions.–Estonia, which relies heavily on coal-powered energy generation, tops the list as the country that would see the greatest reduction in mercury emissions for every incandescent bulb it replaces with a compact fluorescent light bulb (CFL). However, given its similar reliance on coal-fired plants, coupled with its huge population, China stands to reduce its mercury emissions by the greatest overall amount. Other countries near the top of the list include Romania, Bulgaria and Greece; within the U.S., North Dakota, New Mexico and West Virginia have the greatest potential to reduce their mercury emissions.–But much of South America, Africa, the Middle East and parts of Europe, along with Alaska, California, Oregon, Idaho and several New England states, would actually increase their mercury emissions by making the switch from incandescent to fluorescent lighting. The results depend on a complex relationship between a number of factors, including how dependent a region is on coal-powered energy generation, the chemical makeup of the coal used in those plants, and existing recycling programs for CFLs.–“Compact fluorescent lighting is an area where we’re really pushing this alternative and all these policies are being enacted, but we’re not looking at the potential unintended consequences of what we’re doing,” said study author Julie Beth Zimmerman, an assistant professor in Yale’s Department of Chemical Engineering and its School of Forestry & Environmental Studies.—Touted as a greener alternative to traditional lighting, CFLs are about four times more energy-efficient than incandescent bulbs and last up to 10 times longer. This increased efficiency lessens the energy demand on generating stations powered by fossil fuels and reduces greenhouse gas emissions, as well as the amount of packaging and old light bulbs that end up in landfills. But unlike incandescent light bulbs, CFLs contain mercury, a toxin with potentially hazardous effects that can be released during manufacturing and disposal.[U19] “It’s always good to promote energy efficiency, but it’s always a tradeoff,” said lead author Matthew Eckelman, a graduate student in Yale’s Department of Chemistry and the Center for Industrial Ecology. “You may get a lower energy bill at home, but you don’t see the emissions or the runoff downstream.”–While the researchers stress that their study isn’t an excuse to ignore the energy problem and stick with old, inefficient technologies, they caution that nation-wide strategies such as recent bans on incandescent bulbs, adopted by several countries including the U.S., may be too general. “All sustainability issues are local,” said Zimmerman. “We need to ask if we should be making decisions on a national level, or if this is something better left to local governments.”–The authors of the paper are Matthew Eckelman, Paul Anastas and Julie Beth Zimmerman, all from Yale University. –Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Yale University, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
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    [U1]Read between the Lines out of the hands of the independents and into the hands of the Pharmaseuticals Industry—this is a 20+ billion dollar a year industry and with the asian presence will probably exceed into the 100’s of billions
    [U2]Ever take a look at the fine print these days—the disclosure of even the pharmaceuticals needs an electron microscope to read them —this is about a play on words –yes you have the disclosure but you can’t see it due to the print being exceedingly microscopic—furthering the poisons they ca put into a product like antifreeze—soy-colouring agents and harsh binders and even aluminum
    [U3]What a load of BS –if they were so concerned with poisonous contaminaats then 99% of the drugs being administered today would be off the market –this is inexcusable BS and this fellow needs to be taken out the back 40 —the amount of deception and lying to transfer the owner ship of independent pharaseutical companies into the hands of the drug companies will be the end of affordable health for a majority of people who come to rely on the very things the Gov’t of canada-usa and europe have undermined—
    [U4]He must be On Monsantos Payroll as well as the pharma industry—this is the case of the fox guarding the hen house
    [U5]Which is a problem of huge magnitude since te FDD does not represent the health of the globe they can indiscriminately pull products of the shelf that are effective and conflict with pharmaceutical companies who has drugs that are 1000 times more costly
    [U6]Less power benefits all of us—the more power they have the less access you have to health
    [U7]This is to eliminate any small enterprise that can come along and disturb the bigger companies as well as drug companies who would otherwise have to come up with products of quality and effect rather then mass produce junk like statins and percacets
    [U8]Interesting here ha makes an argument about a energy drink yet they sell tobacco products that are tainted with 4000 chemicals—tobacco in of itself is actually good for you on so many levels but when contaminated should not be sold yet here this Durbin ass is making a comparison of taking advantage and danger —what transparency he is displaying here on what the real agenda is going on
    [U9]All Horse (*&^
    [U10]Sounds good theoretically—but if say Vitamin C causes you diarhea then it can be construed as a unsafe food
    [U11]Now ask yourself this Food additive—Hmm Monsanto perhaps—Nestle –Cargill-ADM—Pfizer—or any other Drug company which will all be tied to the FDA which is controlled by the Globalist I have just mentioned
    [U12]Pharmseutical Companie Win another battle here –you having less access means more illness means no other alternative other then death by chemical poisoning from the Pharmaseutical companies-and food industry
    [U13]In other words things like Cq10-MSM-Alpha Lipoic Acid-Creatine- could all be taken away from a lot of you who need these supplements for heart-diabetic-muscle wasting health issues and be turned into a prescribed medicine which noe of you could afford this would be for the elite of the planet who could afford this—and once this legislation is enacted then things Like Vitamin C and Vitamin B1 wil also be targeted into a drug for distribution only if you have the $$$
    [U14]Again a lot of the Lab created Supplements will be yanked under this and Vitamin C is made in a lab so are other supplements that have benefited people–
    [U15]They should be sued right out of existence and all the drug ties and agro ties with them
    Since they have been the ones poisoning the planet
    [U16]The FDA will go after a company or person who cannot affords to defend against this legislation and congress needs to step in and pull the reigns back—will not happen since the USA and Canada will compy with the EFSA dictates as well
    [U17]Not Sure I accept this but if it is real then it would be to the concerns of all to blast the fda and the congress on this issue
    [U18]Do I see a conflict of Interest here
    [U19]And use –they all leak some mercury as the bulbs produce heat the gasses can leak out of the containment
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    Show of the Week July 15 2011
    Pet Safety-what is in your Foods
    Recipe For Making Pet Foods
    Recipe for making your own Pet Foods—take any ground beef you would buy for yourself—lamb –turkey—chicken fish—egg and dairy— take any one—in this case lets say ground beef—portion out a ¼-1/2 cup and add water to a blender and start it going—leave the lid on and open the centre piece—feed in small amounts of the ground beef –initially it will plop all over til it starts to purree—then add more and allow for blending—add 1 vitamin to this—make sure it is powdered before mixing it in the blender—add some small amount of rosemary to this—and when it is all fused and blended then take it out and cook in frying pan or broil or bake this—make sure it is done well –the idea is to as well neutralize any potential parasite or bacteria or fungi cook til well done—then take it and put it back in the blender and add another vitamin to this ( again make sure it is powdered down—if you wish add some powdered herbs like sage or thyme ¼ tsp of any—re blend again till the meat becomes a pate—then when done pour into a glass jar or bowl and refrigerate—portion out what is needed for the Pet(s)
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    Show of the Week July 18 2011
    Cat food firm blames deaths on quarantine controls November 28, 2008
    Pet food Recipe
    Purifying Water
    Gold Nanoparticles Bring Scientists Closer to a Treatment for Cancer
    Using Gold Nanoparticles to Hit Cancer Where It Hurts
    Cinnamon Can Replace Harmful Chemicals Used to Create Nanoparticles
    Cat food firm blames deaths on quarantine controls November 28, 2008
    THE Canadian manufacturer at the centre of a local pet food scare caused by paralysis in more than 40 cats has placed the blame squarely on the shoulders of the Australian Government.–In a statement released yesterday, Champion Petfoods, of Alberta, said it was pulling out of the Australian market after independent tests from a US laboratory on its Orijen brand of cat food showed that dangerous levels of irradiation mandated by the Australian Government appeared to be to blame for the outbreak of serious illness among Australian cats.–Five animals have so far had to be put down, although it is believed a number of cats in other states were also destroyed before the link to the Orijen brand of food had been made.-The company, which exports to 50 countries, said only Australia demanded its pet food be irradiated because Orijen was not highly processed or cooked at the same high temperatures as most other imported pet foods.–Citing a US study last year which found that levels between 36 and 47 kiloGrays of Cobalt 60 gamma rays were linked to neurological symptoms similar to those found in the affected Australian cats, the pet food company said the minimum level of 50 kGYs demanded by the Australian Government for the imported product was clearly excessive, and had possibly led to a serious depletion of vitamin A.- The only human foods approved for irradiation in Australia are imported herbs and spices, ranging from 10 to 30 kGYs, and tropical fruit, irradiated at no more than 1 kGY.–A spokesman for the Department of Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry said Australia required all dry and semi-dried pet food to be either heat-treated or irradiated and Orijen was just one of a number of pet food manufacturers that exported to Australia.—“No other manufacturer has reported any similar issues,” he said.-The Sydney cat neurologist who first identified the link between the pet food and the outbreak of illness in the local cat population, Dr Georgina Child, was sceptical of the company’s claims.–“There is nothing to suggest any of the cats I have seen are vitamin A deficient … and while all the cats have eaten Orijen, most have also eaten a variety of other foods,” she said.–The study quoted by the company was based on the findings of just eight cats and concluded that further research was required to support any link between vitamin A depletion, irradiation and neurological illness, Dr Child said.
    Pet food Recipe —
    1 cup water (or, preferably, more if your cat will eat it with more water)– 2 eggs – use the yolk raw but lightly cook the white (see update below)– 2000 mg (minimum) Use walnut or animal fats like lard –or other oils other then Fish—all fish oils no matter what is being disclosed has mercury in them and would not be advised to consume or feed to animals—if you get grass fed cow butter –will have 13 times more omega 3oil then fish with out the mercury(a good source of essential fatty acids – I often use 4,000 – 6,000 mg)— 400 IU (268 mg) Vitamin E (powdered E in capsules is the easiest to use)– 50 mg Vitamin B-complex (capsules or tablets)– 2,000 mg taurine (use powdered – either in capsules or loose)– 3/4 tsp Sea Salt—to get the iodine in the salt take 1-2 oz of sea salt and add 1/8 of a teaspoon of sea weed and blend til fine the add this to your mix-Iodized salt has extreme negligible amounts and to get any ratio of iodine the consumption of salt would be excessive– when using chicken parts – see below** (Contains potassium and sodium. Make sure that it contains iodine.)– Liver – If using ground rabbit (which includes liver) from, do not add additional liver. If using chicken legs, thighs or a whole chicken carcass minus the organs, add 4 ounces of chicken livers per 3 lb of meat/bones/skin. 44 4 ( liver would be optional and maybe used sparingly since this is the organ that purifies the system —there maybe contaminants in the liver that may cause issues so do this sparingly—even if they are being bought at a Health food type environment—there has come a revelation that a lot of the “Natural” or “Organic” meats have been fed the same feed as the non alternative livestock has been fed so there will be absolutely no difference in the meat quality so be aware that this would alos mean the livers and other internal organs may have the same residue of GMO’s or GE in them ) 44 4Most cats eat 4-6 ounces/day. Therefore, this recipe yields enough food for one cat for approximately 10-14 days—-this is a variance from the orginal recipe from the net with the changes based on the current knowledge of contamination in foods today and what maybe a better choice for the animals you have—you still will have to tweak this and figure out what works best—this same recipe can be applied to dogs as well–
    Gold Nanoparticles Bring Scientists Closer to a Treatment for Cancer
    A schematic illustration of different types of gold nanoparticles used in the experiments. NR is gold nanorods, HG is hollow gold nanoparticles, SP is spherical gold nanoparticles and CS is core-shell silica-gold nanoparticles. (Credit: Image courtesy of University of Southampton)ScienceDaily (July 6, 2011) — Scientists at the University of Southampton have developed smart nanomaterials, which can disrupt the blood supply to cancerous tumours. –The team of researchers, led by Physics lecturer Dr Antonios Kanaras, showed that a small dose of gold nanoparticles can activate or inhibit genes that are involved in angiogenesis — a complex process responsible for the supply of oxygen and nutrients to most types of cancer. -“The peptide-functionalised gold nanoparticles that we synthesised are very effective in the deliberate activation or inhibition of angiogenic genes,” said Dr Kanaras.- The team went a step further to control the degree of damage to the endothelial cells using laser illumination. Endothelial cells construct the interior of blood vessels and play a pivotal role in angiogenesis. The researchers also found that the gold particles could be used as effective tools in cellular nanosurgery.—“We have found that gold nanoparticles can have a dual role in cellular manipulation. Applying laser irradiation, we can use the nanoparticles either to destroy endothelial cells, as a measure to cut the blood supply to tumours, or to deliberately open up the cellular membrane in order to deliver a drug efficiently,” said Dr Kanaras.—The researchers are almost midway through their research and have published two related papers with another one submitted for publication and four more planned throughout this year. Their major target is to develop a complete nanotechnology toolkit to manipulate angiogenesis. To make this a reality within five to ten years they continue to seek funding.
    Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Southampton, via AlphaGalileo.—Journal References–Dorota Bartczak, Otto L. Muskens, Timothy M. Millar, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Antonios G. Kanaras. Laser-Induced Damage and Recovery of Plasmonically Targeted Human Endothelial Cells. Nano Letters, 2011; 11 (3): 1358 DOI: 10.1021/nl104528s Dorota Bartczak, Tilman Sanchez-Elsner, Fethi Louafi, Timothy M. Millar, Antonios G. Kanaras. Receptor-Mediated Interactions between Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells. Small, 2011; 7 (3): 388 DOI: 10.1002/smll.201001816
    Using Gold Nanoparticles to Hit Cancer Where It Hurts
    ScienceDaily (Feb. 18, 2010) — Taking gold nanoparticles to the cancer cell and hitting them with a laser has been shown to be a promising tool in fighting cancer, but what about cancers that occur in places where a laser light can’t reach? Scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology have shown that by directing gold nanoparticles into the nuclei of cancer cells, they can not only prevent them from multiplying, but can kill them where they lurk.—The research appeared as a communication in the February 10 edition of the Journal of the American Chemical Society.—“We’ve developed a system that can kill cancer cells by shining light on gold nanoparticles, but what if the cancer is in a place where we can’t shine light on it? To fix that problem, we’ve decorated the gold with a chemical that brings it inside the nucleus of the cancer cell and stops it from dividing,” said Mostafa El-Sayed, Regents professor and director of the Laser Dynamics Laboratory at Georgia Tech.—Once the cell stops dividing, apoptosis sets in and kills the cell.—“In cancer, the nucleus divides much faster than that of a normal cell, so if we can stop it from dividing, we can stop the cancer,” said El-Sayed.–The team tested their hypothesis on cells harvested from cancer of the ear, nose and throat. They decorated the cells with an argininge-glycine-aspartic acide petipde (RGD) to bring the gold nano-particles into the cytoplasm of a cancer cell but not the healthy cells and a nuclear localization signal peptide (NLS) to bring it into the nucleus.—In previous work they showed that just bringing the gold into the cytoplasm does nothing. In this current study, they found that implanting the gold into the nucleus effectively kills the cell.—“The cell starts dividing and then it collapses,” said El-Sayed. “Once you have a cell with two nuclei, it dies.” The gold works by interfering with the cells’ DNA, he added. How that works exactly is the subject of a follow-up study.–“Previously, we’ve shown that we can bring gold nanoparticles into cancer cells and by shining a light on them, can kill the cells. Now we’ve shown that if we direct those gold nanoparticles into the nucleus, we can kill the cancer cells that are in spots we can’t hit with the light,” said El-Sayed.
    Story Source—The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Georgia Institute of Technology. The original article was written by David Terraso.–Journal Reference-Bin Kang, Megan A. Mackey and Mostafa A. El-Sayed. Nuclear Targeting of Gold Nanoparticles in Cancer Cells Induces DNA Damage, Causing Cytokinesis Arrest and Apoptosis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 2010; 132 (5): 1517 DOI: 10.1021/ja9102698
    Cinnamon Can Replace Harmful Chemicals Used to Create Nanoparticles
    ScienceDaily (Nov. 30, 2010) — Gold nanoparticles, tiny pieces of gold so small that they can’t be seen by the naked eye, are used in electronics, healthcare products and as pharmaceuticals to fight cancer. Despite their positive uses, the process to make the nanoparticles requires dangerous and extremely toxic chemicals. While the nanotechnology industry is expected to produce large quantities of nanoparticles in the near future, researchers have been worried about the environmental impact of the global nanotechnological revolution.–Now, a study by a University of Missouri research team, led by MU scientist Kattesh Katti, curators’ professor of radiology and physics in the School of Medicine and the College of Arts and Science, senior research scientist at the University of Missouri Research Reactor and director of the Cancer Nanotechnology Platform, has found a method that could replace nearly all of the toxic chemicals required to make gold nanoparticles. The missing ingredient can be found in nearly every kitchen’s spice cabinet — cinnamon.—The usual method of creating gold nanoparticles utilizes harmful chemicals and acids that are not environmentally safe and contain toxic impurities. In the MU study, Katti and researchers Raghuraman Kannan, the Michael J and Sharon R. Bukstein Distinguished Faculty Scholar in Cancer Research, assistant professor of radiology and director of the Nanoparticle Production Core Facility; and Nripen Chanda, a research associate scientist, mixed gold salts with cinnamon and stirred the mixture in water to synthesize gold nanoparticles. The new process uses no electricity and utilizes no toxic agents.—“The procedure we have developed is non-toxic,” Kannan said. “No chemicals are used in the generation of gold nanoparticles, except gold salts. It is a true ‘green’ process.”–“From our work in green nanotechnology, it is clear that cinnamon — and other species such as herbs, leaves and seeds — will serve as a reservoir of phytochemicals and has the capability to convert metals into nanoparticles,” Katti said. “Therefore, our approach to ‘green’ nanotechnology creates a renaissance symbolizing the indispensable role of Mother Nature in all future nanotechnological developments.”—During the study, the researchers found that active chemicals in cinnamon are released when the nanoparticles are created. When these chemicals, known as phytochemicals, are combined with the gold nanoparticles, they can be used for cancer treatment. The phytochemicals can enter into cancer cells and assist in the destruction or imaging of cancer cells, Katti said.—“Our gold nanoparticles are not only ecologically and biologically benign, they also are biologically active against cancer cells,” Katti said.—As the list of applications for nanotechnology grows in areas such as electronics, healthcare products and pharmaceuticals, the ecological implications of nanotechnology also grow. When considering the entire process from development to shipping to storage, creating gold nanoparticles with the current process can be incredibly harmful to the environment, Chanda said.
    “On one hand, you are trying to create a new, useful technology. However, continuing to ignore the environmental effects is detrimental to the progress,” Kannan said.—The study was published this fall in Pharmaceutical Research.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Missouri-Columbia.—Journal Reference-Nripen Chanda, Ravi Shukla, Ajit Zambre, Swapna Mekapothula, Rajesh R. Kulkarni, Kavita Katti, Kiran Bhattacharyya, Genevieve M. Fent, Stan W. Casteel, Evan J. Boote, John A. Viator, Anandhi Upendran, Raghuraman Kannan, Kattesh V. Katti. An Effective Strategy for the Synthesis of Biocompatible Gold Nanoparticles Using Cinnamon Phytochemicals for Phantom CT Imaging and Photoacoustic Detection of Cancerous Cells. Pharmaceutical Research, 2010; DOI: 10.1007/s11095-010-0276-6
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    Show of the Week July 22 2011
    Memory enhancing effects of saffron in aged mice are correlated with antioxidant protection
    Evidence for ‘Food Addiction’ in Humans ( People )
    Hydration-Water Drinking
    Runners — Let Thirst Be Your Guide
    Eggs’ Antioxidant Properties May Help Prevent Heart Disease and Cancer
    Memory enhancing effects of saffron in aged mice are correlated with antioxidant protection.
    Behav Brain Res. 2011 Jun 1;219(2):197-204–Authors: Papandreou MA, Tsachaki M, Efthimiopoulos S, Cordopatis P, Lamari FN, Margarity M
    Brain aging is characterized by cognitive decline and memory deficits that could be the result of oxidative stress and impaired cholinergic function. In this study, the effects of a daily, 7-day, intraperitoneal administration of saffron on cognitive functions were examined in both healthy adult (4 months old) and aged (20 months old), male Balb-c mice (n=8/group), by passive avoidance test. Whole brain homogenates (minus cerebellum) were collected for examination of brain oxidative markers, caspase-3 and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Results showed that saffron-treated mice exhibited significant improvement in learning and memory, accompanied by reduced lipid peroxidation products, higher total brain antioxidant activity and reduced caspase-3 activity in both age groups of mice. Furthermore, salt- and detergent-soluble AChE activity was significantly decreased only in adult mice. Thus, we showed, for the first time, that the significant cognitive enhancement conferred by saffron administration in mice, is more closely related to the antioxidant reinforcement. Next, we compared the effect of saffron (1-250 μg/mL), crocetin and safranal (1-125 μM) on H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Both saffron and crocetin provided strong protection in rescuing cell viability (MTT assay), repressing ROS production (DCF assay) and decreasing caspase-3 activation. These data, together with earlier studies suggest that crocetin is a unique and potent antioxidant, capable of mediating the in vivo effects of saffron.–PMID: 21238492 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Evidence for ‘Food Addiction’ in Humans- ( People )
    ScienceDaily (July 12, 2011) — Research to be presented at the upcoming annual meeting of the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior (SSIB), the foremost society for research into all aspects of eating and drinking behavior, suggests that people can become dependent on highly palatable foods and engage in a compulsive pattern of consumption, similar to the behaviors we observe in drug addicts and those with alcoholism.—Using a questionnaire originally developed by researchers at Yale University, a group of obese men and women were assessed according to the 7 symptoms recommended by the American Psychiatric Association to diagnose substance dependence (e.g., withdrawal, tolerance, continued use despite problems), with questions modified by replacing the word food for drugs within the questions. Based on their responses, individuals were classified as ‘food addicts’ or non-addicts, and then the two groups were compared in three areas relevant to conventional addiction disorders: clinical co-morbidities, psychological risk factors, and abnormal motivation for the addictive substance.—While ‘food addicts’ did not differ from non-addicts in their age or body weight (controlled for height), they displayed an increased prevalence of binge-eating disorder and depression, and more symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. They also were characterized by more impulsive personality traits, were more sensitive or responsive to the pleasurable properties of palatable foods, and were more likely to ‘self-soothe’ with food.—-“These results strongly reinforce the view that food addiction is an identifiable condition with clinical symptoms, and is characterized by a psycho-behavioral profile that is similar to conventional drug-abuse disorders,” said Dr. Davis. “The results also deliver much needed human support for the growing evidence of sugar and fat addiction in experimental animal research,” she added. “These findings advance our search for clinically relevant subtypes of obesity that may possess different biological and psychological vulnerabilities to environmental risk factors. This type of information will help us develop personalized treatment approaches for those who struggle with overeating and escalating weight gain.”–Story Source–The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior.—
    Hydration-Water Drinking
    Advice to Drink Eight Glasses of Water a Day ‘Nonsense,’ Argues Doctor
    ScienceDaily (July 13, 2011) — The recommendation to drink six to eight glasses of water a day to prevent dehydration “is not only nonsense, but is thoroughly debunked nonsense,” argues GP, Margaret McCartney in this week’s online British Medical Journal (BMJ).–There is currently no clear evidence of benefit from drinking increased amounts of water, she says, yet the “we-don’t-drink-enough-water” myth has endless advocates, including the NHS.[U1]—The NHS Choices website states: “Try to drink about six to eight glasses of water (or other fluids) a day to prevent dehydration,” while many schools also feel it appropriate to insist that pupils are accompanied to school by a water bottle.–Other organisations, often with vested interests, reinforce this message, she says. For example, Hydration for Health (created by French food giant Danone — makers of bottled waters including Volvic and Evian) recommends 1.5 to 2 litres of water daily as “the simplest and healthiest hydration advice you can give.” It also claims that “even mild dehydration plays a role in the development of various diseases.”[U2]-But McCartney argues that there is no high quality published evidence to support these claims.—She points to several studies showing no clear evidence of benefit from drinking increased amounts of water and suggesting there may be unintended harms attached to an enforcement to drink more water.–“It would seem, therefore, that water is not a simple solution to multiple health problems,” she writes.–For instance, reports that increased water intake in children can improve concentration and mental performance have not been confirmed by research studies, while data relating water drinking to a reduction in children being overweight are prone to bias[U3]. -While there are some conditions that do benefit from drinking increased water, such as in people with recurrent kidney stones, other evidence for preventing disease is conflicting, adds McCartney. In other words, this is a complex situation not easily remedied by telling everyone to drink more.—Untangling the evidence presented by Danone “results in weak and biased selection of evidence,” she argues. Danone says we need “informed choices,” but their own evidence does not support their call to action. She concludes: “There are many organisations with vested interests who would like to tell doctors and patients what to do. We should just say no.”-Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by BMJ-British Medical Journal, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–Journal ReferenceM. McCartney. Waterlogged? BMJ, 2011; 343 (jul12 2): d4280 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.d4280
    Runners — Let Thirst Be Your Guide
    ScienceDaily (June 19, 2007) — Many people are drinking too much water, including sports drinks, when exercising, a practice that could put some individuals engaging in prolonged types of endurance exercise at risk of potentially lethal water intoxication, say international experts who study disorders of water metabolism. Such exercise includes marathons, triathlons, and long distance cycling.—This serious condition, known as exercise-induced hyponatremia (EAH), could be prevented if only people would respect their personal thirst “meter,” or would undertake a “sweat test” to determine how much water they actually need to drink in order to replace just the body fluids lost during exercising, the researchers say.—A group of experts in this condition has issued a number of papers and recommendations, including an international consensus statement on this disorder published in the Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine in 2005. Joseph Verbalis, M.D., Professor and Interim Chair of the Department of Medicine at Georgetown University Medical Center and a member of this group, recently updated the scientific community on the causes of this disorder in the May issue of Sports Medicine.–Verbalis says the goal of the group is to understand the biological basis of EAH, and in that way, assure that no athlete ever succumbs to it again. A number of marathon runners have died from EAH, including one at this year’s London Marathon in April. One recent study found that 13 percent of Boston marathon runners suffered from EAH, though most cases are mild enough so that they are not noticed by the athletes themselves.–“The tragic aspect of the deaths that have occurred from EAH is that these are healthy young people who otherwise would have lived normal, long lives,” says Verbalis, who is also Chief of the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism at Georgetown. —“The data clearly indicate that EAH is caused by excess drinking during endurance exercise activities, and that it can be prevented by limiting fluid intake while exercising, he says. But despite this knowledge, Verbalis points out that “unfortunately, we are not seeing this condition go away.”—“The public’s impression of the amount of water that is necessary to drink for good health is not based on real factual data,” he says. “Many in our society have promoted the idea that you need to continually drink a large amount of fluid, such as 8 ounces of water eight times a day. But most people don’t really need that much.” —Verbalis points out that EAH predominantly afflicts exercisers engaging in endurance activities of 4 hours in duration or longer. But “the average person who goes out for an hour or two of strenuous exercise is not going to be at risk for this,” he adds.—Verbalis also says that sports drinks, which contain some sodium and potassium and carbohydrates, are basically water with a few additives. “There’s a misconception among the sports community that consuming sports drinks rather than water will protect you from becoming hyponatremic. That’s simply not true,” he says. “Drinking too much of anything puts some people at risk for potentially dangerous levels of hyponatremia.”–The disorder occurs when endurance exercisers drink more fluid than their kidneys can excrete. The hormone that determines how much fluid a kidney can excrete is arginine vasopressin (AVP), which is released from the pituitary gland when a person is becoming dehydrated in order to force the kidneys to conserve water. At rest, a person’s AVP level is low and can be suppressed to zero when sufficient fluids are ingested so that the kidney can excrete, rather than retain, excess water. But AVP levels can rise in people who exercise strenuously over a number of hours, even if they are not dehydrated. —“A kidney can normally excrete up to a liter an hour with an AVP level of zero, but when you’re exercising, the AVP is telling your kidney to excrete a volume of fluid that is markedly less than the maximum the kidney can excrete at rest,” Verbalis says. Too much water intake in an endurance exerciser whose AVP levels are on the rise means that some of the ingested water will be retained, and that excess water can dangerously dilute the level of sodium in the blood that is needed for organs to function[U4], he adds.—Investigators have been researching the triggers that stimulate AVP secretion during exercise, and have found several. One is a loss of fluid from the body and blood as a result of sweating during prolonged exercise. Another is nausea, a common reaction to extreme sports, which makes the body think vomiting will ensue, so water needs to be conserved, Verbalis says. Finally, a research team that included Verbalis recently reported in the American Journal of Medicine that release from muscles of a cytokine known as interleukin-6 (Il-6) is also capable of stimulating AVP secretion. —Verbalis noted in his Sports Medicine paper that since 1985, “well over 100 individual cases” of EAH have been reported from physical exercise activities as diverse as forced military marches, prolonged hiking and marathon, ultramarathon and triathlon races, and there have been at least 8 documented fatalities. Some people have been known to gain up to 6-7 pounds during a marathon due to retention of water that the kidneys cannot excrete, he says. “No one should be gaining any weight during these events,” according to Verbalis, “and if they do, it can only be due to fluid retention.”—The hyponatremia consensus panel has recommended that everyone, including endurance exercisers, should “drink to thirst” ? that is, drink only when you feel you need to. Verbalis acknowledges that this advice is controversial, because some trainers and sports physiologists contend that “by the time you’re actually thirsty, you have lost enough fluid to already be dehydrated, so they say you need to drink in anticipation of becoming dehydrated.—“We dispute that notion, and contend that thirst is a good indicator of your body’s need for fluids, and that there is a window of time over which you can rehydrate safely,” he says. While a person “needs to lose about 1-2 percent of body water before thirst will reliably remind you to drink, losing that little is not sufficient to cause any significant health problems,” Verbalis says. “Many of us are often dehydrated to such small degrees, and it does not significantly affect us.”—But he adds that endurance exercisers who don’t want to rely on their body’s thirst meter have another excellent option, and that is undertaking a sweat test. This involves recording a person’s weight digitally, then running on a treadmill for an hour and recording their ending weight after toweling off the body sweat. “Most people don’t know how much they really sweat while exercising, but this simple test can tell you approximately how much fluid losses you are generating from sweat,” he says. “There is no need to drink significantly more than that, because sweat represents the major source of fluid loss during exercise.”—A healthy person needs to be dehydrated in the range of 4-6 percent loss of body water before there’s a significant health risk problem from dehydration, Verbalis says. “So, really, if people just do things in moderation, especially including re-hydrating by drinking, they’re not going to be at risk of either dehydration from excessive sweat losses or EAH from excessive fluid ingestion.”–Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by Georgetown University Medical Center.
    Eggs’ Antioxidant Properties May Help Prevent Heart Disease and Cancer
    ScienceDaily (July 6, 2011) — One of nature’s most perfect foods may be even better for us than previously thought.-While eggs are well known to be an excellent source of proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals, researchers at the University of Alberta recently discovered they also contain antioxidant properties, which helps in the prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer. –Jianping Wu, Andreas Schieber and graduate students Chamila Nimalaratne and Daise Lopes-Lutz of the U of A Department of Agricultural Food and Nutritional Science examined egg yolks produced by hens fed typical diets of either primarily wheat or corn. They found the yolks contained two amino acids, tryptophan and tyrosine, which have high antioxidant properties.—After analyzing the properties, the researchers determined that two egg yolks in their raw state have almost twice as many antioxidant properties as an apple and about the same as half a serving (25 grams) of cranberries.—However, when the eggs were fried or boiled, antioxidant properties were reduced by about half, and a little more than half if the eggs were cooked in a microwave.[U5]–“It’s a big reduction but it still leaves eggs equal to apples in their antioxidant value,” said Wu.—The findings were published in the peer-reviewed journal Food Chemistry.—The discovery of these two amino acids, while important, may only signify the beginning of finding antioxidant properties in egg yolks, said Wu, an associate professor of agricultural, food and nutritional science.—“Ultimately, we’re trying to map antioxidants in egg yolks so we have to look at all of the properties in the yolks that could contain antioxidants, as well as how the eggs are ingested,” said Wu, adding that he and his team will examine the other type of antioxidant already known to be in eggs, carotenoids, the yellow pigment in egg yolk, as well as peptides.–In previous research, Wu found that egg proteins were converted by enzymes in the stomach and small intestines and produced peptides that act the same way as ACE inhibitors, prescriptions drugs that are used to lower high blood pressure.[U6] That finding defied common wisdom and contradicted the public perception that eggs increased high blood pressure because of their high cholesterol content. Additional research by Wu suggests the peptides can be formulated to help prevent and treat hypertension. Wu is convinced the peptides also have some antioxidant properties, which leads him to suggest that when he completes the next step in his research, the result will likely be that eggs have more antioxidant properties than we currently know.Story Source-The above story is reprinted (with editorial adaptations by ScienceDaily staff) from materials provided by University of Alberta, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.–Journal Reference–Chamila Nimalaratne, Daise Lopes-Lutz, Andreas Schieber, Jianping Wu. Free aromatic amino acids in egg yolk show antioxidant properties. Food Chemistry, 2011; 129 (1): 155 DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.04.058
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    [U1]In this I agree this insanity of flushing the body with water can actually cause a depletion in electrolytes which are required to maitin the body’s PH balance as well
    [U2]PURE BS there are mecahanism in your system that can compensate for mild dehydration
    [U3]There maybe some truth to this in regard to the way water can flush out fat butttttttt the issue is how much and will it also flush out other beneficial elements as well—this is something the “Studies” who the marketing people use do not say
    [U4]Again I have said this for years that all this fluids they are telling you to drink dilutes and dletes these nutrients out of the body including salt –magnesium-calcium and potassium to name a few and then you are being sold another bill of BS on being alkaline—when if you had not flushed out the minerals required for alkalinity you would not need to spend these dollars on those nutrients
    [U6]EGGS increases Enzyme activity by donating enzymes and potentially lowers blood pressure