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Glucose Deprivation Activates Feedback Loop That Kills Cancer Cells
In cancer cells, glucose starvation activates a metabolic and signaling feedback loop leading to cell death. Glucose starvation induces generation of reactive oxygen species generation (ROS), thereby inhibiting phosphatases and activating tyrosine kinases, which in turn generate additional ROS. This glucose starvation-induced positive feedback loop amplifies ROS levels until cells undergo ROS-mediated cell death. —ScienceDaily (June 26, 2012) — Compared to normal cells, cancer cells have a prodigious appetite for glucose, the result of a shift in cell metabolism known as aerobic glycolysis or the “Warburg effect.” Researchers focusing on this effect as a possible target for cancer therapies have examined how biochemical signals present in cancer cells regulate the altered metabolic state.—Now, in a unique study, a UCLA research team led by Thomas Graeber, a professor of molecular and medical pharmacology, has investigated the reverse aspect: how the metabolism of glucose affects the biochemical signals present in cancer cells.—In research published June 26 in the journal Molecular Systems Biology, Graeber and his colleagues demonstrate that glucose starvation — that is, depriving cancer cells of glucose — activates a metabolic and signaling amplification loop that leads to cancer cell death as a result of the toxic accumulation of reactive oxygen species, the cell-damaging molecules and ions targeted by antioxidants like vitamin C.—The research, which involved UCLA scientists from the Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, the Institute for Molecular Medicine, the California NanoSystems Institute, the Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, the Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regenerative Medicine and Stem Cell Research, and the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, demonstrates the power of systems biology in uncovering relationships between metabolism and signaling at the network level.—“Most strikingly, our discovery that glucose withdrawal causes both cell death and increased tyrosine phosphorylation is intriguing because increased tyrosine kinase signaling is normally associated with cell growth,” said Nicholas A. Graham, a senior postdoctoral scholar in Graeber’s lab who helped design the project.—To explain the seemingly contradictory result that glucose deprivation reduced viability and at the same time increased signaling, the authors used an unbiased systems-biology approach that included phospho-tyrosine mass spectrometry and other biochemical profiling techniques.—Assessing the “crosstalk” between metabolism and signaling, they discovered that the glucose deprivation activates a positive feedback loop whereby the withdrawal of glucose induces increased levels of reactive oxygen species, which in turn inhibit negative regulators of tyrosine signaling. The resulting supra-physiological levels of tyrosine phosphorylation then generate additional reactive oxygen species.—“Because cancer cells live on the edge of what is metabolically feasible, this amplifying cycle of oxidative stress ultimately overwhelms and kills the cancer cell,” Graeber explained. “These findings illustrate the delicate balance that exists between metabolism and signaling in the maintenance of cancer cell homeostasis.”—In addition, the authors showed the possibility of exploiting this positive feedback loop for therapeutic intervention. Combining short-term glucose deprivation with an inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatases, they demonstrated synergistic cell death in a cancer cell line.—“Understanding the links between metabolism and signaling will empower new therapeutic approaches toward inducing this metabolic catastrophe,” Graham said. “This study provides a framework for rational design of combinatorial therapeutics targeting both metabolism and signaling in cancer.”—The findings by Graeber and his colleagues add to the emerging concept of systems integration between oncogenic signaling networks and the metabolism of malignant tumors. The work lays a foundation for future studies delineating how signaling and metabolism are linked, with the ultimate goal of refining therapeutic strategies targeting cancer metabolism.—The research team also included collaborators from the department of neurology and the human oncology and pathogenesis program at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center and the department of pharmacology at Weill-Cornell Medical College.—The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and the California Institute of Technology-University of California, Los Angeles, Joint Center for Translational Medicine.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of California – Los Angeles. The original article was written by Jennifer Marcus. –Journal Reference-Nicholas A Graham, Martik Tahmasian, Bitika Kohli, Evangelia Komisopoulou, Maggie Zhu, Igor Vivanco, Michael A Teitell, Hong Wu, Antoni Ribas, Roger S Lo, Ingo K Mellinghoff, Paul S Mischel, Thomas G Graeber. Glucose deprivation activates a metabolic and signaling amplification loop leading to cell death. Molecular Systems Biology, 2012; 8 DOI: 10.1038/msb.2012.20
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Drinking Coffee with Caffeine may Reduce the risk of Basal Cell Carcinoma
Drinking coffee with caffeine may reduce the risk of basal cell carcinoma, the most common form of skin cancer, a new study suggests. —“Our data indicate that the more caffeinated coffee you consume, the lower your risk of developing basal cell carcinoma,” said Jiali Han, associate professor at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School in Boston and Harvard School of Public Health. The findings add to other apparent benefits of coffee, which has been at least suggestively linked to lower risk of depression in women and may counteract cognitive decline. Coffee may even help prevent Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease and type 2 diabetes. [Coffee Habits: Infographic] — “Our results add basal cell carcinoma to a list of conditions for which risk is decreased with increasing coffee consumption,” Han in a statement. “This list includes conditions with serious negative health consequences such as type 2 diabetes and Parkinson’s disease.”— Han and his colleagues studied data from the Nurses’ Health Study, a large and long-running study to aid in the investigation of factors influencing women’s health, and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, a similar study for men.—Of the 112,897 participants included in the analyses, 22,786 developed basal cell carcinoma during the more than 20 years of follow-up in the two studies, the researchers explained in a statement. Lower risk of developing basal cell carcinoma was linked to consumption of caffeinated coffee as well as caffeine from other sources: tea, cola and chocolate. Decaffeinated coffee did not have the same effect.—“These results really suggest that it is the caffeine in coffee that is responsible for the decreased risk of basal cell carcinoma associated with increasing coffee consumption,” Han said. “This would be consistent with published mouse data, which indicate caffeine can block skin tumor formation. However, more studies in different population cohorts and additional mechanistic studies will be needed before we can say this definitively.”—No link was established between caffeine consumption and risk for two other forms of skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma, the most deadly form of the disease.—The findings are detailed in Cancer Research, a journal of the American Association for Cancer Research.
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Moderate Coffee Consumption Offers Protection Against Heart Failure
New research shows a possible benefit from coffee consumption, but like with so many other things we consume, it really depends on how much coffee you drink, the researchers say. —ScienceDaily (June 26, 2012) — While current American Heart Association heart failure prevention guidelines warn against habitual coffee consumption, some studies propose a protective benefit, and still others find no association at all. Amidst this conflicting information, research from Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center attempts to shift the conversation from a definitive yes or no, to a question of how much.—“Our results did show a possible benefit, but like with so many other things we consume, it really depends on how much coffee you drink,” says lead author Elizabeth Mostofsky, MPH, ScD, a post-doctoral fellow in the cardiovascular epidemiological unit at BIDMC. “And compared with no consumption, the strongest protection we observed was at about four European, or two eight-ounce American, servings of coffee per day.”—The study published June 26 online in the journal Circulation: Heart Failure, found that these moderate coffee drinkers were at 11 percent lower risk of heart failure.—Data was analyzed from five previous studies — four conducted in Sweden, one in Finland — that examined the association between coffee consumption and heart failure. The self-reported data came from 140,220 participants and involved 6,522 heart failure events.—In a summary of the published literature, the authors found a “statistically significant J-shaped relationship” between habitual coffee consumption and heart failure, where protective benefits begin to increase with consumption maxing out at two eight-ounce American servings a day. Protection slowly decreases the more coffee is consumed until at five cups, there is no benefit and at more than five cups a day, there may be potential for harm.—It’s unclear why moderate coffee consumption provides protection from heart failure, but the researchers say part of the answer may lie in the intersection between regular coffee drinking and two of the strongest risk factors for heart failure — diabetes and elevated blood pressure.–“There is a good deal of research showing that drinking coffee lowers the risk for type 2 diabetes, says senior author Murray Mittleman, MD, DrPH, a physician in the Cardiovascular Institute at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, an Associate Professor of Medicine at Harvard Medical School and director of BIDMC’s cardiovascular epidemiological research program. “It stands to reason that if you lower the risk of diabetes, you also lower the risk of heart failure.”—There may also be a blood pressure benefit. Studies have consistently shown that light coffee and caffeine consumption are known to raise blood pressure. “But at that moderate range of consumption, people tend to develop a tolerance where drinking coffee does not pose a risk and may even be protective against elevated blood pressure,” says Mittleman.–This study was not able to assess the strength of the coffee, nor did it look at caffeinated versus non-caffeinated coffee.—“There is clearly more research to be done,” says Mostofsky. “But in the short run, this data may warrant a change to the guidelines to reflect that coffee consumption, in moderation, may provide some protection from heart failure.”–Other study authors are Megan Rice, Sc.D., and Emily Levitan, Sc.D.-The research was supported by grants from the National Institutes of Health.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, via Newswise.
 
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Show of the Month July 13 2012
 
Unprecedented–Class Action Lawsuit against Church, State and Big Pharma given Green Light
 
The Key (Proteins) to Self-Renewing Skin
 
How to make Serum Vitamin C for internal and External Use
 
Simple Exercises Are an Easy and Cost-Effective Treatment for Persistent Dizziness
 
Vertigo Can Be Treated Easily And Quickly
 
Canalith repositioning procedure for right-sided benign paroxysmal positional vertigo
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Unprecedented–Class Action Lawsuit against Church, State and Big Pharma given Green Light
 
Activist Post—Toronto, Canada – History was made yesterday when a legal team headed by Jason Bowman of the ACP was granted the right to proceed with its filing of a criminal conspiracy lawsuit against the Vatican, Crown of England and other parties.–A Federal Court judge in Toronto examined the material and granted leave for the full application to be filed and presented in court next Monday, July 9.—-According to Bowman, who acted on behalf of both the ACP and ITCCS,-We expected to simply file a motion … Instead, the Court directed that we file not only the ex-parte motion materials, but also our entire Application a full week earlier than we were expecting. Naturally, I was elated.
A crowd of supporters accompanied Bowman to the Federal Court where he secured a preliminary hearing and approval to proceed from the on duty judge.—-Afterwards, the group held a press conference nearby and was harassed by security guards and at least one agent provocateur named Greg Renouf who tried to incite violence and discredit both Bowman and ITCCS founder and co-applicant Kevin Annett. Renouf has since then posted a derogatory and untruthful YouTube posting about the event.—An attempted livestream broadcast of the event was inexplicably disrupted, although blog media activists who were present reported the news extensively on the Internet.—None of the “mainstream” media in Toronto attended the press conference.—The ACP-ITCCS lawsuit is the first of its kind: a class action aimed at so-called heads of state, including the Pope and the Queen of England, on behalf of victims of alleged crimes against humanity committed by churches, governments and corporations.—-
Also named in this suit as defendants are the government of Canada, the United Church of Canada, the Church of England, and pharmaceutical companies, all of which are charged with crimes against humanity and criminally conspiring to obstruct justice.—-Kevin Annett, who is named in the court application as a plaintiff against the Crown, Pope and other defendants, commented, As usual, the corporate media ignored us and paid operatives tried to discredit and stop us, but this time, we got our foot in the door of the court system. Wherever that leads us, we’ve taken another step towards forcing criminals in power to do time for their crimes. Whether it’s in this court or in a common law de jure one, the tables will be turned.—Stay tuned for you tube postings, and more updates after the July 9 court appearance, at http://www.itccs.org and http://federalclassactions.wordpress.com
For videos and other footage see:
UPDATE: Historical Application to be Filed and Served Upon the Vatican, the Queen, & Others – Court Directs Applicants in Chambers Today RE: Monday’s ex-parte Motion
See the evidence of Genocide in Canada and other crimes against the innocent at http://www.hiddennolonger.com and at the website of The International Tribunal into Crimes of Church and State at http://www.itccs.org.
Messages for Kevin Annett can be left at 250-591-4573 (Canada).
Watch Kevin’s award-winning documentary film Unrepentant on his website http://www.hiddenfromhistory.org
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The Key (Proteins) to Self-Renewing Skin
ScienceDaily (July 5, 2012) — In the July 6 issue of Cell Stem Cell, researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine describe how human epidermal progenitor cells and stem cells control transcription factors to avoid premature differentiation, preserving their ability to produce new skin cells throughout life.–The findings provide new insights into the role and importance of exosomes and their targeted gene transcripts, and may help point the way to new drugs or therapies for not just skin diseases, but other disorders in which stem and progenitor cell populations are affected.—Stem cells, of course, are specialized cells capable of endlessly replicating to become any type of cell needed, a process known as differentiation. Progenitor cells are more limited, typically differentiating into a specific type of cell and able to divide only a fixed number of times.—-Throughout life, human skin self-renews. Progenitor and stem cells deep in the epidermis constantly produce new skin cells called keratinocytes that gradually rise to the surface where they will be sloughed off. One of the ways that stem and progenitor cells maintain internal health during their lives is through the exosome — a collection of approximately 11 proteins responsible for degrading and recycling different RNA elements, such as messenger RNA that wear out or that contain errors resulting in the translation of dysfunctional proteins which could potentially be deleterious to the cell.—“In short,” said George L. Sen, PhD, assistant professor of medicine and cellular and molecular medicine, “the exosome functions as a surveillance system in cells to regulate the normal turnover of RNAs as well as to destroy RNAs with errors in them.”—–Sen and colleagues Devendra S. Mistry, PhD, a postdoctoral research fellow, and staff scientist Yifang Chen, MD, PhD, discovered that in the epidermis the exosome functions to target and destroy mRNAs that encode for transcription factors that induce differentiation. Specifically, they found that the exosome degrades a transcription factor called GRHL3 in epidermal progenitor cells, keeping the latter undifferentiated. Upon receiving differentiation inducing signals, the progenitor cells lose expression of certain subunits of the exosome which leads to higher levels of GRHL3 protein. This increase in GRHL3 levels promotes the differentiation of the progenitor cells.—-“Without a functioning exosome in progenitor cells,” said Sen, “the progenitor cells prematurely differentiate due to increased levels of GRHL3 resulting in loss of epidermal tissue over time.”—–Sen said the findings could have particular relevance if future research determines that mutations in exosome genes are linked to skin disorders or other diseases. “Recently there was a study showing that recessive mutations in a subunit of the exosome complex can lead to pontocerebellar hypoplasia, a rare neurological disorder characterized by impaired development or atrophy of parts of the brain,” said Sen. “This may potentially be due to loss of progenitor cells. Once mutations in exosome complex genes are identified in either skin diseases or other diseases like pontocerebellar hypoplasia, it may be possible to design drugs targeting these defects.”
Funding for this research came, in part, from the National Institutes of Health grant K01AR057828-04 and a Ray Thomas Edwards Award.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of California, San Diego Health Sciences. –Journal Reference-Devendra S. Mistry, Yifang Chen, George L. Sen. Progenitor Function in Self-Renewing Human Epidermis is Maintained by the Exosome. Cell Stem Cell, 6 July 2012; 11(1) pp. 127 – 135 DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2012.04.022
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How to make Serum Vitamin C for internal and External Use
Vitamin C serum Active Ingredient : 1-1.2 grams Vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) (approximately 1/4 teaspoon) (The active ingredient must be L-ascorbic acid, not vitamin C tablets, or calcium Ascorbate) This can also be purchased from Skin Actives.
Base Ingredients. 5 ml glycerine (1 teaspoon) 5ml water (1 teaspoon) You should be able to buy both the L-ascorbic acid and glycerine from your chemist store.
Process. 1. Dissolve 1gram of L-ascorbic acid in 5 ml of water (preferably distilled), in small glass container using a stirrer. Make sure it is fully dissolved before proceeding to next step.
Add 5 ml of glycerine and mix.
Put in a sealable jar, (not clear glass as this allows light in, and light degrades vitamin C.) Store in cool dry place.
Voila – your own fresh vitamin C serum. Apply to skin once per day to start with (preferably at night), and increase to twice daily if tolerated.
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Simple Exercises Are an Easy and Cost-Effective Treatment for Persistent Dizziness
ScienceDaily (July 5, 2012) — A professor from the University of Southampton has called on doctors around the world to give patients with persistent dizziness a booklet of simple exercises, after new research has shown that it is a very cost effective treatment for common causes of the condition.—-Lucy Yardley, who has been researching dizziness for many years, will urge GPs at the international WONCA conference  July 5 to ensure that the booklet is translated so that patients of all nationalities can benefit.—Professor Yardley’s urgent appeal comes after her study, funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) and published in the British Medical Journal, revealed that the exercises, such as turning your head right to left and back again or nodding your head up and down, led to reduced dizziness within a matter of weeks of starting, and the benefits lasted for at least a year.—Dizziness is a common condition, especially among older people, but it can affect any age. It can interfere with people’s daily activities and cause stress. It also increases the risk of falling and fear of falling, which in turn, can result in substantial further limitation of activity, injury, and healthcare costs.—Research has shown that an exercise-based treatment known as “vestibular rehabilitation” or “balance retraining” is the most effective means of treating dizziness related to inner ear problems (a very common cause of dizziness), however currently only about one in ten suitable patients are referred for this treatment.—During the study, which Professor Yardley is presenting at the WONCA conference, more than 300 participants were randomly allocated to receive either routine medical care (commonly just reassurance and medication to suppress dizziness symptoms), booklet based vestibular rehabilitation only, or booklet based vestibular rehabilitation with telephone support from a healthcare professional.—-The majority of patients within the study, an NIHR Research for Patient Benefit project, suffered from dizziness due to an inner ear problem, however there were many patients who had undiagnosed dizziness.—Nearly twice as many patients who had the booklet and telephone support said they felt much better or totally well at the end of the study, compared with those who had routine care. Even without any support, getting the booklet led to better recovery than routine care. Only 5 per cent of patients receiving the booklet with support reported worse symptoms at the end of the study, compared with 15 per cent of those receiving usual care.—-Professor Yardley says: “Dizziness can be a frustrating and sometimes frightening condition. Many people are undiagnosed, have no treatment for it and just learn to live with it. This leads to a low quality of life and can have high healthcare costs. By being given something as a simple as a booklet by their GP, that contains these simple head, neck and eye exercises, many patients will see real benefits in just a few weeks. These easy to understand exercises, which can be carried out at home, have the potential to improve the quality of life for thousands of people.”—The University of Southampton worked with the Ménière’s Society UK during the study. The Society supplied the exercise booklets used in the study and has been giving them to health professionals and members of the public for seven years.—-Natasha Harrington-Benton, UK Director of the Society, comments: “Dizziness and balance disorders can be extremely debilitating and affect a person’s quality of life. This study demonstrates the benefits of vestibular rehabilitation in helping people to manage the symptoms of their condition. We are pleased to be able to provide access to the exercise booklets for both patients and health professionals and, to-date, we have distributed over 8,000 copies.”—Story Source—The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Southampton. —-Journal Reference-L. Yardley, F. Barker, I. Muller, D. Turner, S. Kirby, M. Mullee, A. Morris, P. Little. Clinical and cost effectiveness of booklet based vestibular rehabilitation for chronic dizziness in primary care: single blind, parallel group, pragmatic, randomised controlled trial. BMJ, 2012; 344 (jun06 1): e2237 DOI: 10.1136/bmj.e2237
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Vertigo Can Be Treated Easily And Quickly
ScienceDaily (May 26, 2008) — A new guideline developed by the American Academy of Neurology found that the best treatment for vertigo is the easiest and quickest one. The guideline on benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), an inner ear disorder that is a common cause of dizziness, is published in the May 27, 2008, issue of Neurology.—The disorder causes a feeling of spinning or whirling when the head is moved in certain ways, such as looking up or bending. The feeling lasts a short time but can be severe.–The guideline determined that in many cases the vertigo can be treated with simple maneuvers–a series of head and body movements performed by a doctor or therapist while the patient sits on a bed or table.—“The good news is that this type of vertigo is easily treated,” said guideline author Terry D. Fife, MD, of the University of Arizona College of Medicine and Barrow Neurological Institute. Fife is also a Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology. “Instead of telling patients to ‘wait it out’ or having them take drugs, we can perform a safe and quick treatment that is immediate and effective.”
Several maneuvers are in use for vertigo. The guideline found that canalith repositioning procedure, also called the Epley maneuver, is safe and effective for people of all ages. The Semont maneuver is possibly an effective treatment. To develop the guideline, the authors analyzed all available scientific studies on the topic.—-The disorder is believed to be caused by loose calcium carbonate crystals that move in the sensing tubes of the inner ear. The maneuvers move the calcium crystals out of the sensing tube and into another inner chamber of the ear, from which they can be absorbed.—The guideline also evaluated whether restrictions on activity are needed after the maneuvers are performed. “There is no clear evidence to support these restrictions, which include sleeping upright and wearing a cervical collar,” Fife said.—The guideline also reviewed whether patients can perform the maneuvers safely and effectively at home. “Having patients treat themselves using home exercises seems to pose little risk, but there is not sufficient evidence that this is as effective as maneuvers done by a doctor or therapist,” Fife said.—Story Source–The above story is reprinted from materials provided by American Academy of Neurology.
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Canalith repositioning procedure for right-sided benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.
 
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Steps 1 and 2 are identical to the Dix–Hallpike maneuver. The patient is held in the right head hanging position (Step 2) for 20 to 30 seconds, and then in Step 3 the head is turned 90 degrees toward the unaffected side. Step 3 is held for 20 to 30 seconds before turning the head another 90 degrees (Step 4) so the head is nearly in the face-down position. Step 4 is held for 20 to 30 seconds, and then the patient is brought to the sitting up position. The movement of the canalith material within the labyrinth is depicted with each step, showing how canaliths are moved from the semicircular canal to the vestibule. Although it is advisable for the examiner to guide the patient through these steps, it is the patient’s head position that is the key to a successful treatment. (Figure from Fife, et al. Neurology 2008;70:2067-74)
To view a video demonstration link to
http://www.neurology.org/cgi/content/full/70/22/2067/DC2
 
 
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Show Of the Week July16 2012
 
Three coffees a day keeps dementia away
Prebiotics may enhance magnesium uptake from diet
Homemade Citrus Pectin
Pectin made from citrus fruit
Unfounded claims against apple pectin
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Three coffees a day keeps dementia away
Drinking three cups of coffee a day could reduce the risk of Alzheimer’s disease, according to a study by Florida-based researchers.
Keeping high blood caffeine levels by drinking coffee was found to help at-risk adults over 65 to avoid the onset Alzheimer’s disease.–The study by Chuanhai Cao et al. was published online today ahead of publication in the Journal of Alzheimer’s disease.
Coffee: main caffeine source for study participants
The researchers monitored the cognitive status of 124 people aged between 65 and 88 displaying mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an early sign of the disease. Many participants were expected to develop Alzheimer’s within a few years.—No MCI patients with a blood caffeine level above 1,200 ng/ml developed the disease over a 2-4 year period. The main or only caffeine source for these individuals was coffee.—Study lead author and neuroscientist Chuanhai Cao, said: “These intriguing results suggest that older adults with mild memory impairment who drink moderate levels of coffee — about 3 cups a day — will not convert to Alzheimer’s disease — or at least will experience a substantial delay before converting to Alzheimer’s,”–“The results from this study, along with our earlier studies in Alzheimer’s mice, are very consistent in indicating that moderate daily caffeine/coffee intake throughout adulthood should appreciably protect against Alzheimer’s disease later in life,” he continued.–Reduced risk, but no complete protection—The researchers claim the study is the first to provide a direct link between caffeine/coffee intake and reduced Alzheimer’s risk or delayed onset.–“We are not saying that moderate coffee consumption will completely protect people from Alzheimer’s disease,” Cao continued.—“However, we firmly believe that moderate coffee consumption can appreciably reduce your risk of Alzheimer’s or delay its onset.”—Other coffee perks–In the past year alone, coffee has been linked to a series of health benefits.—In Feburary, NutraIngredients.com reported on a study that found high consumption of coffee could reduce the risk of advanced fibrosis in those with fatty liver disease.—Another recent study found that the caffeine laden drink could reduce the risk of womb (endometrial) cancer, while other research has linked coffee to reduced diabetes risk.—-Citation–Study: ‘High Blood Caffeine Levels in MCI Linked to Lack of Progression to Dementia ,’ Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 30 (2012) 559–572 DOI 10.3233/JAD-2012-111781-By Chuanhai Caoa, David A. Loewensteine, Xiaoyang Linc, Chi Zhangc, Li Wangc, Ranjan Duarae, Yougui Wuh, Alessandra Gianninid, Ge Baii, Jianfeng Caii, Maria Greige,, Elizabeth Schofielde, Raj Ashokc, Brent Smallj, Huntington Potterc,k and Gary W. Arendashd,
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Prebiotics may enhance magnesium uptake from diet
Prebiotic fibers may enhance the absorption and retention in rats, suggests new data from Purdue University with implications for bone health in postmenopausal women.—Supplementation of the diet with commercial ingredients Synergy1 (Beneo), Fruitafit HD (Sensus) or polydextrose (Tate & Lyle) was associated with an increase in magnesium absorption and retention of about 20% and 23%, respectively, according to findings published in the Journal of Food Science.—Explaining the practical implications of their findings, the researchers note: “Steady growth in US middle-aged and elderly populations has led to higher incidences of several chronic diseases including osteoporosis, a bone disease that primarily affects postmenopausal women. Recent research suggests that certain dietary fibers (prebiotics) enhance mineral absorption and may impart bone health benefits. —-“Study findings will aid future investigations in ascertaining the factors related to potential bone health benefits of prebiotic which will aid in developing an effective prebiotics food product/supplement that will address the bone health needs of consumers.”-Prebiotics—This is not the first time that prebiotics have been reported to beneficially influence magnesium uptake. A study by Cargill and TNO Quality of Life from 2009 (Nutrition Research, Vol. 29, pp. 229-237) indicated that fructo-oligosaccharide consumption increased magnesium absorption in 12- to 15-year-old girls by 18% after 36 days.—The potential benefits of prebiotics include improved bone health, colon health, immunity, satiety, and weight management.–The chicory root is the major source of prebiotic ingredients. Inulin and oligofructose are the two major ingredients sourced from the root that is mainly grown in Belgium and Northern France where the world’s ‘big three’ suppliers (Beneo-Orafti, Sensus, Cosucra) are based.—Study details—The Purdue scientists divided female lab rats into six groups. The first group acted as the controls, while the other five groups had their ovaries removed to act as a model of post-menopausal conditions. One of the ovariectomized rat groups was fed the control diet only, one group received daily estradiol (E2) injections, and the other three groups had their daily diet supplemented with Synergy1, Fruitafit HD, or polydextrose at a level of 5%.-The researchers found that the polydextrose-fed rats had higher calcium absorption efficiency and retention than the other groups after a few days, but this difference was no longer observed after four weeks of feeding.–Both inulin-based fibers (Synergy1 and Fruitafit HD) produced positive effects on calcium metabolism related to changes in the gut, they said.–“Although prebiotics increased mineral absorption and utilization, the increase did not translate to improved indicators of bone strength suggesting that a four week dietary prebiotics treatment may not be sufficient to have a substantial impact on bone after stabilization following menopause,” they noted.  “Longer treatment duration as well as administration of treatment during growth or early or perimenopausal phase may produce larger benefits.”—-Source: Journal of Food Science –Volume 77, Issue  4, Pages H88-94, doi: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2011.02612.x “Prebiotics enhance magnesium absorption and inulin-based fibers exert chronic effects on calcium utilization in a postmenopausal rodent model” Authors: L.L. Legette, W. Lee, B.R. Martin, J.A. Story, J.K. Campbell, C.M. Weaver
Recipe—take the yogurt of choice( plain and with fat) and add a magnesium capsule ( whatever you are using) or a liquid  form of magnesium( 1 tsp of a liquid)  mix it well in the yogurt container or bowl—then allow it to sit out over night allowing the fermentation to take place—next day consume the allotted container—this will increase the uptake—to see the results this may have to be utilized for an extended period of time
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Homemade Citrus Pectin
The white parts of citrus peels are naturally high in pectin
Pectin is a naturally occurring substance in fruit that makes sweet preserves gel. However, some fruits are low in pectin and need added pectin in order to gel. You can buy commercial pectin, or you can make your own from citrus peels. You can also make pectin from apples.
High-pectin citrus peel is what makes marmalade gel without added pectin. Keep in mind that it is the white pith, or inner part of the citrus peel that is rich in pectin. Under-ripe fruits have more of this pith than fully ripe fruits. You can use any citrus for this recipe, but grapefruit works especially well because of its larger pith.
Prep Time: 5 minutes
Cook Time: 15 minutes
Maceration time: 3 hours
Total Time: 3 hours, 20 minutes
Yield: 1 pint
Ingredients:
½ lb white parts of citrus peels
2 cups water
¼ cup lemon juice
Preparation:
Remove the colorful zest of the peels with a zester or vegetable peel. Set aside for another use (wonderfully aromatic and flavorful, this zest could overwhelm the flavors of other fruits in your jams and jellies). Cut off white parts, finely chop and weigh.
Combine the chopped citrus peel pith with the lemon juice in a medium sized pot. Let stand for 2 hours. Add the water and let stand for another hour.
Bring the mixture to a boil over high heat. Reduce heat and simmer for 15 minutes. Remove from heat and let cool.
Strain through a jelly bag or several layers of cheesecloth. The liquid pectin will keep in the refrigerator for a week, or in the freezer for 6 months.
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Pectin made from citrus fruit
Pectin is concentrated mainly in the peel – in the white, inner part of the skin (pith), in the membranes between the sections and in the seeds. Citrus fruit produces a lot of super jelling pectin, but it has a pronounced flavor which comes from the slightly bitter pith. The membranes and seeds have a neutral flavor. Underripe fruit posseses thick skins and will produce more pectin than a fully matured fruit. The fully ripe fruit left on the tree will have even thinner skin and only a little pectin.—What follows below is the excellent formula for citrus pectin from an old document: Stennis, M.A., “Citrus Conservation” Florida Fruits and Vegetables in the Commercial Menu, State of Florida Department of Agriculture, Tallahassee, 1931.
½ lb white part (pith) of orange peel, about 8 oranges may be needed.
1 pint (2 cups) of water
4 Tbsp. lemon juice
The more pronounced flavor of a lemon pectin base means it’s most suited for a jam or jelly where you want the lemon flavor.
Instructions
Peel the oranges, you should have 4 skin quarters. Cut those quarters into narrower strips and remove the white peel with a knife. Chop the white peel through a food processor or cut with a knife.
Mix grated white peel with lemon juice and allow to stand for 1 hour. Add 1 pint of water and set it aside for another hour.
Boil gently 10 minutes. Switch off the heat, cover and let the pot cool. Perform the pectin alcohol test.
Drain and filter.
Store in refrigerator.
Second extraction
After the pectin stock was drained away, the pulp can be mixed with 3/4 pint of water again and reboiled gently for 10 minutes. Then it should be cooled and drained. If the alcohol test shows that the pectin stock is too thin, it can be simmered for 10 minutes to evaporate some water. Both extractions may be mixed together.
If a pectin stock satisfies the alcohol test, it will gel and the jelly will set. Apple or orange pectin stock can be used for making apple or orange jelly, or it may be added to other fruits and juices that are pectin poor. For example, strawberries, pears, blueberries, and apricots are pectin poor and will benefit if a solid pectin stock is added. People knew nothing about pectin but it was a well known fact that it was easier to make strawberry pectin if some apples were added.
Left glass – apple pectin, Right glass – orange pectin
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Unfounded claims against apple pectin
Lengfelder, Frenzel and Kenigsberg claimed that pectin had no useful properties. According to them, a study had been conducted by Herbstreith and Fox in Germany had proved that pectin was ineffective in decorporation (removing from body) of radionuclides. When a representative from Herbstreith and Fox was later interviewed, he said that only the effect of apple pectin on heavy metals had been studied, not the effect on radionuclide (p.137 of [1]). —But in a letter sent from the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation in 2003 to local health authority directors, the pectin product Zosterine-Ultra was recommended as a “mass prophylactic in the atomic industry [with] the capacity to eliminate from the body the toxic components of lead, mercury, cadmium, zinc, manganese and other heavy metals as well as radionuclides including plutonium.” It was “perfectly tolerated by patients and has no contra indications.”  The letter went on to say how important this product has been in the Chernobyl area in “lowering the levels of accumulation and concentration of toxic substances in the body, and reinforcing the body’s own defence mechanisms.” And the product has been “approved as a therapeutic and prophylactic food additive by various medical research institutes, hospitals and clinics, including the State Scientific Centre, Institute of Biophysics, the Institute of Research of the Academy of Medical Science of Russia, the Kirov Academy of Military Medicine, the Institute of Toxicology at the Ministry for Public Health in Russia, the Academy of Ongoing Medical Training (Saint Petersberg).” In short, it was a ringing endorsement from the Russian Ministry of Health.
 
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Show Of the Week July 20 2012
 
Air in Expectant Moms’ Homes Contains Pesticides, Texas-Mexico Border
 
Hormone-Mimicking Chemicals Cause Inter-Species Mating: Bisphenol A Breaks Down Fish Species Barriers
THE LAW OF HIPPOCRATES
Toxicity mechanisms of onion (Allium cepa) extracts and compounds in multidrug resistant erythroleukemic cell line
 
Astragaloside IV and cycloastragenol stimulate
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Air in Expectant Moms’ Homes Contains Pesticides, Texas-Mexico Border Study Finds
ScienceDaily (July 11, 2012) — Air samples from homes of Hispanic mothers-to-be along the Texas-Mexico border contained multiple pesticides in a majority of the houses, according to a study conducted by the School of Medicine at The University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio.—All the women were in the third trimester of pregnancy, when the fetal brain undergoes a growth spurt. Several studies have reported that pesticide exposure may adversely affect mental and motor development during infancy and childhood. The new report is in the summer issue of the Texas Public Health Journal sent to members this week.—Two-thirds of the families surveyed said they used pest control methods to kill cockroaches, rodents and other pests. Pregnant women and infants often spend 90 percent of their day indoors.—-“There is a lack of education in our communities regarding the health hazards of these toxic pest control methods,” said lead author Beatriz Tapia, M.D., M.P.H., lecturer at the UT Health Science Center — Regional Academic Health Center campus in Harlingen, located 10 miles from the border. “We should concentrate on trying to educate families about low-cost methods that prevent infestations and use the least toxic pest control methods first.”—–A wise alternative—Integrated pest management (IPM) is a low-cost strategy to replace the use of residential pesticides, Dr. Tapia said. IPM focuses on installing screens and caulking doors and windows to keep out pests, putting away food and placing boric acid, a low-impact alternative, in walls.—“Once we educate our women of childbearing age about how they can safely and in a healthy manner diminish pests in their homes, they will feel empowered that they can make a difference in their family’s life,” Dr. Tapia said. She is a faculty associate in the university’s Department of Family and Community Medicine and serves as environmental medicine training coordinator for the South Texas Environmental Education and Research Center (STEER). She co-coordinates a 30-day Harlingen student elective in environmental and occupational medicine.
Samples show presence—The team sampled air in 25 households, finding at least five pesticides in 60 percent of the dwellings. Nine other pesticides were identified in less than one-third of the homes.—Ninety-two percent of the air samples contained o-phenylphenol, which is used as a fungicide, germicide and household disinfectant, while 80 percent included chlorpyrifos, employed in agriculture to kill mosquitoes and other pests. Propoxur, present in granular baits, pet collars and other products, showed up in 76 percent of samples, along with the insecticide diazinon in 72 percent. The herbicide trifluralin turned up in 60 percent of samples.—The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in June 2000 entered into an agreement to eliminate virtually all homeowner uses of chlorpyrifos, except ant and roach baits in child-resistant packaging. The EPA banned residential use of diazinon as of Dec. 31, 2004.
Pregnancy and pesticides don’t mix—–“Increasingly, pesticide exposures are being linked to neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD),” said co-author and STEER Director Claudia S. Miller, M.D., M.S., professor in environmental and occupational medicine with the Department of Family and Community Medicine. “Planning for pregnancy today should include not only prenatal vitamins and a good diet, but also avoiding potentially hazardous pesticides. Instead, use non-toxic approaches for pest control and IPM.”—Environmental medicine researchers at the Harlingen campus modeled the pilot project on studies conducted by the Columbia Center for Children’s Environmental Health. These studies, which sampled air in homes of mother/newborn pairs in northern Manhattan or South Bronx, showed that fetal and childhood exposure to pesticides can be measured in indoor air and can adversely affect fetal growth in a minority population.
Young Hispanics recruited—-The Harlingen researchers recruited pregnant Hispanic women from two maternity clinics in Hidalgo County. Enrolled women were 18-35 years old, had no serious medical conditions and had reached 30-34 weeks of gestation. The team asked the women questions about pesticide use and exposure, proximity to agricultural fields, and how often they saw spraying operations or detected pesticide or other odors drifting from fields.—Air samples were measured for multiple pesticides used in agriculture, given the close proximity of the fields to participant homes. These pesticides turned up in 12 percent of the homes, not as high a number as expected. “The reality is, when these pesticides are used outdoors, the sun and soil do their part and eliminate them from the environment,” Dr. Tapia said. “Indoors you don’t have nature helping you.”
Outdoor exposures may not be reflected—–Outdoor and indoor exposures are measured differently. “Agricultural spraying tends to result in shorter-term bursts, so-called acute exposures that may not be captured in a study like ours,” Dr. Miller said. “This is a limitation of most pesticide exposure studies in agricultural areas.”——Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, via EurekAlert!, a service of AAAS.
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Hormone-Mimicking Chemicals Cause Inter-Species Mating: Bisphenol A Breaks Down Fish Species Barriers
Hormone-mimicking chemicals released into rivers have been found to impact the mating choices of fish, a new study has revealed. The controversial chemical BPA, which emits estrogen-like properties, was found to alter an individual’s appearance and behavior, leading to inter-species breeding. —-ScienceDaily (July 11, 2012) — Hormone-mimicking chemicals released into rivers have been found to impact the mating choices of fish, a new study has revealed. The controversial chemical BPA, which emits estrogen-like properties, was found to alter an individual’s appearance and behavior, leading to inter-species breeding. The study, published in Evolutionary Applications, reveals the threat to biodiversity when the boundaries between species are blurred.—The research, led by Dr Jessica Ward from the University of Minnesota, focused on the impact of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Blacktail Shiner (Cyprinella venusta) and Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) fish which are found in rivers across the United States. BPA is an organic compound used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and other plastics. It is currently banned from baby bottles and children’s cups in 11 U.S. states.—“Chemicals from household products and pharmaceuticals frequently end up in rivers and BPA is known to be present in aquatic ecosystems across the United States,” said Ward. “Until now studies have primarily focused on the impact to individual fish, but our study demonstrates the impact of BPA on a population level.”—The team collected individuals of both species from two streams in the state of Georgia. The species were kept separated for 14 days in tanks, some of which contained BPA. On the 15th day behavioral trials were undertaken as individuals from different tanks were introduced to each other.–The scientists monitored any physiological or signalling differences the individuals displayed, such as color, as well as any behavioral differences during courtship, such as mate choice.—BPA disrupts an individual’s endocrine system, which controls the release of hormones. This impacts behavior and appearance, which in turn can lead an individual to mistake a newly introduced species as a potential mate.—This process poses long-term ecological consequences, especially in areas threatened by the introduction of invasive species. BPA and other hormone-mimicking chemicals can escalate the loss of native biodiversity by breaking down species barriers and promoting the invader. “Our research shows how the presence of these human made chemicals leads to a greater likelihood of hybridization between species,” concluded Ward. “This can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences, including the potential for the decline of our native species.” —Story Source- The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Wiley, via AlphaGalileo. -Journal Reference-Jessica L. Ward, Michael J. Blum. Exposure to an environmental estrogen breaks down sexual isolation between native and invasive species. Evolutionary Applications, 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00283.x
Hormone-mimicking chemicals released into rivers have been found to impact the mating choices of fish, a new study has revealed. The controversial chemical BPA, which emits estrogen-like properties, was found to alter an individual’s appearance and behavior, leading to inter-species breeding. —-ScienceDaily (July 11, 2012) — Hormone-mimicking chemicals released into rivers have been found to impact the mating choices of fish, a new study has revealed. The controversial chemical BPA, which emits estrogen-like properties, was found to alter an individual’s appearance and behavior, leading to inter-species breeding. The study, published in Evolutionary Applications, reveals the threat to biodiversity when the boundaries between species are blurred.—The research, led by Dr Jessica Ward from the University of Minnesota, focused on the impact of Bisphenol A (BPA) on Blacktail Shiner (Cyprinella venusta) and Red Shiner (Cyprinella lutrensis) fish which are found in rivers across the United States. BPA is an organic compound used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and other plastics. It is currently banned from baby bottles and children’s cups in 11 U.S. states.—“Chemicals from household products and pharmaceuticals frequently end up in rivers and BPA is known to be present in aquatic ecosystems across the United States,” said Ward. “Until now studies have primarily focused on the impact to individual fish, but our study demonstrates the impact of BPA on a population level.”—The team collected individuals of both species from two streams in the state of Georgia. The species were kept separated for 14 days in tanks, some of which contained BPA. On the 15th day behavioral trials were undertaken as individuals from different tanks were introduced to each other.–The scientists monitored any physiological or signalling differences the individuals displayed, such as color, as well as any behavioral differences during courtship, such as mate choice.—BPA disrupts an individual’s endocrine system, which controls the release of hormones. This impacts behavior and appearance, which in turn can lead an individual to mistake a newly introduced species as a potential mate.—This process poses long-term ecological consequences, especially in areas threatened by the introduction of invasive species. BPA and other hormone-mimicking chemicals can escalate the loss of native biodiversity by breaking down species barriers and promoting the invader. “Our research shows how the presence of these human made chemicals leads to a greater likelihood of hybridization between species,” concluded Ward. “This can have severe ecological and evolutionary consequences, including the potential for the decline of our native species.” —Story Source- The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Wiley, via AlphaGalileo. -Journal Reference-Jessica L. Ward, Michael J. Blum. Exposure to an environmental estrogen breaks down sexual isolation between native and invasive species. Evolutionary Applications, 2012; DOI: 10.1111/j.1752-4571.2012.00283.x
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THE LAW OF HIPPOCRATES
Medicine is of all the arts the most noble; but, owing to the ignorance of those who practice it, and of those who, inconsiderately, form a judgment of them, it is at present far behind all the other arts. Their mistake appears to me to arise principally from this, that in the cities there is no punishment connected with the practice of medicine (and with it alone) except disgrace, and that does not hurt those who are familiar with it. Such persons are the figures which are introduced in tragedies, for as they have the shape, and dress, and personalappearance of an actor, but are not actors, so also physicians are many in title but very few in reality.
Whoever is to acquire a competent knowledge of medicine, ought to be possessed of the following advantages:a natural disposition; instruction; a favorable position for the study; early tuition; love of labour; leisure. First of all, a natural talent is required; for, when Nature leads the way to what is most excellent, instruction in the art takes place, which the student must try to appropriate to himself by reflection, becoming an early pupil in a place well adapted for instruction. He must also bring to the task a love of labour and perseverance, so that the instruction taking root may bring forth proper and abundant fruits.
Instruction in medicine is like the culture of the productions of the earth. For our natural disposition, is, as it were, the soil; the tenets of our teacher are, as it were, the seed; instruction in youth is like the planting of the seed in the ground at the proper season; the place where the instruction is communicated is like the food imparted to vegetables by the atmosphere; diligentstudy is like the cultivation of the fields; and it is time which imparts strength to all things and brings them to maturity.
Having brought all these requisites to the study of medicine, and having acquired a true knowledge of it, we shall thus, in travelling through the cities, beesteemed physicians not only in name but in reality. But inexperience is a bad treasure, and a bad fund to those who possess it, whether in opinion or reality, being devoid of self-reliance and contentedness, and the nurse both of timidity and audacity. For timidity betrays a want of powers, and audacity a lack of skill. They are, indeed, two things, knowledge and opinion, of which the one makes its possessor really to know, the other to be ignorant.
Those things which are sacred, are to be imparted only to sacred persons; and it is not lawful to impart them to the profane until they have been initiated into the mysteries of the science.
The Hippocratic Oath
(Original Version)
I SWEAR by Apollo the physician, AEsculapius, and Health, and All-heal, and all the gods and goddesses, that, according to my ability and judgement, I will keep this Oath and this stipulation.
TO RECHON him who taught me this Art equally dear to me as my parents, to share my substance with him, and relieve his necessities if required; to look up his offspring in the same footing as my own brothers, and to teach them this art, if they shall wish to learn it, without fee or stipulation; and that by precept, lecture, and every other mode of instruction, I will impart a knowledge of the Art to my own sons, and those of my teachers, and to disciples bound by a stipulation and oath according the law of medicine, but to none others.
I WILL FOLLOW that system of regimen which, according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patients, and abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous. I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and in like manner I will not give a woman a pessary to produce abortion.
WITH PURITY AND  WITH HOLINESS I will pass my life and practice my Art. I will not cut persons laboring under the stone, but will leave this to be done by men who are practitioners of this work. Into whatever houses I enter, I will go into them for the benefit of the sick, and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief and corruption; and, further from the seduction of females or males, of freemen and slaves.
WHATEVER, IN CONNECTION with my professional practice or not, in connection with it, I see or hear, in the life of men, which ought not to be spoken of abroad, I will not divulge, as reckoning that all such should be kept secret.
WHILE I CONTINUE to keep this Oath unviolated, may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art, respected by all men, in all times! But should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse be my lot!
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The Hippocratic Oath
(Modern Version)
I SWEAR in the presence of the Almighty and before my family, my teachers and my peers that according to my ability and judgment I will keep this Oath and Stipulation.
TO RECKON all who have taught me this art equally dear to me as my parents and in the same spirit and dedication to impart a knowledge of the art of medicine to others. I will continue with diligence to keep abreast of advances in medicine. I will treat without exception all who seek my ministrations, so long as the treatment of others is not compromised thereby, and I will seek the counsel of particularly skilled physicians where indicated for the benefit of my patient.
I WILL FOLLOW that method of treatment which according to my ability and judgment, I consider for the benefit of my patient and abstain from whatever is harmful or mischievous. I will neither prescribe nor administer a lethal dose of medicine to any patient even if asked nor counsel any such thing nor perform the utmost respect for every human life from fertilization to natural death and reject abortion that deliberately takes a unique human life.
WITH PURITY, HOLINESS AND BENEFICENCE I will pass my life and practice my art. Except for the prudent correction of an imminent danger, I will neither treat any patient nor carry out any research on any human being without the valid informed consent of the subject or the appropriate legal protector thereof, understanding that research must have as its purpose the furtherance of the health of that individual. Into whatever patient setting I enter, I will go for the benefit of the sick and will abstain from every voluntary act of mischief or corruption and further from the seduction of any patient.
WHATEVER IN CONNECTION with my professional practice or not in connection with it I may see or hear in the lives of my patients which ought not be spoken abroad, I will not divulge, reckoning that all such should be kept secret.
WHILE I CONTINUE to keep this Oath unviolated may it be granted to me to enjoy life and the practice of the art and science of medicine with the blessing of the Almighty and respected by my peers and society, but should I trespass and violate this Oath, may the reverse by my lot.