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Parsley- Antiinflammatory
Throughout history, herbs have been utilized as an important constituent of foods, industry and folk medicine. One of the widely used vegetal species in various nations’ medicine is parsley (Petroselinum crispum), which has remedial effects as a powerful diuretic agent [1,2], an abortifacient [3–5] and an expectorant [6,7]. Parsley is a native herb of the central Mediterranean region (southern Italy, Algeria and Tunisia), which is in the Apiaceae family, and is a species of Petroselinum [8]. It is believed that parsley is one of the world’s seven most potent disease-fighting spices [8]. Although parsley has been used to treat allergy, autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders, the mechanism underlying its beneficial effects in these immune-mediated diseases have been rarely investigated. Of the various therapeutically beneficial aspects of parsley, we decided to examine the immunomodulatory effects of this plant. In our study, the effects of parsley essential oil on phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated splenocytes (T cells) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated B cells, as the main effector cells in adaptive immune system, was examined. In addition, the suppressive activity of different concentrations (0.01–100 μg/ml) of parsley essential oil on macrophages and LPS-stimulated macrophages for evaluation of nitric oxide (NO) was studied [9]. The methyl tetrazolium method was performed to survey the proliferation of mitogen-stimulated splenocytes as well as the viability of pretreated macrophages [9]. NO production of both macrophage groups was determined in the Griess reaction [9]. Parsley essential oil suppressed the proliferation of PHA-stimulated splenocytes at all applied concentrations. Similarly, it had a suppressive effect on the unstimulated and LPS-stimulated splenocytes, but only at high concentrations (10 and 100 μg/ml). NO production by unstimulated and stimulated macrophages was reduced by parsley essential oil; although, in all concentrations, unstimulated ones produced lower amounts of NO compared to the control group. These results can propose the suppressive effect of parsley essential oil on macrophages, as the major cells involved in the innate immune system [9].–The use of immunosuppressive drugs to control unwanted immune responses such as allergies, autoimmune disease and transplant rejection has grown over the past few years. The disadvantages and side effects of any immunosuppressive treatment are a significant and growing anxiety [10]. Some serious side effects including nephrotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, induction of diabetes, hypertension and neurotoxicity have been stated for various immunosuppressive drugs [10,11]. Thus, healthier and lower risk therapeutics are required. In this regard, more attention has been recently made on natural products. For example, the immunosuppressive activity of various herbal plants and ingredients including Achillea talagonica, [12] Plantago ovata [13], Boerhaavia diffusa [14], Stachys obtsicrena [15], Pollen Typhae [10] and Silymarin [16] has been explored. Parsley has also been shown to possess other biological activities than these described here. Several studies have suggested anticancer potential of parsley. By means of ascorbic acid‑induced lipid peroxidation, the antilipoperoxidant activity of parsley extracts has been shown [10,17,18]. The antioxidant activity of parsley essential oil has been confirmed in other investigations. Wong et al. indicated that the phenolic compounds of parsley were responsible for its antibacterial and antioxidant activity [19]. Zhang and his coworkers demonstrated the antioxidant activity of this herb in terms of b-carotene bleaching capacity and free radical scavenging activity [7]. This concept was then supported by further studies [20]. Parsley possesses several flavonoids such as apiin and luteolin, and its essential oil contains apiol and myristicin. These components are believed to be responsible for the therapeutic effects of parsley [17,21]. Kandaswami et al. indicated the direct and indirect effects of flavonoids on tumor cells. Their studies showed that the hydroxylation pattern of the B-ring of the flavons and flavonols, such as luteolin and quercetin, seemed to affect their angionesis and anticancer activity, especially the inhibition of protein kinase activity and antiproliferation [22]. Robak and his coworkers believe that flavonoids are the superoxide anion scavengers of the media and this effect can also lead to their anti-inflammatory effects [23]. Daly et al. observed bioactive phytochemicals, including carotenoids, in parsley [6]. Carotenoids were shown to be associated with a low risk of several human chronic disorders including age-related macular degeneration and certain cancers. Matching the wide use of this vegetal species as a diuretic in folk medicine, natriuretic and hypotensive effects of parsley were demonstrated in studies by Kreydiyyeh and Usta, and de Campos et al. [1,2]. Further studies indicated more biological effects of parsley plants, such as provitamine A activity, and influencing the cell signaling pathways [22,23]. In summary, parsley is a plant with various biological activities. With respect to its immunomodulatory effects, we found that its inhibitory effect on PHA-stimulated splenocytes might be due to the production of cytokines such as IFN-g and IL-2, which are vital for T-cell proliferation or it may influence the signaling pathways. Our results indicated that parsley essential oil can modulate the activity of macrophages without exerting cytotoxic effect. The immunomodulatory effect of parsley essential oil and its modulatory effects on NO production and function of macrophages may identify it as a useful natural candidate to treat some autoimmune and allergic diseases; however, its further application needs more investigation.
References
1 Kreydiyyeh SI, Usta J. Diuretic effect and mechanism of action of parsley. J. Ethnopharmacol. 79, 353–357 (2002).
2 de Campos KE, Balbi APC, De Freitas Alves MJQ. Diuretic and hypotensive activity of aqueous extract of parsley seeds (Petroselinum sativum Hoffm.) in rats. Braz. J. Pharmacog. 19(1A), 41–45 (2009).
3 Tyler VE. The Honest Herbalist (3rd Edition). Pharmaceutical Products Press, London, UK, 235–236 (1993).
4 Anderson LA, Newall CA, Phillipson JDA. Guide for Health-care Professionals. The Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, 203–204 (1996).
5 Robbers JE, Tyler VE. Tyler’s Herbs of Choice. The Therapeutic Use of Phytochemicals. Haworth Herbal Press, NY, USA, 92 (1999).
6 Daly T, Jiwan MA, O’Brein M, Aherne SA. Carotenoid content of commonly consumed herbs and assessment of their bioaccessibility using an in vitro digestion model. Plant. Foods Hum. Nutrit. 65(2), 164–169 (2010).
7 Zhang H, Chen F, Wang X, Yao HY. Evaluation of antioxidant activity of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil and identification of its antioxidant constituents. Food Res. Int. 39(8), 833–839 (2006).
8 Lopez MG, Sanchez-Mendoza IR, Ochoa-Alejo N. Compartive study of volatile components and fatty acids of plants and in-vitro cultures of parsley (Petroselinum crispum [Mill] nym ex hill). J. Agric. Food Chem. 47, 3292–3296 (1999).
9 Yousofi A, Daneshmandi S, Soleimani N, Bagheri K, Karimi MH. Immunomodulatory effect of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) essential oil on immune cells: mitogen-activated splenocytes and peritoneal macrophages. Immunopharmacol. Immunotoxicol. 34(2), 303–308 (2012).
10 Vial T, Descotes J. Immunosuppressive drugs and cancer. Toxicology 185(3), 229–240 (2003).
11 Qin F, Sun HX. Immunosuppressive activity of pollen typhae ethanol extract on the immune responses in mice. J. Ethnopharmacol. 102, 424–429 (2005).
12 Rezaeipoor R, Saeidnia S, Kamalinejad M. Immunosuppressive activity of Achillea talagonica on humoral immune responses in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 65, 273–276 (1999).
13 Rezaeipoor R, Saeidnia S, Kamalinejad M. The effect of Plantago ovata on humoral immune responses in experimental animals. J. Ethnopharmacol. 72, 283–286 (2000).
14 Mehrotra S, Mishra KP, Maurya R, Srimal RC, Singh VK. Immunomodulation by ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa roots. Int. Immunopharmacol. 2, 987–996 (2002).
15 Amirghofran Z, Bahmani M, Azadmehr A, Javidnia K. Immunomodulatory and apoptotic effects of Stachys obtusicrena on proliferative lymphocytes. Med. Sci. Monit. 13(6), BR145–BR150 (2007).
16 Gharagozloo M, Velardi E, Bruscoli S et al. Silymarin suppress CD4+ T cell activation and proliferation: effects on NF-kB activity and IL-2 production. Pharmacol. Res. 61(5), 405–409 (2010).
17 Mimica-Dukić N, Popović M. Apiaceae species. A promising sources of pharmacologically active compounds I: Petrosellinum crispum, Apium greveolens and Pastinaca sativa. In: Recent Progress in Medicinal Plants. Govil JN, Singh VK (Eds). Studium Press LLC, TX, USA (2007).
18 Fejes S, Blázovics A, Lemberkovics E, Petri G, Szöke E, Kéry A. Free radical scavenging and membrane protective effects of methanol extracts from Anthriscus cerefolium L. (Hoffm.) and Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. ex A. W. Hill. Phytother. Res. 14(5), 362–365 (2000).
19 Wong PYY, Kitts DD. Studies on the dual antioxidant and anti bacterial properties of parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and cilantro (Coriandrum sativum) extracts. Food Chem. 97, 505–515 (2006).
20 Kolarovic J, Popovic M, Zlinská J, Trivic S, Vojnovic M. Antioxidant activities of celery and parsley juices in rats treated with doxorubicin. Molecules 15, 6193–6204 (2010).
21 Lombaert GA, Siemens KH, Pellaers P, Mankotia M, Ng W. Furanocoumarins in celery and parsnips: method and multiyear Canadian survey. J. AOAC Int. 84, 1135–1143 (2001).
22 Kandaswami C, Lee LT, Lee PP et al. The antitumor activities of flavonoids. In Vivo 19(5), 895–909 (2005).
23 Robak J, Rys Z, Gryglewski J. Flavonoids are scavengers of super oxide anions. Biochem. Pharm. 37, 837–841 (1998)
 
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[U1]Again this information is somewhat outdated—since mercury is in most fish consumed today it is arguably that the mercury can further diminish your low iodine levels—so again an alternative maybe eating grass fed beef which will have iodine in them based on the feed and without the mercury or seek other sources of aquatic life that may feed on seaweed to obtain the iodine
[U2]Radishes can be goiterogenic so again if you do consume them not often and should be utilizing seaweed or watercress with it
[U3]These are the goiterogenic goods
[U4]Smart Meter-Cell Phone—HAARP -Microwaves
[U5]A bad source—you would need to take 650grams -1 lb 7oz-to get the equivalent 1 drop of lugols
[U6]The key word is EXCESS!!
[U7]AGAIN this is only if the pollution is low and fish all has some form of arsenic and mercury so if you eat fish make sure that it is marinated properly with anti mercury substances—so that when being consumed the toxins are neutralized
[U8]Now this is where it gets tricky—it does not say how long it will take—but it gives the feeling or perspective that it will be quick—this IS NOT SO—it will be contingent on health—how much you are lacking—and what other complimentary minerals or aminos you may be missing as well
[U9]Other then Watercress the rest of the foods mentioned will be determined in there geographical areas which will determine how much is in the soil And how much is absorbed if any—the iodine that is
[U10]ACTIVATE the Thyroid
[U11]Even this is to low way to low-1000mcgs = 1mg the suggested daily dose is 13 mgs to sustain adequate levels—and use more depending on life style and exposure to environments
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Show of the Month October 19-2012
Coffee Drinkers Have Lower Risk of Death- Study Suggests
Potato Storage- Essential Oils as Antigerminants
Top 10 Foods Highest in Potassium
EFSA publishes initial review on GM maize and herbicide study
Claims on many supplements don’t comply with law, report says
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Coffee Drinkers Have Lower Risk of Death- Study Suggests
A new study found that older adults who drank coffee — caffeinated or decaffeinated — had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee.
ScienceDaily (May 19, 2012) — Older adults who drank coffee — caffeinated or decaffeinated — had a lower risk of death overall than others who did not drink coffee, according a study by researchers from the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, and AARP.—Coffee drinkers were less likely to die from heart disease, respiratory disease, stroke, injuries and accidents, diabetes, and infections, although the association was not seen for cancer. These results from a large study of older adults were observed after adjustment for the effects of other risk factors on mortality, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. Researchers caution, however, that they can’t be sure whether these associations mean that drinking coffee actually makes people live longer. The results of the study were published in the May 17, 2012 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine.—Neal Freedman, Ph.D., Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, NCI, and his colleagues examined the association between coffee drinking and risk of death in 400,000 U.S. men and women ages 50 to 71 who participated in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study. Information about coffee intake was collected once by questionnaire at study entry in 1995-1996. The participants were followed until the date they died or Dec. 31, 2008, whichever came first.—The researchers found that the association between coffee and reduction in risk of death increased with the amount of coffee consumed. Relative to men and women who did not drink coffee, those who consumed three or more cups of coffee per day had approximately a 10 percent lower risk of death. Coffee drinking was not associated with cancer mortality among women, but there was a slight and only marginally statistically significant association of heavier coffee intake with increased risk of cancer death among men.–“Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in America, but the association between coffee consumption and risk of death has been unclear. We found coffee consumption to be associated with lower risk of death overall, and of death from a number of different causes,” said Freedman. “Although we cannot infer a causal relationship between coffee drinking and lower risk of death, we believe these results do provide some reassurance that coffee drinking does not adversely affect health.”—The investigators caution that coffee intake was assessed by self-report at a single time point and therefore might not reflect long-term patterns of intake. Also, information was not available on how the coffee was prepared (espresso, boiled, filtered, etc.); the researchers consider it possible that preparation methods may affect the levels of any protective components in coffee.—“The mechanism by which coffee protects against risk of death — if indeed the finding reflects a causal relationship — is not clear, because coffee contains more than 1,000 compounds that might potentially affect health,” said Freedman. “The most studied compound is caffeine, although our findings were similar in those who reported the majority of their coffee intake to be caffeinated or decaffeinated.”—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by National Institutes of Health. –Journal Reference-Neal D. Freedman, Yikyung Park, Christian C. Abnet, Albert R. Hollenbeck, Rashmi Sinha. Association of Coffee Drinking with Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. New England Journal of Medicine, 2012; 366 (20): 1891 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1112010
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Potato Storage- Essential Oils as Antigerminants
ScienceDaily (Oct. 5, 2012) — One of the critical moments in the final quality of the potato occurs during its storage, as there exists the risk of sprouting or rotting due to pathogenic agents such as bacteria and fungi. In order to avoid this, agricultural engineer David Gómez Castillo carried out research for his PhD on the possibility of substituting the current use of chemical products by treating the tuber with essential oils of mint, caraway, coriander, eucalyptus and clove, “which have proved to be great potential inhibitors in the main problems detected.”—The chemical product Clorprofam (CIPC) is the most commonly used as a sprout suppressant on stored potatoes. Nevertheless, possible reductions in permitted dosages, market and consumer pressures seeking healthier and, moreover, more environmentally-friendly products, have made it necessary to find alternatives to these synthetic products, with the market, culinary and technological quality of the potato remaining unaltered.—This is the context of the research by David Gómez Castillo, who has evaluated alternative treatment using essential oils of mint, caraway, coriander, eucalyptus and clove. In concrete, he studied the effect of applying these oils with table-stock varieties of the potato (Agata and Monalisa) and industrial ones (Agria and Kennebec), and compared the results thereof with those that had been treated chemically.
A good alternative—The research analysed two parameters: the commercial quality (germination, texture and colour of the tuber) and the culinary and technological quality (colour and texture of slices of the potato, dry material, total soluble solids, reductor sugars and sensorial analysis). Evaluations at 10, 25, 40, 55 and 70 days in storage were also undertaken, the antimicrobial effect of essential oils being assessed for the principal phytopathogens (fungi and bacteria).—According to Mr Gómez, “we found a high antigerminant capacity with treatment using the essential oil of coriander for industrial crops, and with the essential oil of mint for both industrial and table-stock crops. These showed great inhibitory potential on the principal phytopathogenic problems studied and all this makes a good alternative to CPIC use for storage of potatoes.”—It was also shown that the essential oil of eucalyptus, for its high antigerminant capacity with table-stock potatoes, “could be another alternative for reducing post-harvest losses due to phytopathogenic problems, obtaining even better results if the treatment is accompanied by the essential oil of clove.”–In the opinion of this researcher, the use of treatment with essential oils in the storage of potatoes “can provide added value in the application of antigerminant treatment, due to its efficacy in controlling the progress of important phytopathogens.”—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Basque Research.
Recipe for AntiPhytopathegenic for Potato’s—take either a combination of peppermint and coriander add 2 drops each to either a Sprayer with water—make sure the Essential oils are dispersed well in the water—blend in a blender for about 2 minutes to mix—once done then spray the potatoes being stored—or take a vaporiser and add the oils into the vaporiser and allow it to mist the air as well—this will cause the components to be air borne and will reduce the break down—-this same principle can be done with other things as well or even utilize this principle to do a room or household to eliminate pathogens that might be airborne—keep the potatoes in a cool place for storage as well will reduce spoilage
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Top 10 Foods Highest in Potassium
Potassium is an essential nutrient used to maintain fluid and electrolyte balance in the body. A deficiency in potassium causes fatigue, irritability, and hypertension (increased blood pressure). Overdose of potassium from natural sources is nearly impossible, however, it is possible to consume too much potassium via potassium salts which can lead to nausea, vomiting, and even heart attack. Potassium from natural food sources, like the ones listed below, are considered safe and healthy. The current percent daily value for potassium is a whopping 3.5 grams, below is a list of high potassium foods. For more foods high in potassium please see the lists of potassium rich foods, fruits high in potassium, and vegetables high in potassium.
#1: Dried Herbs
Long used for medicinal purposes, herbs are packed with nutrients and potassium is no exception. Dried Chervil contains the most potassium with 4.7g (135% DV) per 100g serving, or 95mg (3% DV) per tablespoon. It is followed by Dried Coriander (3% DV) per tblsp, Dried Parsley (2% DV), Dried Basil, Dried Dill, Dried Tarragon, Ground Turmeric, Saffron, and finally Dried Oregano with 50mg (1% DV).
Click to see complete nutrition facts
#2: Avocados
Avocados are great when made into guacamole or in a salad. 100 grams will provide 485mg of potassium or 14% of the DV. That is 1.1g (32% DV) in one cup pureed, and 975mg (28% DV) in a single avocado (201 grams).
Click to see complete nutrition facts || More Fruits High in Potassium
#3: Paprika and Red Chili Powder
Either paprika or red chili powder add a nice kick to any dish, and with all the potassium they provide you have good reason to start adding them. Paprika provides the most potassium with 2.3g (67% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 164mg (5% DV) per tablespoon. Chili powder will provide 1.9g (55% DV) per 100 gram serving or 153mg (4% DV) per tablespoon. Click to see complete nutrition facts
#4: Cocoa Powder and Chocolate
Dark chocolate is an excellent source of iron and zinc in addition to potassium. Pure cocoa powder without any fat, milk, or sugar, provides the most potassium with 1.5 grams (44% DV) in a 100g serving, or 1.3g (37% DV) per cup, and 76mg (2% DV) per tablespoon. Unsweetened baking chocolate provides 830mg (24% DV) per 100 gram serving or 241mg (7% DV) per square. Most sweetened milk chocolates will provide around 272mg (11% DV) per 100 gram serving, and 164mg (5% DV) per bar (1.5oz). Click to see complete nutrition facts
#5: Dried Apricots, Prunes, Zante Currants, and Raisins
Most common as a snack, dried apricots and prunes can also be chopped and served in a salad. A good source of fiber and many other vitamins, apricots provide 1.9g (53%DV) of potassium per 100g serving (about 20 dried apricots). Prunes provide 1g (30% DV) per 100g serving, or 1.4g (40% DV) per cup. Zante currants are really a type of grape and taste very similar to raisins. Zante currants provide 892mg (25% DV) of potassium per 100g serving, or 1.3g (37% DV) per cup. Raisins provide almost the same amount with 825mg (24% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 1.2g (24% DV) per cup. Click to see complete nutrition facts
#6: Pistachios and Other Nuts
Pistachios are a delicious snack, and a great addition to salads. 100 grams (~3/4cup) will provide 1g (30% DV) of potassium. Other nuts high in potassium include Beechnuts (29% DV per 100g), Ginko nuts (29% DV), Chestnuts (28% DV), Almonds (21% DV), Hazelnuts (19% DV), Cashews (18% DV), Pine nuts (17% DV), Coconuts (16% DV), and Walnuts (15% DV).
Click to see complete nutrition facts
#7: Seeds (Pumpkin, Squash, Sunflower, and Flax)
A popular food in the Middle East and East Asia pumpkin and squash seeds contain about 919mg (26% DV) of potassium per 100g serving, 588mg (17% DV) per cup. If you can’t find these in your local supermarket you will surely find them in Middle Eastern or East Asian specialty stores. Alternatively, you can also save any pumpkin and squash seeds you have and roast them in your oven. The seeds are typically eaten by cracking the outer shell and eating the seed inside. Sunflower seeds are also a good source of potassium, providing 850mg (24% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 1.1g (31% DV) per cup. Flax seeds provide 813mg (23% DV) of potassium per 100 gram serving, or 1.4g (39% DV) per cup, and 81mg (2% DV) per tablespoon.
Click to see complete nutrition facts. Buy Pumpkin Seeds from Amazon.com
#8: Fish (Pompano, Salmon, Halibut, Tuna)
Fish has many health benefits and is a great source of potassium. Pompano provides the most with 636mg (18% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 540mg (15% DV) per fillet (3 ounces, 85 grams). It is followed by Salmon which provides 534mg (15% DV) per 3 ounce serving, Halibut, Yellow Fin Tuna, Lingcod, Mackerel, Anchovies, Herring, Cod, Snapper, Rockfish, Tilefish, Grouper, and finally Trout with 394mg (11% DV) in a 3 ounce serinvg. Cooking fish with dry heat is the best way to preseve the potassium content. Click to see complete nutrition facts
#9: Beans
White beans provide the most potassium with 561mg (16% DV) per 100 gram serving, 1g (29% DV) per cup cooked. White beans are followed by Adzuki Beans, Soy Beans, Lima Beans, Pinto Beans, Kidney Beans, Great Northern Beans, Navy Beans, Pigeon Peas, Cranberry (Roman) Beans, French Beans, Lentils, Split Peas, Black Beans, Hyancinth, and finally Yardlong Beans with 539mg (15% DV) per cup cooked.
Click to see complete nutrition facts
#10: Dates (Medjool)
Dates are great as a snack, as an addition to fruits salads, or even savory stews. Medjool dates provide 696mg (20% DV) per 100 gram serving, or 167mg (5% DV) in a single date.
Click to see complete nutrition facts
Read more at http://www.healthaliciousness.com/articles/food-sources-of-potassium.php#cTUeesXT5EcLhruM.99
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EFSA publishes initial review on GM maize and herbicide study
The European Food Safety Authority has concluded that a recent paper raising concerns about the potential toxicity of genetically modified (GM) maize NK603 and of a herbicide containing glyphosate is of insufficient scientific quality to be considered as valid for risk assessment.—EFSA’s initial review found that the design, reporting and analysis of the study, as outlined in the paper, are inadequate. To enable the fullest understanding of the study the Authority has invited authors Séralini et al to share key additional information.–Such shortcomings mean that EFSA is presently unable to regard the authors’ conclusions as scientifically sound. The numerous issues relating to the design and methodology of the study as described in the paper mean that no conclusions can be made about the occurrence of tumours in the rats tested.—Therefore, based on the information published by the authors, EFSA does not see a need to re-examine its previous safety evaluation of maize NK603 nor to consider these findings in the ongoing assessment of glyphosate.—EFSA assessed the paper against recognised good scientific practices, such as internationally agreed study and reporting guidelines.—-Per Bergman, who led EFSA’s work, said: “Some may be surprised that EFSA’s statement focuses on the methodology of this study rather than its outcomes; however, this goes to the very heart of the matter. When conducting a study it is crucial to ensure a proper framework is in place. Having clear objectives and the correct design and methodology create a solid base from which accurate data and valid conclusions can follow. Without these elements a study is unlikely to be reliable and valid.”—The Director of Scientific Evaluation of Regulated Products added that the consideration of possible long-term effects of GMOs has been, and will continue to be, a key focus of EFSA’s work to protect animals, humans and the environment.—-EFSA’s preliminary review issued today is the first step in a two-stage process. A second analysis will be delivered by the end of October 2012. This will take into account any additional information from the study authors, who will be given an opportunity to supply study documentation and procedures to the Authority to ensure the broadest possible understanding of their work. It will also include an overview of Member State assessments of the paper and an analysis from the German authorities responsible for the assessment of glyphosate.
Main findings of Initial Review—The task force, whose members were drawn from the Authority’s GMO, pesticide and scientific assessment units, has outlined a list of issues about the paper that would need to be resolved before it could be viewed as well-conducted and properly-reported study.
The strain of rat used in the two-year study is prone to developing tumours during their life expectancy of approximately two years. This means the observed frequency of tumours is influenced by the natural incidence of tumours typical of this strain, regardless of any treatment. This is neither taken into account nor discussed by the authors.
The authors split the rats into 10 treatment sets but established only one control group. This meant there was no appropriate control for four sets – some 40% of the animals – all of whom were fed GM maize treated or not treated with a herbicide containing glyphosate.
The paper has not complied with internationally-recognised standard methods – known as protocols – for setting up and carrying out experiments. Many of these procedures are developed by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development).
For a study of this type, the relevant OECD guideline specifies the need for a minimum of 50 rats per treatment group. Séralini et al used only 10 rodents per treatment set. The low number of animals used is insufficient to distinguish between the incidence of tumours due to chance rather than specific treatment effects.
The authors have not stated any objectives, which are the questions a study is designed to answer. Research objectives define crucial factors such as the study design, correct sample size, and the statistical methods used to analyse data – all of which have a direct impact on the reliability of findings.
No information is given about the composition of the food given to the rats, how it was stored or details of harmful substances – such as mycotoxins – that it might have contained.
It is not possible to properly evaluate the exposure of the rats to the herbicide as intake is not clearly reported. The authors report only the application rate of the herbicide used to spray the plants and the concentration added to the rats’ drinking water but report no details about the volume of the feed or water consumed.
The paper does not employ a commonly-used statistical analysis method nor does it state if the method was specified prior to starting the study. The validity of the method used is queried and there are questions over the reporting of tumour incidence. Important data, such as a summary of drop outs and an estimation of unbiased treatment effects have not been included in the paper.
Many endpoints – what is measured in the study – have not been reported in the paper. This includes relevant information on lesions, other than tumours, that were observed. EFSA has called on the authors to report all endpoints in the name of openness and transparency.
Review of the Séralini et al. (2012) publication on a 2-year rodent feeding study with glyphosate formulations and GM maize NK603
Letter to Prof. Séralini regarding EFSA’s Review of the Séralini et al. (2012) publication on a 2-year rodent feeding trial with Glyphosate Formulations and GM maize NK603 as published online on 19 September 2012 in Food and Chemical Toxicology, 4 October 2012
Notes to editors:
EFSA set up a multi-disciplinary task force in response to an urgent request from the European Commission to evaluate a paper by Séralini et al to assess whether its findings could lead the Authority to reconsider its previous opinion on maize NK603. The two-year study, published in the journal Food and Chemical Toxicology on 19 September 2012, has suggested that consumption of the GM maize and a herbicide containing glyphosate at levels below officially-safe limits are linked to a reported increase in incidence of tumours in rats.
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Claims on many supplements don’t comply with law, report says
The structure function claims on many dietary supplement products do not comply with federal law,
a government report released on Wednesday The[U1] report recommends greater regulatory
powers for FDA to bring products into compliance[U2] .—Industry sources reacted negatively to the assertion
that FDA needs new statutory powers, but were more accommodating on the report’s suggestions on how
the claims notification process should be tightened up[U3] . The report, conducted by the Office of Inspector
General of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, looked at the claims on 127 dietary s
upplements in the weight loss and immune support The report looked at the label language and what kind
of evidence was cited to back up the claims, to judge compliance with FDA-mandated notifications and disclaimers
and to see how many claims trended over into prohibited disease claim territory. The report said that the
popularity of structure function claims is on the rise, and maintains that problems with the use
of these claims is on the rise, too. Report cites thin supporting evidence The report’s broad conclusions
were these: Many claims were not backed by evidence from human studies[U4] . Of the human studies
supplied by manufacturers in response to HHS requests, few appeared to satisfy FDA recommendations
in every respect in terms of study design and relevance to the meaning of the claim[U5] . It also found
that 20% of the supplements in the sample were making prohibited disease claims and that 7% lacked
the disclaimer that is supposed to accompany every structure function claim. The report went on to
recommend that FDA should seek additional statutory authority to regulate label claims to make sure
that suitable evidence exists to back up the claim, to make sure that proper label notifications are
in place and to make sure companies are not making illegal disease claims In[U6] addition, it said FDA
needs to clean up its tracking of who is making what claims, and who has complied with the requirement of a 30-day
prior notification of the use of a claim on a product. Immediate reaction Report overreaches Reaction from trade
groups and industry observers was swift and decisive. The Office of Inspector General reviewed just 127 supplements
out of an estimated 29,000 products on the market. This small sample of supplements shouldn’t smear the entire industry,
said John Shaw, executive director and CEO of the Natural Products Foundation. The president and CEO of the
organization, said, What’s most disappointing is that this was not a random sampling [of the industry].The vast majority
of the industry, including our members, is doing the right thing. These reports give good companies a black eye,
he said.The small sample size and big conclusions also was an issue for Marc Ullman, who has worked with the
http://www.naturalproductsfoundation.org/index.php?src=gendocsref=truth_in_advertisingcategory=FoundationPrograms
” Natural Products Foundation’s Truth in Advertising industry self-regulation effort. They are recommended sweeping
changes to the law, the imposition of vast new regulatory burdens on FDA based on the fact that (a small number)
of dietary supplements didn’t pass substantiation. To me it seems quite a reach, Ullman, an attorney with the New
York-based firm Ullman, Shapiro Ullman, told a reporter. I cannot fathom the kind of broad generalizations they
made based on this kind of sample size. Nuanced response to report’s recommendations Regarding the recommendations,
Mister said CRN was very supportive of FDA to do more, especially when it came keeping better
track of health claim notifications, which companies are supposed to send in 30 days prior to a
product hitting the But the first recommendation, calling for FDA to ‘statutory authority to review
substantiation for structure/function claims to determine whether they are truthful and not
misleading[U7] ,’ is a non-starter, he said.This sounds like pre-market approval to us, Mister said. I do hope that
FDA sees that some of this is targeted towards them, he added. The agency needs to manage the information they
already have. Structure/function claims and registrations need to be catalogued to be accessible.The methodology
of the report divided up the supplements more or less equally between the weight loss and immune sectors, and
also about equally between supplements purchased in retail outlets on the Internet. This last detail interested Tony
Young, legal counsel for the American Herbal Products Association, especially in relation to the finding that 20% of
products were making disease claims. An interesting question would be whether those were products purchased off the
Internet or in retail stores. We expect that there is a higher standard out there to get products on retail shelves and
that most of the major retailers don’t carry products that make that kind of claim, he said. No public health risk At
the end of the day, Young said, there is no imminent public health risk in the report’s findings. Whether FDA should
expend substantial resources doing the kinds of things that were suggested is a decision that FDA would have to make
with regard to all of the other public health priorities,” he said.The report might go overboard in its enforcement
recommendations, Ullman said, but that doesn’t obviate legitimate questions about how some companies market their
products As an industry we need to recognize—and we do recognize—that there is a problem, he said, going on to cite NPF’s
Truth in Advertising effort and CRN’s cooperation with the “http://www.bbb.org/us/national-advertising-division/”
National Advertising Division as appropriate ways to self-police label claims.Everybody in our industry argues that there
should be more enforcement with respect to unlawful disease claims so there is pretty much unanimity on that,
Young said[U8] .
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[U1] A new attack on supplements
[U2]Drug Companies want to debilitate the industry further for easier acquisition of that health food industry market—where the owners will surrender there companies and sell out
[U3]This is the HFI-health food industry caving in and surrendering—the industry should be looking after itself without gov’t interference—
[U4]This is the EFSA—european food and safe authority nonsence—this is the FDA compliance with the EFSA
[U5]Again EFSA
[U6]Gov’t interference—again to debilitate the industry to a point where they either bail out or surrender—the health food industry as well a the consumers need to collaborate and get rid of the common enemy Gov’t
[U7]Is this not the dumbest thing you ever heard? The wolf guarding the hen house—the industry is going to ask the gov’t to monitor the competition??? What a deception here
[U8]This is really disappointing—the big players what the FDA to do there dirty work for them so they can eliminate all competition and have it all under 1 umbrella this is what is really going on a destruction of a free enterprise effect and everyone has to comply and the independent is going to either be absorbed or eliminated from the market
 
[U1]Smart Meter-Cell Phone—HAARP -Microwaves
[U2] A new attack on supplements
[U3]Drug Companies want to debilitate the industry further for easier acquisition of that health food industry market—where the owners will surrender there companies and sell out
[U4]This is the HFI-health food industry caving in and surrendering—the industry should be looking after itself without gov’t interference—
[U5]This is the EFSA—european food and safe authority nonsence—this is the FDA compliance with the EFSA
[U6]Again EFSA
[U7]Gov’t interference—again to debilitate the industry to a point where they either bail out or surrender—the health food industry as well a the consumers need to collaborate and get rid of the common enemy Gov’t
[U8]Is this not the dumbest thing you ever heard? The wolf guarding the hen house—the industry is going to ask the gov’t to monitor the competition??? What a deception here
[U9]This is really disappointing—the big players what the FDA to do there dirty work for them so they can eliminate all competition and have it all under 1 umbrella this is what is really going on a destruction of a free enterprise effect and everyone has to comply and the independent is going to either be absorbed or eliminated from the market
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Show of the Month October 22-2012
Antioxidant May Prevent, Even Cure, Cataracts and Other Degenerative Eye Disorders
Caffeine May Block Inflammation Linked to Mild Cognitive Impairment
Cannabis Extract Eases Muscle Stiffness Typical of Multiple Sclerosis
Cannabis as Painkiller
Mushroom Compound Suppresses Prostate Tumors
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Antioxidant May Prevent, Even Cure, Cataracts and Other Degenerative Eye Disorders
Cataract formation in rats. Top left (control lens): The lenses in this group were found to contain no detectable cataracts. (BSO-only lens): All lenses in this group developed very distinct cataracts, with most being nearly completely opaque (NACA-only lens): Results similar to those in the control group were obtained, with no detectable signs of cataract formation. (NACA+BSO lens): The lens depicted has a Grade 1 opacity which was evident by the amount of scattering light.
ScienceDaily (Oct. 9, 2012) — Researchers at Missouri University of Science and Technology are working with an antioxidant that could prevent or cure cataracts, macular degeneration and other degenerative eye disorders.—The research group, headed by Dr. Nuran Ercal, the Richard K. Vitek/Foundation for Chemical Research Endowed Chair in Biochemistry at Missouri S&T, is studying eye drops prepared with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine amide (NACA) as a treatment for these eye conditions.–Ercal says NACA is an improvement over another experimental treatment, the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), because it passes more easily across cell membranes, allowing the medication to be used in lower doses.–“NACA’s characteristics as a drug were improved over NAC by neutralizing the carboxylic group of NAC, which makes the NACA pass cellular membranes easily,” says Ercal. “And because NACA can be administered at a lower dose, the drug has a greater therapeutic index and lowers the risk of side effects traditionally associated with NAC.—“NACA is also an excellent source of glutathione, a cell’s main antioxidant power, which is diminished during degenerative eye disorders,” she adds.—Vision loss from age-related eye disorders affects more than 30 million people in the United States and is expected to double in the coming decades, Ercal says.—In addition, more than $9 billion is spent annually in the U.S. on cataract surgery alone. The total annual cost of all services related to vision problems exceeds $20 billion, she says.—“NACA eye drops could drastically reduce these costs and represent an alternative to costly surgery, while greatly improving the quality of life for those afflicted,” says Ercal.—Ercal and her team have been testing NACA on HIV-related problems, lead poisoning and other toxicities for 10 years. About four years ago they began testing it on eye disorders.–Ercal recently received a $378,000 three-year research grant from the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health. The preliminary data submitted for the funding was based on research by her former Ph.D. student, Joshua Carey.–Carey’s dissertation involved preliminary studies of the effects of NACA to slow down cataract growth on rats that had been given L-buthionine-S,R-sulfoximine (BSO), a solution that causes cataracts to form. “The NACA solution prevented cataracts from forming,” says Ercal. “Our research will build on Josh’s research, to see if NACA can actually reverse the degeneration as well.”—Ercal, who is also an M.D., says further testing will help establish appropriate dosage and frequency, as well as possible side effects and other factors. She says successful results using animal subjects may eventually support the viability of human usage.–Ercal works closely with Dr. Shakila Tobwala, a post-doctoral fellow in Missouri S&T’s chemistry department. Others in the research group include the grant’s co-investigator, Dr. Humeyra Karacal from the ophthalmology department at Washington University in St. Louis, and Missouri S&T graduate and undergraduate students.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Missouri University of Science and Technology.
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Caffeine May Block Inflammation Linked to Mild Cognitive Impairment
ScienceDaily (Oct. 8, 2012) — Recent studies have linked caffeine consumption to a reduced risk of Alzheimer’s disease, and a new University of Illinois study may be able to explain how this happens.–“We have discovered a novel signal that activates the brain-based inflammation associated with neurodegenerative diseases, and caffeine appears to block its activity. This discovery may eventually lead to drugs that could reverse or inhibit mild cognitive impairment,” said Gregory Freund, a professor in the U of I’s College of Medicine and a member of the U of I’s Division of Nutritional Sciences.—Freund’s team examined the effects of caffeine on memory formation in two groups of mice — one group given caffeine, the other receiving none. The two groups were then exposed to hypoxia, simulating what happens in the brain during an interruption of breathing or blood flow, and then allowed to recover.–The caffeine-treated mice recovered their ability to form a new memory 33 percent faster than the non-caffeine-treated mice. In fact, caffeine had the same anti-inflammatory effect as blocking IL-1 signaling. IL-1 is a critical player in the inflammation associated with many neurodegenerative diseases, he said.—“It’s not surprising that the insult to the brain that the mice experienced would cause learning memory to be impaired. But how does that occur?” he wondered.—The scientists noted that the hypoxic episode triggered the release of adenosine by brain cells.–“Your cells are little powerhouses, and they run on a fuel called ATP that’s made up of molecules of adenosine. When there’s damage to a cell, adenosine is released,” he said.–Just as gasoline leaking out of a tank poses a danger to everything around it, adenosine leaking out of a cell poses a danger to its environment, he noted.—The extracellular adenosine activates the enzyme caspase-1, which triggers production of the cytokine IL-1β, a critical player in inflammation, he said.—“But caffeine blocks all the activity of adenosine and inhibits caspase-1 and the inflammation that comes with it, limiting damage to the brain and protecting it from further injury,” he added.—Caffeine’s ability to block adenosine receptors has been linked to cognitive improvement in certain neurodegenerative diseases and as a protectant against Alzheimer’s disease, he said.–“We feel that our foot is in the door now, and this research may lead to a way to reverse early cognitive impairment in the brain. We already have drugs that target certain adenosine receptors. Our work now is to determine which receptor is the most important and use a specific antagonist to that receptor,” he said.–The study appears in the Journal of Neuroscience. Co-authors are Gabriel Chiu, Diptaman Chatterjee, Patrick Darmody, John Walsh, Daryl Meling, and Rodney Johnson, all of the U of I. Funding for the study was provided by the National Institutes of Health.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Illinois College of Agricultural, Consumer and Environmental Sciences. The original article was written by Phyllis Picklesimer. -Journal Reference-G. S. Chiu, D. Chatterjee, P. T. Darmody, J. P. Walsh, D. D. Meling, R. W. Johnson, G. G. Freund. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Impairs Memory Formation via Adenosine-Dependent Activation of Caspase 1. Journal of Neuroscience, 2012; 32 (40): 13945 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0704-12.2012
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Cannabis Extract Eases Muscle Stiffness Typical of Multiple Sclerosis
ScienceDaily (Oct. 8, 2012) — Cannabis seems to ease the painful muscle stiffness typical of multiple sclerosis (MS), indicate phase III trial results, published in the Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery and Psychiatry.—Up to 90 per cent of MS patients endure painful muscle stiffness at some point during the course of their disease, which reduces their mobility and interferes with daily routine activities and sleep quality. But current treatments often fail to resolve symptoms fully, and can be harmful, as a result of which many MS patients have experimented with alternative therapies, including cannabis.—Adult MS patients with stable disease, from 22 different specialist centres across the UK, were either randomly assigned to cannabis extract (tetrahydrocannabinol) daily (144) or a dummy pill (placebo) (135) for a period of 12 weeks.—The treatments were given in gradually increasing doses from 2.5 mg up to a maximum of 25 mg for two weeks, followed by maintenance doses for the remaining 10 weeks. The aim was to see if cannabis extract alleviated or improved muscle stiffness, associated pain, muscle spasms, and sleep quality, using a validated 11 point rating scale. After the first two weeks of treatment, 87 per cent of those taking the placebo were on the maximum daily dose compared with just under half of those (47%) taking the cannabis extract.—After 12 weeks, one in four patients treated with cannabis extract was taking the maximum daily dose compared with over two thirds (69.4%) of those taking the placebo.—At the end of the study period, the rate of relief from muscle stiffness was twice as high among those given the cannabis extract as those given the placebo. Muscle stiffness was alleviated in just under 30 per cent of those given cannabis compared with just under 16 per cent of those treated with the placebo. This difference was evident after 4 and 8 weeks, and also extended to pain, muscle spasms and sleep quality, at all time points, the results showed. The differences were most noticeable among patients not already using antispasmodic treatment, among whom almost 40 per cent of those taking the cannabis extract gained relief compared with just over 16 per cent of those taking placebo. -The rate of side effects was higher among those taking the cannabis extract and highest during the first two weeks of treatment. Nervous system disorders and gut problems were the most commonly reported side effects, but none was severe.–The authors conclude that the results of their trial indicate that cannabis extract could be a useful treatment for the muscle problems typical of MS, and could provide effective pain relief, particularly for those in considerable pain. Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by BMJ-British Medical Journal. –Journal Reference-J. P. Zajicek, J. C. Hobart, A. Slade, D. Barnes, P. G. Mattison. MUltiple Sclerosis and Extract of Cannabis: results of the MUSEC trial. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 2012; 83 (11): 1125 DOI: 10.1136/jnnp-2012-302468
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Cannabis as Painkiller
ScienceDaily (Aug. 7, 2012) — Cannabis-based medications have been demonstrated to relieve pain. Cannabis medications can be used in patients whose symptoms are not adequately alleviated by conventional treatment. The indications are muscle spasms, nausea and vomiting as a result of chemotherapy, loss of appetite in HIV/Aids, and neuropathic pain.—This is the conclusion drawn by Franjo Grotenhermen and Kirsten Müller-Vahl in issue 29-30 of Deutsches Ärzteblatt International. –The clinical effect of the various cannabis-based medications rests primarily on activation of endogenous cannabinoid receptors. Consumption of therapeutic amounts by adults does not lead to irreversible cognitive impairment. The risk is much greater, however, in children and adolescents (particularly before puberty), even at therapeutic doses.—Over 100 controlled trials of the effects of cannabinoids in various indications have been carried out since 1975. The positive results have led to official licensing of cannabis-based medications in many countries. In Germany, a cannabis extract was approved in 2011 for treatment of spasticity in multiple sclerosis. In June 2012 the Federal Joint Committee (the highest decision-making body for the joint self-government of physicians, dentists, hospitals and health insurance funds in Germany) pronounced that the cannabis extract showed a slight additional benefit for this indication and granted a temporary license until 2015. Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, via AlphaGalileo. –Journal Reference-Grotenhermen, F; Müller-Vahl, K. The Therapeutic Potential of Cannabis and Cannabinoids. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2012; 109(29-30): 495-501 DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2012.0495
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Mushroom Compound Suppresses Prostate Tumors
ScienceDaily (May 24, 2011) — A mushroom used in Asia for its medicinal benefits has been found to be 100 per cent effective in suppressing prostate tumour development in mice during early trials, new Queensland University of Technology (QUT) research shows.–The compound, polysaccharopeptide (PSP), which is extracted from the ‘turkey tail’ mushroom, was found to target prostate cancer stem cells and suppress tumour formation in mice, according to an article written by senior research fellow Dr Patrick Ling in the online journal PLoS ONE, published by the Public Library of Science.–Dr Ling, from the Australian Prostate Cancer Research Centre-Queensland and Institute for Biomedical Health & Innovation (IHBI) at QUT, said the results could be an important step towards fighting a disease that kills 3,000 Australian men a year.–“The findings are quite significant,” Dr Ling said.–“What we wanted to demonstrate was whether that compound could stop the development of prostate tumours in the first place.–“In the past, other inhibitors tested in research trials have been shown to be up to 70 per cent effective, but we’re seeing 100 per cent of this tumour prevented from developing with PSP.–“Importantly, we did not see any side effects from the treatment.”–Dr Ling said conventional therapies were only effective in targeting certain cancer cells, not cancer stem cells, which initiated cancer and caused the disease to progress.–During the research trial, which was done in collaboration with The University of Hong Kong and Provital Pty Ltd, transgenic mice that developed prostate tumours were fed PSP for 20 weeks.–Dr Ling said no tumours were found in any of the mice fed PSP, whereas mice not given the treatment developed prostate tumours. He said the research suggested that PSP treatment could completely inhibit prostate tumour formation.–“Our findings support that PSP may be a potent preventative agent against prostate cancer, possibly through targeting of the prostate cancer stem cell population,” he said.b He said PSP had been previously shown to possess anti-cancer properties, and ‘turkey tail’ mushrooms (known as Coriolus versicolor or Yun-zhi) had been widely used in Asia for medicinal benefits.–However, Dr Ling said it was the first time it had been demonstrated that PSP had anti-cancer stem cell effects.–Although ‘turkey tail’ mushrooms had valuable health properties, Dr Ling said it would not be possible to get the same benefit his research showed from simply eating them.–A fundraiser has been organised in September to support further tests for the therapeutic potential of PSP against prostate tumours either alone or in combination with other anti-cancer compounds.—Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Queensland University of Technology. –Journal Reference-Sze-Ue Luk, Terence Kin-Wah Lee, Ji Liu, Davy Tak-Wing Lee, Yung-Tuen Chiu, Stephanie Ma, Irene Oi-Lin Ng, Yong-Chuan Wong, Franky Leung Chan, Ming-Tat Ling. Chemopreventive Effect of PSP Through Targeting of Prostate Cancer Stem Cell-Like Population. PLoS ONE, 2011; 6 (5): e19804 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019804
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Show Of The Month October 26 2012
Even Your Fat Cells Need Sleep
Prebiotic May Help Patients With Intestinal Failure Grow New and Better Gut
Special Note as to why not to Consume grains
Non-Medical Prescription Drug Use More Common Among Rural Teens Than City Dwellers
Research Reveals Decline in Illicit Drug Abuse- Prescription Drug Abuse On the Rise
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Even Your Fat Cells Need Sleep
ScienceDaily (Oct. 15, 2012) — In a study that challenges the long-held notion that the primary function of sleep is to give rest to the brain, researchers have found that not getting enough shut-eye has a harmful impact on fat cells, reducing by 30 percent their ability to respond to insulin, a hormone that regulates energy.—Sleep deprivation has long been associated with impaired brain function, causing decreased alertness and reduced cognitive ability. The latest finding — published by University of Chicago Medicine researchers in the Oct. 16 issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine — is the first description of a molecular mechanism directly connecting sleep loss to the disruption of energy regulation in humans, a process that can lead over time to weight gain, diabetes and other health problems. The study suggests that sleep’s role in energy metabolism is at least as important as it is in brain function.–“We found that fat cells need sleep to function properly,” said study author Matthew Brady, PhD, associate professor of medicine and vice-chair of the Committee on Molecular Metabolism and Nutrition at the University of Chicago.—-Brady said body fat plays an important role in humans.—“Many people think of fat as a problem, but it serves a vital function,” he said. “Body fat, also known as adipose tissue, stores and releases energy. In storage mode, fat cells remove fatty acids and lipids from the circulation where they can damage other tissues. When fat cells cannot respond effectively to insulin, these lipids leach out into the circulation, leading to serious complications.”–Esra Tasali, MD, assistant professor of medicine at the University of Chicago and co-senior author, led the recruitment of six men and one woman, all young, lean and healthy. Each volunteer went through two study conditions, at least four weeks apart. In one, they spent 8.5 hours a night in bed for four consecutive nights. In the other, they spent 4.5 hours in bed for four nights. Food intake, strictly controlled, was identical under both study conditions.—On the morning after the fourth night following both the long and short sleep conditions, each volunteer took an intravenous glucose tolerance test, which measures total-body insulin sensitivity. The researchers performed a biopsy, removing abdominal fat cells from the area near each volunteer’s navel. Then they measured how these fat cells responded to insulin.—The researchers assessed insulin sensitivity at the molecular level by measuring the phosphorylation of a protein called Akt within fat cells. Akt phosphorylation is a crucial early chemical step in the cell’s response to insulin.–After four nights of short sleep, total-body insulin response decreased by an average of 16 percent. The insulin sensitivity of fat cells decreased by 30 percent. This reduction is comparable to the difference between cells from obese vs. lean participants or from people with diabetes versus non-diabetic controls.—They found that the sleep-deprived study participants had a decreased response to a range of doses of insulin. It took nearly three times as much insulin to provoke half of the maximum Akt response in volunteers who had been deprived of sleep.
“Sleeping four to five hours a night, at least on work days, is now a common behavior” said study author and sleep specialist Esra Tasali.–“Some people claim they can tolerate the cognitive effects of routine sleep deprivation,” said co-author Eve Van Cauter, PhD, the Frederick H. Rawson Professor of Medicine and director of the sleep, metabolism and health center at the University of Chicago. “In this small but thorough study, however, we found that seven out of seven subjects had a significant change in insulin sensitivity. They are not tolerating the metabolic consequences.”—The study was one of the first to bring together sleep research experts and biologists focused on energy regulation and metabolism in adipose tissue. The impetus came from a sleep-research graduate student, Josiane Broussard, PhD ’10, lead author of the study and now a Society in Science-Branco Weiss fellow at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles. She wanted to combine her interest in sleep and metabolism with research at the molecular level.—So she pulled together a team for this project that included the two sleep researchers, Tasali and Van Cauter, plus two specialists from the University of Chicago Kovler Diabetes Center, David Ehrmann, MD, and Brady, who studies how insulin regulates energy storage in fat and liver cells.—They focused on fat cells because of their direct links to metabolic disruption and weight gain. These cells store energy for the body, are exquisitely sensitive to insulin and help regulate appetite.—Witnessing the direct effect of sleep deprivation on a peripheral tissue such as fat at the cellular level “was an eye-opener,” Broussard said. It helps cement the link between sleep and diabetes and “suggests that we could use sleep like diet and exercise to prevent or treat this common disease[U1] .” Brady said the study opens up many new questions.–“What signals from sleep loss affect the fat cell? What effect does dysfunctional fat have at the whole-body level?” Brady wondered. “And if we can deprive healthy people of sleep and make them worse, can we take sick people, such as those with the common combination of sleep apnea, obesity and diabetes, improve their sleep and make them better? That’s the missing link in the sleep-obesity-diabetes connection.”–This study is “a valuable contribution to the understanding of the causal pathways by which reduced sleep duration may directly contribute to diabetes and obesity,” according to an editorial in the journal by Francesco Cappuccio, MD, DSc, and Michelle Miller, PhD, of the University of Warwick, in Coventry, United Kingdom. “These results point to a much wider influence of sleep on bodily functions, including metabolism, adipose tissue, cardiovascular function, and possibly more.”–The paper, “Impaired Insulin Signaling in Human Adipocyes,” appears in the Oct. 16, 2012, issue of the Annals of Internal Medicine. Funding for this work was provided by the National Institutes of Health and Society in Science — The Branco Weiss Fellowship.–Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of Chicago Medical Center, via Newswise. –Journal Reference-Josiane L. Broussard, David A. Ehrmann, Eve Van Cauter, Esra Tasali, Matthew J. Brady. Impaired Insulin Signaling in Human Adipocytes After Experimental Sleep Restriction: A Randomized, Crossover Study. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2012; 157 (8): 549-557 [link]