Reply To: Scripts 2012

Forums Herbalist Scripts Scripts 2012 Reply To: Scripts 2012


    Some of the listings for Terebinth ( Turpentine )
    Internal Uses for Terebinth –Turpenine
    Modifies tracheo-bronchial secretions
    Haemostatic ( slows down or stops bleeding )
    Antidote to Phosphorus Poisoning
    Chronic and Fetid Bronchitis Pulmonary TB ( lung TB)
    Leucorrhia ( vaginal discharge)
    Haemorrhage ( intestinal-pulmonary-uterine-haempohilia-nose bleeds )
    Oliguria ( diuretic like effect)
    Rheumatism ( painful body )
    Intestinal Parasites ( especially worms )
    Phosporus Antidote
    External Uses For Terebinth-Turpentine-
    Revulsive ( counter irritant or antidotal)
    Scabies or Lice
    Puerporal Infections ( bleeding under the skin –purple spots )
    Internal Uses for Terebinth –Turpenine
    Genitor-Urinary Antiseptic ( used as a douche as well injectable
    Dissolves Gallstones
    Vermifuge ( removes worms and parasites
    Urinary and Renal Infections-cystitis urethritis ( inflammation of the urethra )
    Puerperal Fever-( infection of the uterus after birth )
    Dropsy (excess water retention of organs or tissue )
    Spasms ( Colitis-whopping Cough )
    Chronic Constipation
    External Uses For Terebinth-Turpentine-
    Atonic wounds( a slow healing wound or a damaged or weakened muscle-Sores and Gangrenous wounds
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    Show of the Week April 16-2012
    Food Ingredients Most Prone to Fraudulent Economically Motivated Adulteration
    Kill the Natural Health Products Bill, kill the Food Bill
    Coffee Power in the old Days
    Banned Antibiotics Found in Poultry Products
    Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition
    Food Ingredients Most Prone to Fraudulent Economically Motivated Adulteration
    A variety of foods. Researchers found that the top seven adulterated ingredients were olive oil, milk, honey, saffron, orange juice, coffee, and apple juice.
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 5, 2012) — In new research published in the April Journal of Food Science, analyses of the first known public database compiling reports on food fraud and economically motivated adulteration in food highlight the most fraud-prone ingredients in the food supply; analytical detection methods; and the type of fraud reported. Based on a review of records from scholarly journals, the top seven adulterated ingredients in the database are olive oil, milk, honey, saffron, orange juice, coffee, and apple juice.—The database was created by the U.S. Pharmacopeial Convention (USP), a nonprofit scientific organization that develops standards to help ensure the identity, quality and purity of food ingredients, dietary supplements and pharmaceuticals. USP’s food ingredient standards are published in the Food Chemicals Codex (FCC) compendium. The new database provides baseline information to assist interested parties in assessing the risks of specific products. It includes a total of 1,305 records for food fraud based on a total of 660 scholarly, media and other publicly available reports. Records are divided by scholarly research (1,054 records) and media reports (251 records). Researchers are Drs. Jeffrey C. Moore (lead author) and Markus Lipp of USP, and Dr. John Spink of Michigan State University.
    Food fraud was recently defined in a report commissioned by the Department of Homeland Security and funded by the National Center for Food Protection and Defense (University of Minnesota) as a collective term that encompasses the deliberate substitution, addition, tampering or misrepresentation of food, food ingredients or food packaging, or false or misleading statements made about a product for economic gain. A more specific type of fraud, intentional or economically motivated adulteration of food ingredients has been defined by USP’s Expert Panel on Food Ingredient Intentional Adulterants as the fraudulent addition of nonauthentic substances or removal or replacement of authentic substances without the purchaser’s knowledge for economic gain of the seller.”This database is a critical step in protecting consumers,” said Dr. Spink. “Food fraud and economically motivated adulteration have not received the warranted attention given the potential danger they present. We recently defined these terms [see the Journal of Food Science, November 2011] and now we are defining the scope and scale. As many do not believe a concept or risk exists if it does not appear in a scholarly journal, we believe that publication of this paper in the Journal of Food Science will allow us to advance the science of food fraud prevention.”
    While traditionally considered primarily an economic issue and less a consumer safety threat, authors of the paper, Development and Application of a Database of Food Ingredient Fraud and Economically Motivated Adulteration from 1980 to 2010, defined empirically that in some ways food fraud may be more risky than traditional threats to the food supply. The adulterants used in these activities often are unconventional and designed to avoid detection through routine analyses. Melamine, for example, was considered neither a potential contaminant nor an adulterant in the food supply before the episodes of adulteration of pet food in 2007 and infant formula and other milk products in 2008 (with tainted products still appearing sporadically today, principally in China). Although, as records from this database indicate, melamine was used as an adulterant to mimic protein as early as 1979; however, this remained virtually unknown until 2007. Hence, testing for melamine was not included in routine quality assurance or quality control analyses.
    Additionally, current food protection systems are not designed to look for the nearly infinite number of potential adulterants that may show up in the food supply.
    “Food ingredients and additives present a unique risk because they are used in so many food products and often do not have visual or functional properties that enable easy discrimination from other similar ingredients or adulterants throughout the supply chain,” the paper states. Glycerin, for example, is a sweet, clear, colorless liquid that is difficult to differentiate by sight or smell from other sweet, clear, colorless liquid syrups — including toxic diethylene glycol, which in the past has been substituted for glycerin with deadly consequences. Diethylene glycol has been fraudulently added to wines, and also used as an adulterant of glycerin used in pharmaceuticals.
    In addition to identifying specific food ingredients and food categories vulnerable to adulteration, the researchers also analyzed the types of analytical detection methods used to discover the fraud, as well as the type of fraud using three categories: replacement, addition or removal. The authors found 95 percent of records involved replacement — an authentic material replaced partially or completely by another, less expensive substitute. An example is the partial substitution of olive oil with hazelnut oil. Other examples include potentially harmful substitution of toxic Japanese star anise for Chinese star anise (a common spice used in foods), and the partial replacement of low-quality spices with lead tetraoxide or lead chromate to imitate the color of higher-quality spices.
    Utility of Database
    The database provides information that can be useful in evaluating current and emerging risks for food fraud. In addition to providing a baseline understanding of the vulnerability of individual ingredients, the database offers information about potential adulterants that could reappear in the supply chain for particular ingredients. For example, records in the database regarding melamine as an adulterant for high-protein-content ingredients date back to 1979. Speaking to that example, the paper notes, “Perhaps if this information had been readily available to risk assessors before the 2007 and 2008 incidents of melamine adulteration and wheat gluten and milk powders, it could have helped risk assessors anticipate these adulteration possibilities.” This information also could have stimulated research aimed at developing new methods to measure protein content, which could signal adulteration with melamine and other unexpected constituents — an effort that has only recently gained substantial interest.
    Another practical application of the database involves analytical testing strategies to detect food fraud. A commonly used strategy at present is testing for the absence of specific adulterants — an approach that excels at detecting known adulterants at very low levels but has the critical limitation of not necessarily being able to detect unknown adulterants. An alternative strategy is compendial testing (via FCC and other sources) for the identity, authenticity and purity of a food ingredient (i.e., what should be present and in what quantity instead of what should not be present). While this testing may not always be capable of detecting adulterants at trace levels, it is capable of detecting both known and unknown adulterants. “Well-designed compendial testing approaches can be very powerful tool for guarding against food fraud,” said Dr. Moore. “Their potential to detect both unknown and known adulterants is a significant benefit in an environment where no one knows and is worried about what harmful adulterant criminals will use to create the next generation of fake food ingredients.” The USP Food Fraud Database is publicly accessible at
    Kill the Natural Health Products Bill, kill the Food Bill.
    The Food Bill is one leg of New Zealand’s compliance with Codex Alimentarius, the “Food Book” set of international food regulations being forced upon all World Trade Organisation states. The Natural Health Products Bill is the other leg.—Both legs will kick New Zealanders in the guts by benefiting international trade and multinational agribusiness / pharmaceutical corporations at the expense of our own food and health rights. That is what Codex Alimentarius is all about.–However, if the Natural Health Products Bill can be killed using the Select Committee process, combined with public outrage, then the Food Bill could be repealed without loss to the country in trade terms.—This is because killing the NHP Bill would void New Zealand’s Codex Alimentarius compliance. Codex compliance is NOT in your interests, be sure of that. And with NZ’s Codex compliance voided, there is no reason for the Food Bill to exist at all. The idea is to cut off one leg and the body will fall over, taking the other leg with it. Will it work? There is only one way to find out.–You’ll want to oppose the Natural Health Products Bill in any case. It is outrageous – and, luckily, very easy to read. Let’s try to bring it down.—-What’s wrong with the NHP Bill itself?—It makes it illegal without a licence to prepare, share or administer anything (that isn’t presented as “food”) that’s made from plants, vitamins, minerals or anything else natural and may have any of the following material health benefits:–The maintenance or promotion of health or wellness; nutritional support; vitamin or mineral supplementation; affecting or maintaining the structure or function of the body; effective treatment of any self-diagnosed or self-managed condition. Now, go back and read that again!—-You’ll be liable for a $50,000 fine for doing any of the above, even for yourself. No more home-grown camomile tea to make you sleep better. No more practising of traditional Maori medicine without a government ticket, which can be denied or revoked. No more home-made manuka oil to put on your cuts. No more using your granny’s remedies from the herb garden. None of this without permission, fees and rules, or you face massive fines and possibly jail. Sound familiar?–Now, you may not actually do these things. But you may wish to retain the right to do so. You may also wish to use any of these products or services in future. But under the NHP Bill they will be more expensive and much harder to find, because most practitioners / producers will be regulated and compliance-costed out of existence.—Don’t take our word for all this. Read the bill. It’s very easy to read, unlike the Food Bill, and easy to see the intent. It is the same intent as the Food Bill. The government wishes to own what goes into you (and thus own you). They say it is all for your safety, of course. Do you still believe that?–Take note: The Natural Health Products Bill was, like the Food Bill, passed at a first reading UNAMINOUSLY. EVERY MP voted for it. And the bill itself was a proud product of cooperation between the Green Party and National.—Are you getting wise to the Green Party yet? And are you getting wise to Parliament itself?
    The NHP bill is here:
    In reading the NHP Bill, pay close attention to sections 5 (definitions), 6 (what is a natural health product), 20 and 21 (powers of the new health police) 28, 29 and 30 (requirements for licensing) 37 and 38 (penalties), 45 (delegation of powers to corporations), 47 (regulations applying to licensed practitioners – these will be CODEX regulations) and LAST BUT VERY IMPORTANT the Schedule of “Suitable classes of substances”… this is basically everything you ingest that is not food (which is already covered by the Food Bill) – so plants, extracts thereof, minerals, vitamins, amino acids etc that are taken to promote wellbeing. The stuff that, along with food itself, is essential for your life.
    Making a “submission” on the Natural Health Products Bill.
    We don’t recommend that you “submit” your say, in a sense of law, on this Bill. “Submitting” means “bowing down” and giving up all the rights you presumably wish to retain. You need to reserve all your rights. This can all be made clear in the “submission” process.—Numbers are important here. We need to flood the Select Committee with responses voicing disapproval of the Natural Health Products Bill and Codex Alimentarius, and by extension the Food Bill. This might just kill the Food Bill by proxy, by killing its Codex counterpart and stopping Codex from being implemented.—So please SHARE this info widely, and fast. The deadline is Friday, 24 February 2012. Please especially get this into health food groups etc on Facebook and beyond.
    What to write
    If you’re outraged, express it. At the bottom of what you write, write All Rights Reserved.–We’d suggest that the main thing to get across is opposition to Codex Alimentarius being imposed upon New Zealanders through the Natural Health Products Bill and the Food Bill. Codex does not serve people, it serves corporations.—Keep a copy of what you write. But please do write something. This needs many people to make it work. New Zealand is sleepwalking towards a corporate police state.–If you wish, you can also choose to talk / shout about your concerns at an actual Select Committee hearing. We think this would be a very good idea.—Finally if you really want to make the Select Committee sit up, send the suggested text below or some variation thereof and put its members on their Oaths of Office. If they screw up, they are out of Office, or worse.
    Make your “submission” on the Natural Health Products Bill here, by scrolling to the bottom of the page:
    [Note: If the link is changed (not unlikely) then you should still be able to navigate to the NHP Bill submissions page by following this path: Home ( > Parliamentary business > Select committees > Make a submission. The “Make a submission” page is currently at Get to the NHP Bill submission page itself by choosing Health Committee from the drop-down list of Select Committees, then hit go. Scroll to the bottom of the page that comes up to enter the captcha code and make the “submission”.]
    Suggested text:
    To the Select Committee for the Natural Health Products Bill
    1 TAKE NOTICE that those Members of Parliament on the Select Committee have sworn to serve the Queen according to Law, and the Natural Health Products Bill appears to be unlawful serving as it does foreign interests and not the interests of the country of New Zealand, this because it has been introduced into New Zealand together with the Food Bill as part of this country’s compliance with CODEX ALIMENTARIUS, a World Trade Organisation directive that supports international trade agreements at the expense of the natural God-given rights of the people of this land to feed themselves and treat their own ailments themselves in any way they best see fit.
    2 TAKE NOTICE that I have not seen any evidence that CODEX ALIMENTARIUS serves the people of this land and I believe that no such evidence exists.
    3 TAKE NOTICE that I have not seen any evidence that the Natural Health Products Bill serves the people of this land and I believe that no such evidence exists.
    4 TAKE NOTICE that I have not seen any evidence that the Natural Health Products Bill together with the Food Bill representing as they do this country’s efforts to meet the World Trade Organisation’s CODEX ALIMENTARIUS guidelines serves the people of this land and I believe that no such evidence exists.
    5 TAKE NOTICE that I have not seen any evidence that the Natural Health Products Bill together with the Food Bill and New Zealand’s efforts to implement the CODEX ALIMENTARIUS guidelines is not in essence treasonous and a breach of te Tiriti o Waitangi on the issue of taonga or treasures at the very least and I believe that no such evidence exists.
    5 TAKE NOTICE that it is my belief that the Select Committee members should provide evidence in their findings and recommendations to Parliament that my concerns at paragraphs 2, 3, 4 and 5 above are completely unfounded, with the same to be provided upon their respective Oaths of Office, before they individually or collectively make any implicit or explicit recommendation by act or omission that the Natural Health Products Bill should in any way whatsoever be moved to a second reading in Parliament.
    [6, 7 etc… My other concerns about the Natural Health Products Bill are… delete this or add in as appropriate, removing the square brackets and writing to a MAXIMUM TOTAL OF 4000 CHARACTERS. You have about 1500 characters left.]
    Coffee Power in the old Days—Back in the 18 century caffeine ( coffee ) was used as a stomachic aid-( which today we can verify as a pancreatic support)—it was given for chronic Catarrh of the stomach (Catarrh is a disorder of inflammation of the mucous membranes in one of the airways or cavities of the body )-it would appear to be overload in the digestive system of mucous- and migraine —caffeine has been used to alleviate or cure the condition-Diarrhea of phlithis ( A disease characterized by the wasting away or atrophy of the body or a part of the body.- Tuberculosis of the lungs.) Atonic Diarrhea (Looseness of the bowels ) caffeine assisted in regulating waste –black coffee raises the arterial tension-so it improves circulation and can be use when there is a low circulatory activity—it was used for headache treatment- especially for migraine—it was utilized as 1 grain (64.79891 milligrams { 65 mgs} )of coffee every half hour- or until there is relief—Caffeine has been useful for renal and cardiac Dropsy ( a condition where the organs droop or are loaded with fluids—today we call it edema ) used for edema of the stomach as well-It was used regularly by French physicians of the day for heart failure instead of digitalis-based on the study it slows the pulse and raises arterial tension-this would better distrubute blood flow- and was better at diuresis (increased excretion of urine ) the used to by the third day inject a gram-it was safer then digiatalis without the accumulation of the drug in the heart and better for balancing the heart and removing excess fluid
    Banned Antibiotics Found in Poultry Products
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 5, 2012) — In a joint study, researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Arizona State University found evidence suggesting that a class of antibiotics previously banned by the U.S. government for poultry production is still in use. Results of the study were published March 21 in Environmental Science & Technology.—The study, conducted by the Bloomberg School’s Center for a Livable Future and Arizona State’s Biodesign Institute, looked for drugs and other residues in feather meal, a common additive to chicken, swine, cattle and fish feed. The most important drugs found in the study were fluoroquinolones — broad spectrum antibiotics used to treat serious bacterial infections in people, particularly those infections that have become resistant to old-er antibiotic classes. The banned drugs were found in 8 of 12 samples of feather meal in a multi-state study. The findings were a surprise to scientists because fluoroquinolone use in U.S. poultry production was banned by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2005.—-This is the first time investigators have examined feather meal, a byproduct of poultry production made from poultry feathers, to determine what drugs poultry may have received prior to their slaughter and sale.-The annual per capita human consumption of poultry products is approximately 100 lbs, greater than that of any other animal- or vegetable-derived protein source in the U.S. To satisfy this demand, each year, the U.S. poultry industry raises nearly 9 billion broiler chickens and 80 million turkeys, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. A large percentage of the fresh weight of these animals is inedible — an estimated 33 percent for chickens, for example — and is recycled for other uses, including feather meal.—The rendering industry, which converts animal byproducts into a wide range of materials, processes poultry feathers into feather meal, which is often added as a supplement to poultry, pig, ruminant, and fish feeds or sold as an “organic” fertilizer. In a companion study, researchers found inorganic arsenic in feather meal used in retail fertilizers.—“The discovery of certain antibiotics in feather meal strongly suggests the continued use of these drugs, despite the ban put in place in 2005 by the FDA,” said David Love, PhD, lead author of the report. “The public health community has long been frustrated with the unwillingness of FDA to effectively address what antibiotics are fed to food animals.”—A primary reason for the 2005 FDA ban on the use of fluoroquinolones in poultry production was an alarming increase in the rate of the fluoroquinolone resistance among Campylobacter bacteria. “In recent years, we’ve seen the rate of fluoroquinolone resistance slow, but not drop,” noted study co-author Keeve Nachman, PhD, Farming for the Future Program Director at the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future. “With such a ban, you would expect a decline in resistance to these drugs. The continued use of fluoroquinolones and unintended antibiotic contamination of poultry feed may help ex-plain why high rates of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter continue to be found on commercial poultry meat products over half a decade after the ban.”—In the U.S., antibiotics are introduced into the feed and water of industrially raised poultry, primarily to make them grow faster, rather than to treat disease. An estimated 13.2 million kg of antibiotics were sold in 2009 to the U.S. poultry and livestock industries, which represented nearly 80 percent of all antibiotic sales for use in humans and animals in the U.S. that year.—In conducting the study, researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and Arizona State University analyzed commercially available feather meal samples, acquired from six U.S. states and China, for a suite of 59 pharmaceuticals and personal care products. All 12 samples tested had between 2 and 10 antibiotic residues. In addition to antimicrobials, 7 other personal care products, including the pain reliever acetaminophen (the active ingredient in Tylenol), the antihistamine diphenhydramine (the active ingredient in Benadryl) and the antidepressant fluoxetine (the active ingredient in Prozac), were detected.—Researchers also found caffeine in 10 of 12 feather meal samples. “This study reveals yet another pathway of unwanted human exposure to a surprisingly broad spectrum of prescription and over the-counter drugs,” noted study co-author Rolf Halden, PhD, PE, Co-Director of the Center for Health Information & Research, and Associate Director of the Swette Center for Environmental Biotechnology at Arizona State University.—When researchers exposed several strains of E. coli bacteria to the concentrations of antibiotics found in the feather meal samples, they also discovered the drug residues could select for resistant bacteria. “A high enough concentration was found in one of the samples to select for bacteria that are resistant to drugs important to treat infections in humans,” noted Nachman.—“We strongly believe that the FDA should monitor what drugs are going into animal feed,” urged Nachman. “Based on what we’ve learned, I’m concerned that the new FDA guidance documents, which call for voluntary action from industry, will be ineffectual. By looking into feather meal, and uncovering a drug banned nearly 6 years ago, we have very little confidence that the food animal production industry can be left to regulate it-self.”–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, via Newswise.
    Supplementation with Pycnogenol® improves signs and symptoms of menopausal transition.
    Panminerva Med. 2011 Sep;53(3 Suppl 1):65-70–Authors: Errichi S, Bottari A, Belcaro G, Cesarone MR, Hosoi M, Cornelli U, Dugall M, Ledda A, Feragalli B
    Abstract—AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Pycnogenol® standardized pine bark extract for alleviation of signs and symptoms associated with menopausal transition.
    METHODS: Pycnogenol® was used by 38 women as daily supplement in a dosage of 100 mg over an eight week period and menopausal symptoms were evaluated by means of a scoring system, based on a total number of 33 common signs and symptoms. A parallel control group of 32 comparable women was also followed up for the same period. Pycnogenol® was well tolerated, no side effects were reported and the compliance was very good with 98.6% of tablets used as prescribed. A range of 33 menopausal symptoms were evaluated using a scoring system with values ranging from zero (absent) to maximum 4 (very serious). RESULTS: A subset of six most common symptoms comprising hot flushes, night sweats, mood swings, irregular periods, loss of libido and vaginal dryness showed a decrease from average 2.67/4 to 1.45/4 after 8 weeks supplementation with Pycnogenol®. The control group of women showed no change from initial average 2.72/4 to 2.73/4 after eight weeks. The improvement of symptoms was statistical significant compared to the control group. Further symptoms related to fatigue, sleeping disorders, concentration and memory problems, dizziness, depression and irritability all improved significantly with Pycnogenol® compared to baseline values but did not reach statistical significance compared to the control group of women. The sensation of pain related to headaches, breast pain, the feeling of “electric shocks”, tingling extremities, burning tongue and itchy skin all improved significantly after intake of Pycnogenol® for eight weeks compared to baseline. Specifically the sensation of “electric shocks” and digestive problems improved significantly with Pycnogenol® as compared to women in the control group. The presence of elevated oxidative stress in women was investigated measuring capillary blood plasma free radicals. Oxidative stress was significantly lowered after four weeks (P<0.05) and eight weeks (P<0.022) in the Pycnogenol® group while no significant changes were observed in the control group at any time.
    CONCLUSION: Pycnogenol® significantly contributed to reduce signs and symptoms associated with menopausal transitions in women investigated in this study. Furthermore, Pycnogenol® improved the quality of life of most women and these benefits may be at least in part attributed to decreased oxidative stress levels.—PMID: 22108479 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe for pine bark /needle tea—Take pine bark or needles from the tree in spring time for increasing the hormonal uptake and in the fall to reduce and make teas out of them as you would any other tea or percolate them in a coffee pot and drink small increments through out the day
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    Show of the Week April 20 2012
    Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Iodine with Special Reference to Globaline
    Diabetic Remedy
    Artificial Bee Silk a Big Step Closer to Reality
    Sunlight Plus Lime Juice Makes Drinking Water Safer
    Inactivation of Giardia Cysts by Iodine with Special Reference to Globaline
    Personal Author(s) : Powers, Edmund M.
    Report Date : APR 1991
    Handle / proxy Url :
    Abstract : This review of the literature indicates that iodine is not completely effective in destroying Giardia especially in cold (3 to 15C) water. Cysticidal efficacy of iodine at a given concentration and temperature depends on contact time. The iodine tablet, Globaline, used by U.S. Military Forces since 1952, required 60 minutes at 15C, 30 minutes at 25C and 25 minutes at 45C for 100% destruction of Giardia cysts at residual iodine concentration of 10, 8, and 6 mg per liter, respectively. The time required at temperatures below 15C for Globaline tablets to destroy Giardia is not presently known. Based on the information presented in this review, two changes for Globaline are recommended: (1) reformulate Globaline tablets with an alkaline buffer and (2) increase the treatment time for one liter of water from 35 minutes to 60 minutes.
    Subject Categories : WATER POLLUTION AND CONTROL
    Distribution Statement : APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE
    Since neither infectious RNA nor DNA is affected, iodine as a disinfectant probably inactivates bacteria and viruses by the iodination of the appropriate protein component. The bactericidal action of iodine is complete within one minute of contact at 570C. The rate of inactivation is not materially reduced by high concentrations of iodide ion. The destruction of bacteria continues until all iodine is consumed or, in case of residual iodine, until all bacteria are destroyed. The minimum number of iodine molecules required to destroy one bacterium varies with the species. For H. influenzae it was calculated to be 1.5 x 10 molecules of iodine per c9ll. When bacteria are treated with iodine, the inorganic phosphate up-take and oxygen consumption by the cells immediately ceases. Bacterial cells reacted with radioiodine show very little in the cell fraction, indicating that most likely an oxidation of -SH groups rather than a substitution into tyrosyl moieties occurs. The inactivation of poliovirus and f 2 RNA bacteria virus by iodine is considerably inhibited by low levels of iodide ion concentration. At pH 6.0 or less iodine inactivation of f2 phage was incomplete. The rate of inactivation by iodine in the presence of iodide ion for the f 2 virus and its host E. coli is different. The difference most likely is due to the nature of The -iodine sensitive proteins involved. The virucidal properties of iodine in waters of low pH and high organic content could be inadequate regardless of the free iodine concentration when virus or viruses involved require iodination of tyrosine for inactivation. At the existing stage of the investigation on the mode of action of bromine on virus and cells, further work will be required to form definite conclusions. A general tentative summary is as follows: (I) Bacterial cells appear to be more resistant to bromine than the phage[U1]. (2) Bromine activity on cells and phage varies directly with the hydrogen ion concentration and temperature. (3) The presence of the bromide ion enhances phage and inhibits cell inactivation by bromine. (4) The activity of RNA harvested from bromine treated phage is less affected than the intact phage.
    Diabetic Remedy—Here is a list of things we have seen work to remove people off the insulin and get back to being healthy
    The things we have given are bitter melon-cinnamon bark-neem-peppermint-ginseng-clove-juniper berries in a tea format 1:1 ratio in all of the tea—boiled and consumed several times a day ( 4-5 times 1-3 oz increments)—as well we gave alpha lipoic acid 200mgs and 500mgs of L carnitine which were very effective with the teas at lowering sugar—dietary changes have to be implemented since the GMO’s are some of the biggest contributors we have to minimize exposure to nil- especially the soy and canola and rice—all are out of the diet—following the protocol and making juices with dandelion-parsley and watercress –are as well an effective way to assist people in the restoration of the system and reduction of sugar as well—-remember to utilize enzymes to relieve the pancreas since it is damaged and this will lighten the load for the pancreas utilize them at every meal and 2 in between meals to get you ready for the next day
    Artificial Bee Silk a Big Step Closer to Reality
    ScienceDaily (Mar. 3, 2010) — CSIRO scientist Dr Tara Sutherland and her team have achieved another important milestone in the international quest to artificially produce insect silk.–They have hand-drawn fine threads of honeybee silk from a ‘soup’ of silk proteins that they had produced transgenically.–These threads were as strong as threads drawn from the honeybee silk gland, a significant step towards development of coiled coil silk biomaterials.—“It means that we can now seriously consider the uses to which these biomimetic materials can be put,” Dr Sutherland said.”We used recombinant cells of bacterium E. coli to produce the silk proteins which, under the right conditions, self-assembled into similar structures to those in honeybee silk.–“We already knew that honeybee silk fibres could be hand-drawn from the contents of the silk gland so used this knowledge to hand-draw fibres from a sufficiently concentrated and viscous mixture of the recombinant silk proteins.–“In fact, we had to draw them twice to produce a translucent stable fibre.”–Dr Sutherland said numerous efforts have been made to express other invertebrate silks in transgenic systems but the complicated structure of the silk genes in other organisms means that producing silk outside silk glands is very difficult.—“We had previously identified the honeybee silk genes and knew that that the silk was encoded by four small non-repetitive genes — a much simpler arrangement which made them excellent candidates for transgenic silk production.”–Possible practical uses for these silks would be tough, lightweight textiles, high-strength applications such as advanced composites for use in aviation and marine environments, and medical applications such as sutures, artificial tendons and ligaments.[U2]–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by CSIRO Australia. –Journal Reference-Weisman et al. Honeybee silk: Recombinant protein production, assembly and fiber spinning. Biomaterials, 2010; 31 (9): 2695 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2009.12.021
    Sunlight Plus Lime Juice Makes Drinking Water Safer
    ScienceDaily (Apr. 17, 2012) — Looking for an inexpensive and effective way to quickly improve the quality of your drinking water? According to a team of researchers from the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health and the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, sunlight and a twist of lime might do the trick. Researchers found that adding lime juice to water that is treated with a solar disinfection method removed detectable levels of harmful bacteria such as Escherichia coli (E. coli) significantly faster than solar disinfection alone.—The results are featured in the April 2012 issue of American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.–“For many countries, access to clean drinking water is still a major concern. Previous studies estimate that globally, half of all hospital beds are occupied by people suffering from a water-related illness,” said Kellogg Schwab, PhD, MS, senior author of the study, director of the Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program and a professor with the Bloomberg School’s Department of Environmental Health Sciences. “The preliminary results of this study show solar disinfection of water combined with citrus could be effective at greatly reducing E. coli levels in just 30 minutes, a treatment time on par with boiling and other household water treatment methods. In addition, the 30 milliliters of juice per 2 liters of water amounts to about one-half Persian lime per bottle, a quantity that will likely not be prohibitively expensive or create an unpleasant flavor.”[U3]—In low-income regions, solar disinfection of water is one of several household water treatment methods to effectively reduce the incidence of diarrheal illness. One method of using sunlight to disinfect water that is recommended by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) is known as SODIS (Solar water Disinfection). The SODIS method requires filling 1 or 2 L polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic) bottles with water and then exposing them to sunlight for at least 6 hours[U4]. In cloudy weather, longer exposure times of up to 48 hours may be necessary to achieve adequate disinfection. To determine if one of the active constituents in limes known as psoralenes could enhance solar disinfection of water, Schwab and Alexander Harding, lead author of the study and a medical student at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, looked at microbial reductions after exposure to both sunlight and simulated sunlight. The researchers filled PET plastic bottles with dechlorinated tap water and then added lime juice, lime slurry, or synthetic psoralen and either E. coli, MS2 bacteriophage or murine norovirus. Researchers found that lower levels of both E. coli and MS2 bacteriophage were statistically significant following solar disinfection when either lime juice or lime slurry was added to the water compared to solar disinfection alone. They did find however, that noroviruses were not dramatically reduced using this technique, indicating it is not a perfect solution.–“Many cultures already practice treatment with citrus juice, perhaps indicating that this treatment method will be more appealing to potential SODIS users than other additives such as TiO2 [titanium dioxide] or H2O2[hydrogen peroxide],” suggest the authors of the study. However, they caution, “additional research should be done to evaluate the use of lemon or other acidic fruits, as Persian limes may be difficult to obtain in certain regions.”–The research was supported in part by the Osprey Foundation of Maryland, The Johns Hopkins University Global Water Program, the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Dean’s Funding for Summer Research and the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Scholarly Concentrations.Story Source–The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health. –Journal Reference–A. S. Harding, K. J. Schwab. Using Limes and Synthetic Psoralens to Enhance Solar Disinfection of Water (SODIS): A Laboratory Evaluation with Norovirus, Escherichia coli, and MS2. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, 2012; 86 (4): 566 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0370
    TOP E
    [U1]A bacteriophage (from ‘bacteria’ and Greek φαγεῖν phagein “to devour”) is any one of a number of viruses that infect bacteria
    [U2]Always a reason for the violation of genetics —a good cause to treat and do something when they already have a more normal means of achievigng this
    [U3]30 mils- 1 oz+ — 2 litres = 33 oz
    [U4]Do it in Glass not this —this will leach eventually xeno estrogens into the body causing endocrine disrupting effects-that may lead to cancer
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    Show Of The Week April 23 2012
    How to apply the iodine to get the desired results
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    Recipe for Removing Lead
    How to apply the iodine to get the desired results
    Iodine is an effective disinfectant for viruses, bacteria, and many cysts at IWPD manufacturer recommended iodine dosages and contact times. In general, iodine is most effective against bacteria, followed by viruses. Iodine is least effective against cysts. Iodine is not an effective disinfectant against Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts (references 2, 3, 15 and16). Most manufacturers of iodine solution IWPDs recommend dosages between 4 and 16 mg/L with contact times ranging from 20 – 35 minutes, resulting in CTs of 80 – 560 mg-min/L. CT is the
    product of disinfectant concentration (C in mg/L) and contact time (T in min). The CT product-is a useful way for comparing alternative disinfectants and the resistance of various pathogens (reference 26). Because cysts are most resistant, dosages and contact times will be based on
    inactivation of cysts and CTs will be in the high-end of the 80 – 560 mg-min/L CT range. Compared to other disinfectants such as chlorine and chloramines, iodine reacts less with organic compounds, is less soluble, is least hydrolyzed in water, and is effective over the pH range likely
    encountered in natural water sources likely to be treated with an IWPD (references 2, 3 and 17). Together, these characteristics mean that low iodine residuals will persist longer, be more stable, and exert less of a demand in the presence of organic matter compared to chlorine and
    chloramines (reference 12). It has been established that only iodine and hypoiodous acid are capable of biocidal activity. The other iodine species are not effective biocides (references 3, 11, 12 and 16). For these reasons only iodine and hypoiodous acid are the iodine species considered in this paper.
    In general, the pH of most natural water sources is neutral to mildly acidic, which is within the effective range for chemical disinfectants used for drinking water, including iodine solutions (reference 3). Iodine and hypoiodous acid have varying degrees of biocidal effectiveness against various pathogens. Iodine is up to three times more cysticidal and 6 times more sporocidal than hypoiodous acid (reference 3). Hypoiodous acid, on the other hand, is 40 times more virucidal and up to 4 times more bactericidal than iodine (reference 3). Because the concentration of these iodine species is dependent upon pH and initial iodine dose (see Figure), the following generalizations can be made. Iodine solutions are more effective cysticides and poorer virucides and bactericides at mildly acidic pH levels (< pH 7). Iodine solutions are more effective virucides and bactericides and poorer cysticides at alkaline pH levels (> pH 7). And, because it generally takes much longer to inactivate cysts than bacteria and viruses, iodine solutions used as IWPDs would be most effective at near neutral to mildly alkaline pH levels. However, at pH levels above 8, biocidal capability may drop sharply because HOI becomes unstable and decomposes to iodate and iodide, which are not effective biocides (see iodine chemistry above). To use iodine most effectively as a disinfectant, the pH should be near neutral to mildly alkaline to allow adequate levels of both iodine and hypoiodous acid (reference 4).
    In general, colder water temperatures reduce the disinfection capability of iodine solutions and other chemical disinfectants (references 9, 17 and 21). Cold water temperatures slow disinfection and must be compensated for by longer contact time or higher concentration to achieve comparable disinfection at warmer water temperatures (reference 3). A 2 to 3-fold increase in inactivation rates per 10° C water temperature increase seems a generally accepted rule (reference 3). Studies have shown a significant impact on iodine disinfection capability by temperature. One study showed CT’s to provide 2-log inactivation of the E. Coli bacteria were 2-9 times higher in colder waters (2-5° C) than in warmer waters of 20-25° C (references 9 and 22). Another study showed a CT 3 times higher was necessary at a 3° C water temperature (CT = 200 mg-min/L) compared to 23° C water temperature (CT = 65 mg-min/L) for a 2-log inactivation of E. histolytica cysts (references 9 and 10). Another study using Giardia cysts showed CT’s up to 3 times higher in 3° C water resulted in only a 1.5-log inactivation compared to CT’s at 20° C which resulted in > 2.7-log inactivation (references 7 and 21). These studies show temperature has a significant effect on iodine disinfection capability. Longer contact times and/or higher iodine doses (i.e., increased CT’s) are necessary in colder waters. Using a 2-fold CT increase for every 10° C decrease in water temperature is a good estimate to use when determining CT requirements for iodine disinfection capability.
    Numerous studies indicate iodine is an effective bactericide over the range of temperature and pH expected in natural water sources (references 9, 10, 22 and 27). Very low CT levels, ranging from 0.4 – 2.4 mg-min/L are required to inactivate 2-logs of E. Coli over a wide pH range (6 – 9) and temperature range (2 – 37° C) (reference 9). CT’s of less than 10 mg-min/L resulted in a 4- log inactivation of E. Coli at a near neutral pH (6 – 7) and extreme temperatures (~ 0 – 37° C) (references 9 and 27). These low CT’s translate into low iodine residuals and/or short contact times. For example, assuming a contact time of 20 minutes, a 0.5 mg/L iodine residual would be necessary to provide 4-log inactivation of E. Coli at near neutral pH at any temperature encountered in natural waters (20 min x 0.5 mg/L = 10 mg-min/L). When iodine solutions are used at typical doses for emergency drinking water disinfection (4 – 16 mg/L) and typical recommended contact times (20 – 35 minutes), the resulting CT’s of 80 – 560 mg-min/L would likely ensure a 6-log inactivation of bacteria.