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These quantities produce a gram or so of iodine, which is sufficient for the experiments that require it. If you need more iodine, simply increase all quantities proportionately.
Proportions to Yield
FDA to hold first public hearing on GM babies
by Rady Ananda
Next month, the US Food and Drug Administration will hold a two-day public meeting to discuss genetic modification within the human egg, which changes will be passed on generationally. –Human gene therapy has been ongoing since 1990, but most of that involved non-heritable genes, called somatic (non-sex cell) gene therapy. Somatic modifications only affect the individual and are not passed on, and so do not affect the human genome. —The game changed with the successful birth of at least 30 genetically modified babies by 2001. Half of the babies engineered from one clinic developed defects and so the FDA stepped in and asserted jurisdiction over “the use of human cells that receive genetic material by means other than the union of gamete nuclei” (sperm and egg). — Now the FDA is considering going forward with “oocyte modification” which involves genetic material from a second woman, whereby offspring will carry the DNA from three parents. These kinds of genetic changes (“germline modification”) alter the human genome.—This is the first such meeting ever to be held in public by the FDA, reports Biopolitical Times (BPT), speculating that the meeting will likely include discussing a mitochondrial replacement technique developed by Shoukhrat Mitalipov at Oregon Health and Science University (OHSU). —
Notes the BPT, “mitochondrial replacement is a form of inheritable genetic modification.” This type of gene therapy is the source of much controversy, because it permanently changes the human genome and risks unforeseeable changes in growth and development, and aging.—
As late as 2008, all germline modification therapies and enhancements were banned in 83% of the 30 nations making up the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development), including the US and UK, reports the Center for Genetics and Society (CGS). —Testifying before the House Foreign Affairs Committee, Subcommittee on Terrorism, Nonproliferation and Trade in 2008, CGS Executive Director Richard Hayes advised–Most people strongly support therapeutic applications of genetic science, but they also realize that the manipulation of inheritable genetic traits crosses a consequential barrier. In the great majority of instances, couples at risk of passing on a serious genetic disease can ensure that their child is disease-free by means of medically-related trait selection, thus obviating the need for the far more complex and risk-prone intervention that germline modification would entail.—Making humans better, smarter, stronger has long been the goal of eugenicists. Hayes warns—Germline enhancement has also been seriously proposed as a means of creating people with such novel cognitive, psychological, and behavioral traits that they would constitute a new, ‘post-human’ species, incapable of interbreeding with ‘normal’ humans.—With ooplasmic transfer, the technique injects healthy mitochondrial DNA from a donor into the egg of an infertile woman. Mitochondrial DNA floats outside a cell’s nucleus which contains the regular DNA, and is only inherited from the mother. —In June, the United Kingdom reversed its long-standing policy against germline modification, and decided to go ahead with three-parent babies. Regulations on the procedure are now being drafted and Members of Parliament are expected to vote on the issue in 2014. —
Paul Knoepfler, Associate Professor of Cell Biology and Human Anatomy at the University of California, Davis School of Medicine, commented that—Moving one oocyte nucleus into the enucleated oocyte of another person could trigger all kinds of devastating problems (most likely through epigenetic changes) that might not manifest until you try to make a human being out of it. Then it’s too late.—BPT shares in this opposition–If the FDA gives the OHSU researchers a green light to move towards human clinical trials, it will be the first instance of regulatory approval for human germline modification ever, anywhere in the world. –Given the current regulatory void in the United States and the paucity of safety data, allowing scientists to experiment with creating permanent changes to the human genome is a genie that must be kept in the bottle.—as with genetically modified crops, a host of unforeseen and deleterious consequences may develop when we begin modifying humans with genes their children will inherit. GM feed is linked with infertility and spontaneous abortions in livestock, and crops modified to be insecticidal are linked to declining pollinator populations, especially bees, moths and bats.
But another argument against germline modification is that it will lead to designer babies and a new class of underdogs – those who cannot afford genetic enhancement. –Eugenicists and futurists like Ray Kurzweil (The Singularity Is Near, 2006) foresee and welcome the convergence of the NBIC fields that can improve human performance-nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology and cognitive science. —In 2001, over 50 policy makers and scientists from a range of fields contributed to a National Science Foundation-sponsored workshop on converging NBIC technologies. Within the individual, group and societal level discussions, they addressed key areas of human activity: working, learning, aging, group interaction and human evolution. The consensus reached was to focus a national R&D priority on human enhancement. —In re-opening the allowance for GM babies, whose genetic changes will be passed on to future generations, the FDA is taking the next steps toward toeing the line on genetic human enhancement. –In addition to accepting written comments, the FDA, in collaboration with the Office of Cellular Tissue and Gene Therapies Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, will also provide a free webcast of the two-day discussion. The meeting may be rescheduled without notice, the FDA warns. —
Rady Ananda is the creator of Food Freedom News and COTO Report, Rady Ananda’s work has appeared in several online and print publications, including four books. With a B.S. in Natural Resources from Ohio State University’s School of Agriculture, Rady tweets @geobear7 and @RadysRant .
How to Create a Root Cellar for Food Storage
Posted on September 14, 2013 by Daisy Luther
The Organic Prepper
In our agrarian past, we didn’t have a grocery store in every town receiving shipments of fresh fruits and vegetables from all corners of the world on a daily basis. Food preservation was a necessity to survive the long winter in most locations. Over the centuries, many have gotten their winter produce fix from a simple non-tech solution: the root cellar.
Last year when I did my One-Month Stockpile Challenge, I realized that this was a glaring omission in my food stockpile process, so this year, I’m determined to add this strategy to take my stockpile to the next level. Fall is the perfect time to begin because for the next few months, those hard-shelled root vegetables as well as items like apples and potatoes, will be abundant and cheap.
The first root cellars in recorded history were in Australia – 40,000 years ago it is indicated that they were burying their yam harvests in order to keep them fresh. Since then, underground food storage caches have been found all over the world, as people took advantage of the cool moist atmosphere a few feet down.
THE IDEAL ROOT CELLAR
Root cellars are often in the basement of one’s home or in a separate concrete or stone cellar just outside the home. Michigan State University offers these tips on conditions for the ideal root cellar:
The produce is still alive – stored carbohydrates of energy is consumed in the presence of oxygen and produces heat and carbon dioxide. To maintain the proper “living” conditions, at least three variables need to be considered: temperature, humidity and ventilation.
Most cold tolerant or cool season crops will store best between 33 and 35F or just above freezing and up to 40F. Warm season crops sensitive to chilling injury (tomatoes, cucumbers, etc) are typically stored at temperatures above 50F unless processing, cooking or eating will occur shortly after removal from storage. The temperature needs to be actively monitored and managed and will vary with the quantity of produce in the space.
Most root and leafy crops will store best at high humidity (+80%) or moisture levels. Root crops like carrots need to be stored in some moist medium to maintain quality. Some crops like onion, garlic and winter squash store better at low humidity level (less than 60%). Moisture may need to be added by wetting the floor or walls with water depending on the construction methods.
Reasons for ventilation include: 1) removal of heat of respiration, 2) replenishing the oxygen supply, 3) removing volatile compounds from the produce that may effect flavor or sprouting like ethylene. The greater the density or amount of produce in the space, the more ventilation is needed. Ventilation or air tubes need to be planned prior to construction and place during construction.
Common storage categories are 1) cold dry, 2) cold moist, 3) cool dry, 4) cool moist. (source)
The University of Alaska Fairbanks Cooperative Extension Service in cooperation with the United States Department of Agriculture offers the following chart with storage information for specific produce:
Vegetables Temp F. % Humidity Storage Time Comments
Beets 32° 90–95 3 months Leave 1-inch stem.
Brussels sprouts 32° 90–95 4 weeks Wrap to avoid drying
Cabbage 38° 90–95 4 months Late maturing varieties **
Carrots 32° 90–95 5 months Top leaving ¼-inch stem *
Cauliflower 32° 85–90 3 weeks Wrap in leaves *
Celery 32° 90–95 4 months Dig with roots ***
Chinese cabbage 32° 90–95 2 months Dig with roots ***
Cucumbers 50° 85–90 3 weeks Waxed or moist packing *
Kohlrabi 38° 90–95 3 months Trim leaves *
Onions 32° 55–60 8 months Dry for two weeks.
Parsnip 32° 90–95 6 months Top leaving ¼-inch stem *
Potatoes 38° 85–90 8 months Pack in boxes unwashed.
Squash 60° 55–60 3 months Winter types, leave 2-inch stem
Tomatoes 60° 55–60 8 weeks Single layer in covered boxes
Turnips 38° 90–95 3 months Waxed or moist packing *
Small fruits 32° 85–90 7 days
* Pack in moistened sawdust or sand.
** Wrap in clean newspaper.
*** Replant in moist sand.
ORGANIZATION OF YOUR ROOT CELLAR
You can’t just place everything together and hope for your food to all remain fresh. Some items cannot be stored together because they release a gas called ethylene. Ethylene gas is a ripening agent,which hastens the decomposition of other produce.
For example, apples, pears, and tomatoes produce high amounts of ethylene and should be placed higher than other foods, and near vents if possible. They should not be placed near potatoes and carrots, as the ethylene will cause those to spoil rapidly.
Some produce will easily absorb odors from items with strong smells. Strong smelling foods like cabbages or turnips can be wrapped in newspaper to help contain the smell. Onions store well when hung in mesh bags.
Some produce is stored more successfully if cured at a temperature of 80-90 degrees F for 10 days before being placed into storage:
Two small investments for your root cellar should be a thermometer to measure temperature and a hygrometer to measure humidity. This way you can ensure your conditions are right to keep your food fresh for the longest possible time.
The following resources provide specific information on how to create and maintain your own root cellar:
The Old Farmer’s Almanac
Mother Earth News
Michigan State University
Root Cellaring by Mike and Nancy Bubel
About the author:
Daisy Luther is a freelance writer and editor. Her website, The Organic Prepper, offers information on healthy prepping, including premium nutritional choices, general wellness and non-tech solutions. You can follow Daisy on Facebook and Twitter, and you can email her at [email protected]
– See more at: http://www.theorganicprepper.ca/how-to-create-a-root-cellar-for-food-storage-09142013#sthash.n7oq0sSp.dpuf
Chemtrails and Geoengineering
There are mixed reports on chemtrails, which scientists who will talk about them term “geoengineering” to somehow make dumping toxic metals over our heads and poisoning us and our families sound respectable and, well, “scientific.” Some of the so-called geoengineering “scientists” say that geoengineering is necessary to save the planet from disastrous climate change, but of course it is not happening now, it is just a proposal. Others say nothing of the sort is even being contemplated (it’s all a conspiracy theory). None of the official spokesmen of government acknowledge it is going on now. They are confident that you do not ever seriously look up at the sky, and if for some reason you do, thanks to the dumbing down effect of public education and the media, you won’t know what you are looking at.——-The phenomenon itself is very easy to identify with the naked eye. You can watch chemtrails being laid down on most days from just about anywhere in the U.S., and now in many other countries as well. When planes fly at high altitudes, you can sometimes see a very short trail behind them which quickly disappears. That is called a “contrail,” which is short for condensation trail, from water condensation, and it disappears as the water droplets disperse. Then there are other planes that leave long trails behind them that do not disperse. These are the chemtrails. They do not disperse because they are made up of solid particles, not water droplets.
No Longer A Theory
For a long time, starting when chemtrails started appearing all over the U.S. in the 1990′s, those who spoke of them were dismissed as crazy conspiracy theorists. But now, there is solid evidence that chemtrails are real. Patents describe some of the materials being sprayed. Military whistleblowers confirm that these materials are being loaded on the jets for spraying. We have video evidence of the spray nozzles on the planes, and of the billowing clouds of particulates being released. Air, water and soil samples show the same toxic metals, including aluminum, barium and strontium, plus a list of other toxic materials in the mix, that are raining down on us almost every day. There is no question of whether this is happening, nor is there any question that our health and the health of animals, plants and the entire biosphere are being drastically harmed. Nano particles such as those being sprayed can cross the blood brain barrier, and affect our brain function, while poisoning other parts of the body at the same time. Aluminum and the other metals raise soil pH, radically reduce the health and numbers of all lifeforms, from soil microorganisms, to plants and trees, to animals, to humans.
We Need Chemtrails Like We Need Chemotherapy
Some of the “scientists” who admit the practice, which they call “geoengineerring” (i.e engineering the Earth), say geoengineering might be required to save us from global warming and climate change. Of course, they are already doing that, but they just say it might become necessary. They may admit it could have “some harmful effects” but that we might want it anyway just like we might need to use chemotherapy for cancer.—–Part of my background includes long experience in holistic health. I can tell you that I would NEVER want chemotherapy for any kind of cancer or anything else, and neither would any doctor with a clear understanding of what it is, what it does to the human body, and that safe and effective natural alternatives exist. Chemo “therapy” kills cells with very potent poisons, injected directly into your bloodstream. The idea is that it kills cancer cells too, which is true, and the hope is it kills them before it kills you. Often, that doesn’t work out very well, and you die first, as the cancer cells proliferate. Even with the low dose version of chemotherapy practiced by some doctors I respect and whose motives are good, I am not convinced it is ever a good choice, compared to what else could be done.
Just Block the Sunlight With Toxic Metals, No Problem
With chemtrails (geoengineering), the idea is that by blocking the natural sunlight from reaching the Earth, cooling can occur, and presumably if one does this forever, damaging global warming could be avoided. The same technology diverts rain patterns and wind currents in directions where “scientists” think they should be, since they are much wiser than the Creator. Of course one problem with this theory is that the materials used (just like in chemotherapy) are deadly in themselves. They kill the life on Earth, from soil organisms on up to us, and they block the sunlight that is needed for life (which also ends up cutting our oxygen supply). There is of course a bright spot in this approach for GMO companies like Monsanto, who are currently working with universities like Cornell and others, to develop toxic GMO trees and plants that will live where natural lifeforms would die from aluminum poisoning. The idea is that biotech companies will own all of nature!!!!!!!!!!
What’s the Motive?
I used to think these things were being done because of stupidity on the part of our rulers. Now I realize that is partly true and partly not true. It is true, because people in many levels of government and industry believe their superiors who say nothing bad will happen to them if they go ahead and spread these poisons everywhere, it’s just normal business, and scientists have already determined it’s a good idea. That’s pretty far up there on the stupid meter, but it’s more comfortable for many people compared to having to actually think about what all this means and the future it is creating. Where this is not coming from stupidity is when you look at the higher levels of control, and you get to where the design, programs and orders are coming down from eugenicists. These are the people whose intent is to depopulate the Earth. Most of them feel they will remain in the privileged elite, and only those “below them” will die, and also it’s necessary “for the Earth.” Most or all of these levels of controllers are wrong, they are also slated for termination, as soon as their functions are completed.—Likewise, in what is referred to these days as “health care,” protocols like chemotherapy are being administered by those who don’t want to admit to themselves what they are really giving to the patient, though many of them would never take the treatment themselves. But at the higher planning levels, the point of most of modern medicine is also eugenics, just like it is with chemtrails.—For backup details and documentation on chemtrails and geoengineering, you can start by studying material on the website http://www.geoengineeringwatch.org, as well as http://www.globalskywatch.com. They will lead you to many other sources for study. For a good explanation of the deadly effect of modern medicine, you can start by looking at the paper written by Dr Gary Null and Dr Carolyn Dean, called “Death by Medicine” (http://www.webdc.com/pdfs/deathbymedicine.pdf). But the bottom line is, we are being gradually and intentionally killed, eliminated as undesirables from the planet, by those currently in control of government and economic systems. And the purge is accelerating now, becoming much less gradual. The truth is that we are dealing with a system that is very sophisticated, using psychological operations, deception and programming to get the members of the targeted population to do its work, and basically destroy themselves (that is us). The details are complex, but the plan is not really that complicated. Use the means at the disposal of the numerically small group in control to clear out the unwanted population of the Earth, leaving the planet for them, and perhaps a small number of slaves if the robots cannot handle every type of job for them. That in a nutshell is where we are.
It’s Too Scary Too Look At
So why should we get into these details that, if we look at them seriously, could be very stressful and upsetting? When I decided to go as deeply into the study of so many of these related fields, in order to see how we might improve the future of humanity, I had to make a decision that I would not get sucked into the dark mentality that pervades these malicious programs, and that balance has been hard, but necessary, to maintain. Really, the only reason to become clearly aware of this situation is to look at what we can do about it.
The Use of Force is What They Hope For
One of our unalienable and basic rights, recognized by but not originated by, our Constitution, is the right to defend ourselves and others with force when attacked. I think it is critical for us to maintain that right, but I don’t think it is the way to completely solve this problem of the massive system that has been set in motion for our destruction. In fact, I think the rulers hope we will resort to physical force first, so they can unleash their minions and their best weapons on us, and not be seen as the aggressors. They have been putting a lot of emphasis on getting ready to slaughter us en masse.
What Do Our Oppressors Fear?
But while they hope for us to become the violent aggressors they can easily label as the “bad guys,” what they really fear is something much more subtle, and infinitely more powerful, that they will do practically anything they can to make sure we never know about.
Einstein taught the world that the amount of energy lying hidden in a single particle of matter is actually enough to reconstruct the entire universe. E=mc2. The power of consciousness in humans dwarfs this equation by comparison. If we ever wake up and realize who we actually are, what we are really made of, and what that thing is that we refer to with the totally inadequate term “consciousness,” their dominance over us is finished. This power belongs to every one of us, and lies waiting to be discovered. It will enable us to do directly all we could do with any technology, and much more. There lies the fear of those at the top of the dark system, who know about this power, but also know they will never have access to it, as it cannot be used by those of malevolent intent.—It is inevitable that we will discover it, as we had the awareness long ago. When that will be is up to us. This play is unfolding on many levels, though we are not aware of most of them. Whether the suffering goes on and gets far worse, or we initiate a change into the experience of love and healing is actually in our hands. We will look back at this time someday, which I hope is soon, know this to be true, and we will have made the change to set that power free.
Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid: novel hepatitis C virus antivirals that inhibit NS5B activity.
Antiviral Res. 2013 Apr;98(1):44-53
Authors: Kong L, Li S, Liao Q, Zhang Y, Sun R, Zhu X, Zhang Q, Wang J, Wu X, Fang X, Zhu Y
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects up to 170 million people worldwide and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, current therapy is only curative in approximately 50% of HCV patients and has adverse side effects, which warrants the need to develop novel and effective antivirals against HCV. We have previously reported that the Chinese herb Fructus Ligustri Lucidi (FLL) directly inhibited HCV NS5B RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) activity (Kong et al., 2007). In this study, we found that the FLL aqueous extract strongly suppressed HCV replication. Further high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis combined with inhibitory assays indicates that oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are two antiviral components within FLL aqueous extract that significantly suppressed the replication of HCV genotype 1b replicon and HCV genotype 2a JFH1 virus. Moreover, oleanolic acid and ursolic acid exhibited anti-HCV activity at least partly through suppressing HCV NS5B RdRp activity as noncompetitive inhibitors. Therefore, our results for the first time demonstrated that natural products oleanolic acid and ursolic acid could be used as potential HCV antivirals that can be applied to clinic trials either as monotherapy or in combination with other HCV antivirals.
PMID: 23422646 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Polyphenols: a diverse class of multi-target anti-HIV-1 agents.
Curr Drug Metab. 2013 May;14(4):392-413
Authors: Andrae-Marobela K, Ghislain FW, Okatch H, Majinda RR
Polyphenols are a versatile class of compounds that represent secondary metabolites from higher plants and which are abundantly present in the human diet. Epidemiological data suggest protective effects of polyhenols in relation to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases and age-related conditions. HIV/AIDS remains prevalent in many parts of the world as acute infection and as anti-retroviral drug (ARV)-managed chronic disease. Due to the nature of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) and an increased use of ARVs many drug-resistant HIV strains have emerged and continue to do so. This makes it impossible to rely on one standard drug treatment regime. This review summarizes anti- HIV activities of polyphenols. It highlights the diversity of modes of action by which polyphenols – according to their respective compound classes – exert their activities. Additionally, this review discusses polyphenols as multi-target anti-HIV agents and provides the context of in-vivo and clinical data. Based on the presented data, a three-pronged approach for further anti-HIV drug discovery is suggested applying methods of combinatorial medicinal chemistry on the diverse and sometimes unique scaffolds of polyphenols. The latter being selected according to the approach of ‘reverse pharmacology’ as a creative way to place safety and other clinical consideration at the beginning of the drug discovery- and development process.
PMID: 23330927 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
Anti-HBV active constituents from Piper longum.
Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 1;23(7):2123-7
Authors: Jiang ZY, Liu WF, Zhang XM, Luo J, Ma YB, Chen JJ
In the screening search for Hepatitis B virus inhibitory agents from medicinal plants, the ethanol extract of Piper longum Linn. was found to possess superior anti-HBV activity in vitro. Bioassay-guided fractionation coupled with repeated purification resulted in the isolation of four new compounds, involving two new glycosides longumosides A (1) and B (2) and two new amide alkaloids erythro-1-[1-oxo-9(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,9-dihydroxy-2E-nonenyl]-piperidine (3), threo-1-[1-oxo-9(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,9-dihydroxy-2E-nonenyl]-piperidine (4), as well as two compounds 3β,4α-dihydroxy-2-piperidinone (5), 5,6-dihydro-2(1H)-pyridinone (6) from natural source for the first time. The structures of the four new compounds were determined by extensive analyses of the MS, IR, 1D and 2D NMR data. Besides, the compounds 2-6, together with the known compounds 7-11 obtained previously, were assayed for their anti-HBV activity by using Hep G 2.2.15 cell line in vitro. Results suggested the compound piperine (7) possessed remarkable inhibitory HBV activity, against the secretion of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) with the Selectivity Index (SI) values of 15.7 and 16.8, respectively.
PMID: 23434420 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
A Usage for Pepper-in supporting liver against infections
Three things you may want to incorporate—Black pepper—rosemary—and tumeric —they would have a strong effect on the liver especially against this- add to soups—or foods daily and make a tea out of this using equal parts –
Show of the Month October 19 2013
acidophilusandB. lactis may prevent or reduce age-related metabolic dysfunction
Vitamin D Regulates the Gut Microbiome and Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate–Induced Colitis1
Pigmented Potato Consumption Alters Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Damage in Men
Rosemary AntiInflammatory and Anti Tumour Preventative
Zinc Discovery May Shed Light On Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
Aluminium phosphide-induced genetic and oxidative damages in vitro: attenuation by Laurus nobilis L. leaf extract
CA Local Governments On Board-against smart meters
Nearly half of Canadians facing major illness struggle financially
acidophilusandB. lactis may prevent or reduce age-related metabolic dysfunction
Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 Induce Different Age-Related Metabolic Profiles Revealed by 1H-NMR Spectroscopy in Urine and Feces of Mice1,2,3
Elisa Brasili4, Elena Mengheri4,*, Alberta Tomassini5, Giorgio Capuani5, Marianna Roselli4, Alberto Finamore4, Fabio Sciubba5, Federico Marini5, and Alfredo Miccheli5,6
+ Author Affiliations–4National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition (INRAN), Department of Nutritional Sciences, Rome, Italy —5Department of Chemistry, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; and –6Institute of Crystallography, National Research Council (CNR), Bari, Italy
Age-related dysbioses of intestinal microbiota and decline in the overall metabolic homeostasis are frequently found in the elderly. Probiotic supplementation may represent a way to prevent or reduce the senescence-associated metabolic disorders. The present study evaluated the metabolic impact of Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12 supplementation in relation to age by analyzing urine and feces metabolic profiles using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and multivariate analysis. Adult (3 mo old) and aged (16 mo old) mice received an oral supplementation of the 2 probiotics (1 × 109 colony-forming units/d each) or phosphate buffered saline (control) daily for 30 d. Urine and feces were collected for 48 h before the end of the study. Partial least squares–discriminant analysis showed that the urinary discriminant metabolites for the probiotic treatment included higher dimethylglycine in adult and aged mice, lower sarcosine and nicotinate in adult mice, higher N-methylnicotinamide in adult mice and lower N-methylnicotinamide in aged mice compared with their controls. These results indicate a probiotic-induced modulation of homocysteine and NAD metabolism pathways, which have important implications because these pathways are involved in essential cellular processes that can be altered in senescence. The probiotic supplementation also modified the fecal metabolic profiles, inducing in both adult and aged mice higher 4-hydroxyphenylacetate and lower xylose in treated mice compared with their control mice, whereas valerate was greater in treated adult mice and lower in treated aged mice compared with their controls. The ANOVA simultaneous component analysis on urinary and fecal metabolic profiling showed an age × treatment interaction (P < 0.05), confirming the age-related modulation of the metabolic response to probiotic supplementation. The results suggest that L. acidophilus and B. lactis may prevent or reduce age-related metabolic dysfunction.
Vitamin D Regulates the Gut Microbiome and Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate–Induced Colitis1,2,3
Jot Hui Ooi4,8, Yunfei Li5, Connie J. Rogers6,7, and Margherita T. Cantorna4,7,*
+ Author Affiliations
1. 4Department of Veterinary and Biomedical Science,2. 5Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,3. 6Department of Nutritional Sciences,4. 7Center for Molecular Immunology and Infectious Disease, and5. 8Pathobiology Graduate Program, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA
↵*To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: [email protected]
The active form of vitamin D [1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol, 1,25(OH)2D3] and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) regulate susceptibility to experimental colitis. The effect of the bacterial microflora on the susceptibility of C57BL/6 mice to dextran sodium sulfate–induced colitis was determined. Mice that cannot produce 1,25(OH)2D3 [Cyp27b1 (Cyp) knockout (KO)], VDR KO as well as their wild-type littermates were used. Cyp KO and VDR KO mice had more bacteria from the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla and fewer bacteria from the Firmicutes and Deferribacteres phyla in the feces compared with wild-type. In particular, there were more beneficial bacteria, including the Lactobacillaceae and Lachnospiraceae families, in feces from Cyp KO and VDR KO mice than in feces from wild-type. Helicobacteraceae family member numbers were elevated in Cyp KO compared with wild-type mice. Depletion of the gut bacterial flora using antibiotics protected mice from colitis. 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment (1.25 μg/100 g diet) of Cyp KO mice decreased colitis severity and reduced the numbers of Helicobacteraceae in the feces compared with the numbers in the feces of untreated Cyp KO mice. The mechanisms by which the dysbiosis occurs in VDR KO and Cyp KO mice included lower expression of E-cadherin on gut epithelial and immune cells and fewer tolerogenic dendritic cells that resulted in more gut inflammation in VDR and Cyp KO mice compared with wild-type mice. Increased host inflammation has been shown to provide pathogens with substrates to out-compete more beneficial bacterial species. Our data demonstrate that vitamin D regulates the gut microbiome and that 1,25(OH)2D3 or VDR deficiency results in dysbiosis, leading to greater susceptibility to injury in the gut.
Recipe—Simplest way to achieve this is to use a good kefir and or sour cream or yogurt will give you both the bacterial and Vitamin D —you can open a Vitamin D3 and allow it to be mixed in the food you are going to consume whether it is kefir –yogurt—cottage cheese—sour cream –ricotta—or even mix with a probiotic
Pigmented Potato Consumption Alters Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Damage in Men
Pigmented potatoes contain high concentrations of antioxidants, including phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. These bioactive compounds have been implicated in the inhibition or prevention of cellular oxidative damage and chronic disease susceptibility. We assessed the effects of pigmented potato consumption on oxidative stress and inflammation biomarkers in adult males. Free-living healthy men (18–40 y; n = 12/group) consumed 150 g of cooked white- (WP), yellow- (YP), or purple-flesh potatoes (PP) once per day for 6 wk in a randomized study. Blood was collected at baseline and wk 6 to analyze total antioxidant capacity (TAC), DNA damage as assessed by plasma 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein oxidation, lipid peroxidation, C-reactive protein (CRP), inflammatory cytokines, lymphoproliferation, NK cytotoxicity, and phenotypes. Potatoes were analyzed for TAC, phenolic acids, anthocyanins, and carotenoids. Compared with the WP group, the YP group had higher concentrations of phenolic acids (P < 0.002) and carotenoids (P < 0.001), whereas the PP group had higher concentrations of phenolic acids (P < 0.002) and anthocyanins (P < 0.001). Men who consumed YP and PP tended to have lower (P < 0.08) plasma IL-6 compared with those consuming WP. The PP group tended to have a lower plasma CRP concentration than the WP group (P = 0.07). The 8-OHdG concentration was lower in men who consumed either YP or PP compared with WP. Pigmented potato consumption reduced inflammation and DNA damage in healthy adult males. This offers consumers an improved nutritional choice in potato consumption.
Rosemary AntiInflammatory and Anti Tumour Preventative
Rosmarinic Acid Antagonizes Activator Protein-1–Dependent Activation of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression in Human Cancer and Nonmalignant Cell Lines
One mechanism through which bioactive food components may exert anticancer effects is by reducing the expression of the proinflammatory gene cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which has been regarded as a risk factor in tumor development. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenolic derivative of caffeic acid present in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis). Previous research documented that RA may exert antiinflammatory effects. However, the mechanisms of action of RA on COX-2 expression have not been investigated. Here, we report that in colon cancer HT-29 cells, RA (5, 10, and 20 μmol/L) reduced the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced COX-2 promoter activity (P < 0.05) and protein levels (P < 0.05). In addition, the cotreatment with RA reduced (5 μmol/L, P < 0.05; 10 and 20 μmol/L, P < 0.01) TPA-induced transcription from a control activator protein-1 (AP-1) promoter-luciferase construct and repressed binding of the AP-1 factors c-Jun (10 μmol/L; P < 0.01) and c-Fos (10 μmol/L; P < 0.05) to COX-2 promoter oligonucleotides harboring a cAMP-response element (CRE). The anti-AP1 effects of RA were also examined in a nonmalignant breast epithelial cell line (MCF10A) in which RA antagonized the stimulatory effects of TPA on COX-2 protein expression (5 μmol/L, P < 0.05; 10 and 20 μmol/L, P < 0.01), the recruitment of c-Jun and c-Fos (10 μmol/L; P < 0.01) to the COX-2/CRE oligonucleotides, and activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) (10 μmol/L; P < 0.01), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Additionally, RA antagonized ERK1/2 activation in colon HT-29 and breast MCF-7 cancer cells (10 μmol/L; P < 0.01). Thus, we propose that RA may be an effective preventative agent against COX-2 activation by AP-1-inducing agents in both cancer and nonmalignant mammary epithelial cells.
Another Recipe to utilize is to take the potato that is coloured red-yellow or purple and use rosemary together to get a more pronounced effect in regard to this —you will have a higher content of antioxidant materials working together to make it more potent
Zinc Discovery May Shed Light On Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s
Sep. 30, 2013 — Scientists at the University of Wisconsin-Madison have made a discovery that, if replicated in humans, suggests a shortage of zinc may contribute to diseases like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s, which have been linked to defective proteins clumping together in the brain.–With proteins, shape is everything. The correct shape allows some proteins to ferry atoms or molecules about a cell, others to provide essential cellular scaffolding or identify invading bacteria for attack. When proteins lose their shape due to high temperature or chemical damage, they stop working and can clump together — a hallmark of Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s.–The UW researchers have discovered another stress that decreases protein stability and causes clumping: a shortage of zinc, an essential metal nutrient.—-zinc ions play a key role in creating and holding proteins in the correct shape. In a study just published in the online Journal of Biological Chemistry, Colin MacDiarmid and David Eide show that the gene Tsa1 creates “protein chaperones” that prevent clumping of proteins in cells with a zinc shortage. By holding proteins in solution, Tsa1 prevents damage that can otherwise lead to cell death.–For simplicity, the researchers studied the system in yeast — a single-celled fungus. Yeast can adapt to both shortages and excesses of zinc, says MacDiarmid, an associate scientist. “Zinc is an essential nutrient but if there’s too much, it’s toxic. The issue for the cell is to find enough zinc to grow and support all its functions, while at the same time not accumulating so much that it kills the cell.”—Cells that are low in zinc also produce proteins that counter the resulting stress, including one called Tsa1.—The researchers already knew that Tsa1 could reduce the level of harmful oxidants in cells that are short of zinc. Tsa1, MacDiarmid says, “is really a two-part protein. It can get rid of dangerous reactive oxygen species that damage proteins, but it also has this totally distinct chaperone function that protects proteins from aggregating. We found that the chaperone function was the more important of the two.”—“In yeast, if a cell is deficient in zinc, the proteins can mis-fold, and Tsa1 is needed to keep the proteins intact so they can function,” says Eide, a professor of nutritional science. “If you don’t have zinc, and you don’t have Tsa1, the proteins will glom together into big aggregations that are either toxic by themselves, or toxic because the proteins are not doing what they are supposed to do. Either way, you end up killing the cell.”—While the medical implications remain to be explored, there are clear similarities between yeast and human cells. “Zinc is needed by all cells, all organisms, it’s not just for steel roofs, nails and trashcans,” Eide says. “The global extent of zinc deficiency is debated, but diets that are high in whole grains and low in meat could lead to deficiency.”—If low zinc supply has the same effect on human cells as on yeast, zinc deficiency might contribute to human diseases that are associated with a build-up of “junked” proteins, such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Eide says a similar protective system to Tsa1 also exists in animals, and the research group plans to move ahead by studying that system in human cell culture.
Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Wisconsin-Madison. —Journal Reference-C. W. MacDiarmid, J. Taggart, K. Kerdsomboon, M. Kubisiak, S. Panascharoen, K. Schelble, D. J. Eide. Peroxiredoxin chaperone activity is critical for protein homeostasis in zinc-deficient yeast. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2013; DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M113.512384
Aluminium phosphide-induced genetic and oxidative damages in vitro: attenuation by Laurus nobilis L. leaf extract.
Indian J Pharmacol. 2013 Jan-Feb;45(1):71-5
Authors: Türkez H, Toğar B
OBJECTIVE: The present investigation was undertaken to assess the protective effect of Laurus nobilis leaf extract (LNE) against aluminum phosphide (AIP)-induced genotoxic and oxidative damages stress in cultured human blood cells in the presence of a metabolic activator (S9 mix).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosome aberration (CA) assays were used to assess AlP-induced genotoxicity and to establish the protective effects of LNE. In addition, we determined total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative status (TOS) levels in AlP and LNE treated cultures for biomonitoring the oxidative alterations.
RESULTS: There was significant increases (P < 0.05) in both SCE and CA frequencies of cultures treated with AlP as compared to controls. Our results also showed that AlP (58 mg/l) caused oxidative stress by altering TAC and TOS levels. However, co-application of LNE (25, 50, 100 and 200 mg/l) and AlP resulted in decreases of SCE, CA rates and TOS level and increases of TAC level as compared to the group treated with AlP alone.
CONCLUSION: The preventive role of LNE in alleviating AlP-induced DNA and oxidative damages was indicated for the first time in the present study.–PMID: 23543905 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
CA Local Governments On Board-against smart meters
The following is a list of local governments within California who are opposed to the mandatory wireless ‘smart’ meter program. Names of cities and counties are linked to news coverage or official council minutes that substantiate each city or county’s inclusion.