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Bacteria Adapt and Evade Nanosilver's Sting May 8, 2013 — Researchers from UNSW have cautioned that more work is needed to understand how micro-organisms respond to the disinfecting properties of silver nano-particles, increasingly used in consumer goods, and for medical and environmental applications.---Although nanosilver has effective antimicrobial properties against certain pathogens, overexposure to silver nano-particles can cause other potentially harmful organisms to rapidly adapt and flourish, a UNSW study reveals.--This result, published in the journal Small, could have wide-reaching implications for the future use of nanosilver as an antimicrobial agent with biomedical and environmental applications.---"We found an important natural ability of a widely occurring bacteria to adapt quite rapidly to the antimicrobial action of nanosilver. This is the first unambiguous evidence of this induced adaptation," says co-author Dr Cindy Gunawan, from the UNSW School of Chemical Engineering.---Using an experimental culture, UNSW researchers observed that nanosilver was effective in suppressing a targeted bacteria (Escherichia coli), but that its presence initiated the unexpected emergence, adaptation and abnormally fast growth of another bacteria species (Bacillus).---The efficacy of nanosilver to suppress certain disease-causing pathogens has been well-documented, and as a result, it has become widely used in medicine to coat bandages and wound dressings. It also has environmental uses in water and air purification systems, and is used in cosmetics and detergents, and as a surface coating for things like toys and tupperware.---But the researchers say this exploitation of nanosilver's antimicrobial properties have "gained momentum due in part to a lack of evidence for the potential development of resistant microorganisms."---"Antimicrobial action of nanosilver is not universal and the widespread use of these products should take into consideration the potential for longer-term adverse outcomes," says Gunawan.---The researchers say these adverse impacts could be more pronounced given the near-ubiquitous nature of the Bacillus bacteria, which originate from airborne spores, and because the resistance trait can potentially be transferred to the genes of other micro-organisms.---"For the medical use of nanosilver, this implies the potential for reduced efficacy and the development of resistant populations in clinical settings," says co-author Dr Christopher Marquis, a senior lecturer from the UNSW School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences.---"This work suggests caution in the widespread use of nanosilver and the requirement for much deeper research into the antimicrobial mechanisms, the extent of adaptability and the molecular basis or genetics of cell defence against the antimicrobial activity."-----Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by University of New South Wales. ---Journal Reference--Cindy Gunawan, Wey Yang Teoh, Christopher P. Marquis, Rose Amal. Induced Adaptation ofBacillus Antimicrobial Nanosilver. Small, 2013; DOI: 10.1002/smll.201300761 ************************************************************************* Whole Walnuts and Their Extracted Oil Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Walnuts. Consumption of whole walnuts or their extracted oil can reduce cardiovascular risk through a mechanism other than simply lowering cholesterol, according to new research. ---May 8, 2013 — Consumption of whole walnuts or their extracted oil can reduce cardiovascular risk through a mechanism other than simply lowering cholesterol, according to a team of Penn State, Tufts University and University of Pennsylvania researchers.--"We already know that eating walnuts in a heart-healthy diet can lower blood cholesterol levels," said Penny Kris-Etherton, Distinguished Professor of Nutrition, Penn State. "But, until now, we did not know what component of the walnut was providing this benefit. Now we understand additional ways in which whole walnuts and their oil components can improve heart health."----In a randomized-controlled trial, the researchers gave 15 participants with elevated blood cholesterol one of four treatments -- either 85 grams of whole walnuts, 6 grams of skin, 34 grams of defatted nutmeat, or 51 grams of oil. The team evaluated biochemical and physiological responses in the participants before the treatments were administered and again 30 minutes, one hour, two hours, four hours and six hours after administering the treatments. The researchers repeated this process for each of the remaining three treatments.----Results -- which will appear in the June 1 issue of the Journal of Nutrition and are now online -- showed that a one-time consumption of the oil component in walnuts favorably affected vascular health. In addition, consumption of whole walnuts helped HDL -- good cholesterol -- perform more effectively in transporting and removing excess cholesterol from the body.--"Our study showed that the oil found in walnuts can maintain blood vessel function after a meal, which is very important given that blood vessel integrity is often compromised in individuals with cardiovascular disease," said Claire Berryman, graduate student in nutritional sciences, Penn State. "The walnut oil was particularly good at preserving the function of endothelial cells, which play an important role in cardiovascular health."---According to the researchers, walnuts contain alpha-linolenic acid, gamma-tocopherol and phytosterols, which may explain the positive effects of the walnut oil treatment.--"Implications of this finding could mean improved dietary strategies to fight heart disease," said Berryman. "The science around HDL functionality is very new, so to see improvements in this outcome with the consumption of whole walnuts is promising and worth investigating further." Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms that account for cardiovascular disease risk reduction with walnut consumption, according to Kris-Etherton "Our study indicates that simple dietary changes, such as incorporating walnuts and/or their oil in a heart healthy diet, may reduce the risk of heart disease," she said Other authors on the paper include Jessica Grieger and Sheila West of Penn State, Oliver Chen and Jeffrey Blumberg of Tufts University, and George Rothblat and Sandhya Sankaranarayanan of the University of Pennsylvania. The California Walnut Board funded this research--- Story Source-The above story is reprinted from materials provided by Penn State. The original article was written by Sara LaJeunesse. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Adding Walnuts To Good Diet May Help Older People Improve Motor And Behavioral Skills Adding a moderate, but not high, amount of walnuts to an otherwise healthy diet may help older individuals improve performance on tasks that require motor and behavioral skills.---Apr. 25, 2009 — Adding a moderate, but not high, amount of walnuts to an otherwise healthy diet may help older individuals improve performance on tasks that require motor and behavioral skills, according to an animal model study by Agricultural Research Service (ARS)-funded scientists. Walnuts contain polyphenols and other antioxidants and essential fatty acids.--The study was conducted by researchers with the Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging (HNRCA) at Tufts University in Boston, Mass.---Neuroscientist James Joseph, psychologist Barbara Shukitt-Hale and coauthors Lauren Willis and Vivian Cheng reported the study in the British Journal of Nutrition. They are with the HNRCA's Neuroscience Laboratory. ARS is the principal intramural scientific research agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture.---The aging brain undergoes many changes that can result in altered or impaired neuronal functioning. Such disruption can be attributed in part to alterations in "synaptic plasticity," or the ability of the connections between neurons to change in strength and function, and also by increased oxidative damage to neural tissue. In aged rodents, these impairments are seen as poor performance on age-sensitive tests of balance, coordination, and "spatial" working memory. --For the study, weight-matched, aged rats were randomly assigned to one of four diet groups. For eight weeks, the rats were fed special chow mixes that contained either 2 percent, 6 percent or 9 percent walnuts-or no walnuts-before undergoing motor and memory tests. For comparison, the 6 percent walnut study diet is equivalent to a human eating 1 ounce, or about 7 to 9 walnuts, a day. That counts as both a 2-ounce equivalent from the "meat and beans group" and 2 teaspoons toward a daily allowance of dietary oil, as described at study found that in aged rats, the diets containing 2 percent or 6 percent walnuts were able to improve age-related motor and cognitive shortfalls, while the 9 percent walnut diet impaired reference memory. Walnuts, eaten in moderation, appear to be among other foods containing polyphenols and bioactive substances that exhibit multiple effects on neural tissue, according to the researchers. --The above story is reprinted from materials provided by USDA/Agricultural Research Service. --   *************************************************************************** Basic Anti-Biofilm and Anti NanoParticle Approach-Morgellons   ANTI-BIOFILM PROTOCOL KEYS   Humans, as a rule, are a host to various "friendly" bacteria and viruses. We carry them around with us in tissues and biofilms and they normally exist in balance within our bodies. The body is made of an estimated 100 trillion cells. However, humans host between 1.5-2 quadrillion and approximately 1,500 different types of bacteria. "The number of bacteria living within the body of the average healthy adult human are estimated to outnumber human cells 10 to 1!" Although more research is needed as to everything we get from this arrangement, we know that: We need their enzymes for various body processes They communicate with the immune system They prevent growth of harmful species They regulate the development of the gut They produce vitamins (such as biotin and vitamin K) They ferment unused energy substrates They produce needed hormones They assist us in the biofilms in the gut, respiratory system, urinary tract, mucus membranes of the reproductive tract. Is it realistic or even possible to try and remove all biofilm from the body, when we have always hosted biofilm communities? No, because we are designed to live in harmony with one another, unless infection and other problems create an imbalance. Humans are "symbiotes" with various organisms.   It is when Lyme Disease and co-infections and strong antibiotics enter the picture that the normal, symbiotic biofilm arrangement in the body can most likely be tipped over the edge into more pathogenic ("bad") biofilm communities.   Is it possible that the good guy, friendly biofilms can be "brought to the dark side," and go from good to pathogenic? We think this is certainly possible, particularly in chronic illness, and especially in the theory of "Pleomorphism." Pleomorphists believe that internal microorganisms can change from avirulent, benign forms into a potentially virulent, pathogenic, forms." Click for article and reference. The goal then, is to re-establish the healthy balance and symbiotic relationship to the natural biofilm and organisms in the body.   Think of it this way: When you are healthy, your body exists as a balanced series of communities of human cells carrying thousands of species of organisms that help you and one another survive. When you begin to kill off these species, especially with toxic chemicals like antibiotics, they will in effect fight back to survive, turning against the host or one another in chronic diseas