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    Lecithin as a therapeutic agent in ulcerative colitis.
    Dig Dis. 2013;31(3-4):388-90
    Authors: Stremmel W, Gauss A
    Abstract
    Lecithin [phosphatidylcholine (PC)] was shown to account for more than 70% of total phospholipids within the intestinal mucus layer. It is arranged in lamellar membranes (surfactant-like particles) and establishes a hydrophobic barrier preventing invasion of the colonic commensal microbiota. In ulcerative colitis (UC), the mucus PC content was demonstrated to be reduced by about 70%, irrespective of the presence of inflammation. This may be of primary pathogenetic significance allowing bacteria to enter the mucus and induce mucosal inflammation. Therefore, a new therapeutic strategy is being developed to substitute the missing mucus PC content in UC. Indeed, a delayed-release PC formulation was able to compensate the lack of PC and improve the inflammatory activity. In randomized controlled studies, delayed-release PC was proven to be clinically and endoscopically effective, which now awaits a phase III authority approval trial.—PMID: 24246994 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Recipe—Mix 1 tsp of sunflower or egg yolk lecithin in a blender and consume this may create a dynamic of health probiotic assisting in the removal of excess stomach build up of genetic materials and bacterial and fungal issues and possibly viral-throught the phospholipids effect as well as the probiotics from the fermented dairy—with both of these as well you may see an increase in intellect and brain efficiency- and an overall immune improvement as well as digestive balance
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    Bone marrow fat tissue secretes hormone that helps body stay healthy
    Date:
    July 3, 2014
    Source:
    University of Michigan Health System
    It has been known for its flavorful addition to soups and as a delicacy for dogs but bone marrow fat may also have untapped health benefits, new research finds.–A University of Michigan-led study shows that the fat tissue in bone marrow is a significant source of the hormone adiponectin, which helps maintain insulin sensitivity, break down fat, and has been linked to decreased risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and obesity-associated cancers. The findings appear in today’s online-ahead-of-print issue of Cell Metabolism.–Bone marrow adipose tissue has primarily been associated with negative health effects, most notably because of a documented relationship to reduced bone mass and increased risks of fractures and osteoporosis. The new study however — which included people with anorexia, patients undergoing chemotherapy, rabbits and mice — suggests that this type of fat may also have benefits.–“These findings are significant because we’ve found that bone marrow adipose tissue may have positive, protective roles, and influence adaptive functions outside of the bone tissue, at least during calorie restriction,” says senior author Ormond MacDougald, Ph.D., the Faulkner Professor in the Department of Molecular & Integrative Physiology, a professor of internal medicine, a member of U-M’s Brehm Center for Diabetes Research, and a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Cambridge in the UK.–“We know that low adiponectin has been correlated with multiple health problems and our findings suggest that an important source of this protein, and potentially others that we haven’t identified yet, is the fat tissue inside bone marrow,” adds co-lead author Erica Scheller, D.D.S. Ph.D., a U-M postdoctoral fellow in the MacDougald lab.-Researchers have long studied the function of our fat, or ‘adipose’ tissue, in hopes of better understanding the link between obesity and ill health. One possible link is adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue that helps preserve insulin action. High levels of adiponectin are linked to decreased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. People with obesity have the lowest levels of adiponectin — potentially increasing their risk for developing such diseases while the leaner someone gets, the more adiponectin they have.–An outstanding question in the field has been why adiponectin, which is produced by adipose tissue, increases as people lose body fat. A limitation in understanding this paradox is that previous research has focused on peripheral white adipose tissue, which has been believed to be the sole source of adiponectin.
    The new study finds however that bone marrow fat tissue — which increases as body weight falls — is a previously unrecognized source of adiponectin during calorie restriction.–The study found that both marrow adipose tissue and adiponectin increased in humans with anorexia, and in patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation treatment for ovarian or endometrial cancer. Researchers next used mice to study what happens when marrow fat formation is blocked and also found a relationship between bone marrow adipose tissue and adiponectin, indicating that fat tissue in marrow can have effects beyond the bone.–The research was performed with National Institutes of Health funding in MacDougald’s laboratory at the U-M Medical School, and with collaborators including Clifford Rosen, M.D. of Maine Medical; Mark Horowitz, Ph.D., of Yale University, Anne Klibanski, M.D., of Massachusetts General Hospital; Susanta Hui, Ph.D., of University of Minnesota; and Venkatesh (Gary) Krishnan, Ph.D., of Eli Lilly and Company.-“Bone marrow adipose tissue has traditionally had a bad reputation because of its relationship to decreased bone mass but we now know that adipose tissue within marrow goes beyond the bone and also serves as an endocrine organ that can influence metabolism,” says co-lead author William Cawthorn, Ph.D., a U-M postdoctoral fellow in the MacDougald lab.–“These findings really underscore how little we know about marrow adipose tissue, and also the mechanisms affecting circulating adiponectin levels. This is really just the beginning of much further research to better understand these relationships and their implications.”–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by University of Michigan Health System. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-William P. Cawthorn, Erica L. Scheller, Brian S. Learman, Sebastian D. Parlee, Becky R. Simon, Hiroyuki Mori, Xiaomin Ning, Adam J. Bree, Benjamin Schell, David T. Broome, Sandra S. Soliman, Jenifer L. DelProposto, Carey N. Lumeng, Aditi Mitra, Sandeep V. Pandit, Katherine A. Gallagher, Joshua D. Miller, Venkatesh Krishnan, Susanta K. Hui, Miriam A. Bredella, Pouneh K. Fazeli, Anne Klibanski, Mark C. Horowitz, Clifford J. Rosen, Ormond A. MacDougald. Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Is an Endocrine Organ that Contributes to Increased Circulating Adiponectin during Caloric Restriction. Cell Metabolism, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.cmet.2014.06.003
    Recipe—something to explore utilizing soup bones by either pressure cooking them to increase bone marrow access ( adding vinegar or citric acid to the water prior to boiling) may assist in rebuilding the balance between muscle and fat
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    Sound waves harnessed to enable precision micro- and nano-manufacturing
    Date:
    June 24, 2014
    Source:
    RMIT University
     
    Researcher Dr Amgad Rezk with the lithium niobate chip.
    In a breakthrough discovery, researchers at RMIT University in Melbourne, Australia, have harnessed the power of sound waves to enable precision micro- and nano-manufacturing.–The researchers have demonstrated how high-frequency sound waves can be used to precisely control the spread of thin film fluid along a specially-designed chip, in a paper published today in Proceedings of the Royal Society A.–With thin film technology the bedrock of microchip and microstructure manufacturing, the pioneering research offers a significant advance — potential applications range from thin film coatings for paint and wound care to 3D printing, micro-casting and micro-fluidics.–Professor James Friend, Director of the MicroNano Research Facility at RMIT, said the researchers had developed a portable system for precise, fast and unconventional micro- and nano-fabrication.–“By tuning the sound waves, we can create any pattern we want on the surface of a microchip,” Professor Friend said.–“Manufacturing using thin film technology currently lacks precision ­- structures are physically spun around to disperse the liquid and coat components with thin film.–“We’ve found that thin film liquid either flows towards or away from high-frequency sound waves, depending on its thickness.–“We not only discovered this phenomenon but have also unravelled the complex physics behind the process, enabling us to precisely control and direct the application of thin film liquid at a micro and nano-scale.”–The new process, which the researchers have called “acoustowetting,” works on a chip made of lithium niobate ­- a piezoelectric material capable of converting electrical energy into mechanical pressure.–The surface of the chip is covered with microelectrodes and the chip is connected to a power source, with the power converted to high-frequency sound waves. Thin film liquid is added to the surface of the chip, and the sound waves are then used to control its flow.–The research shows that when the liquid is ultra-thin ­- at nano and sub-micro depths — it flows away from the high-frequency sound waves. The flow reverses at slightly thicker dimensions, moving towards the sound waves. But at a millimetre or more in depth, the flow reverses again, moving away.–Video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IQ762VTxD2g&feature=youtu.be
    Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by RMIT University. –Journal Reference-Amgad R. Rezk, Ofer Manor; Leslie Y. Yeo, and James R. Friend. Double Flow Reversal in Thin Liquid Films Driven by MHz Order Surface Vibration. Proceedings of the Royal Society A, 25 June 2014
    Special Comment —with this type of technology the inverse of what can be done is a reality as well with nanoparticles being absorbed in the body through chemtrails-foods-cosmetics-vaccines these frequencies can cause a reaction within the scope of your cells and tissue—this needs to be addressed since this is what is ongoing daily
     
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    Cocoa extract may counter specific mechanisms of Alzheimer’s disease
    Date:
    June 23, 2014
    Source:
    Mount Sinai Medical Center
    A specific preparation of cocoa-extract called Lavado may reduce damage to nerve pathways seen in Alzheimer’s disease patients’ brains long before they develop symptoms, according to a study conducted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and published June 20 in the Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease (JAD).–Specifically, the study results, using mice genetically engineered to mimic Alzheimer’s disease, suggest that Lavado cocoa extract prevents the protein β-amyloid- (Aβ) from gradually forming sticky clumps in the brain, which are known to damage nerve cells as Alzheimer’s disease progresses.–Lavado cocoa is primarily composed of polyphenols, antioxidants also found in fruits and vegetables, with past studies suggesting that they prevent degenerative diseases of the brain.–The Mount Sinai study results revolve around synapses, the gaps between nerve cells. Within healthy nerve pathways, each nerve cell sends an electric pulse down itself until it reaches a synapse where it triggers the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters that float across the gap and cause the downstream nerve cell to “fire” and pass on the message.–The disease-causing formation of Aβ oligomers — groups of molecules loosely attracted to each other -build up around synapses. The theory is that these sticky clumps physically interfere with synaptic structures and disrupt mechanisms that maintain memory circuits’ fitness. In addition, Aβ triggers immune inflammatory responses, like an infection, bringing an on a rush of chemicals and cells meant to destroy invaders but that damage our own cells instead.–“Our data suggest that Lavado cocoa extract prevents the abnormal formation of Aβ into clumped oligomeric structures, to prevent synaptic insult and eventually cognitive decline,” says lead investigator Giulio Maria Pasinetti, MD, PhD, Saunders Family Chair and Professor of Neurology at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. “Given that cognitive decline in Alzheimer’s disease is thought to start decades before symptoms appear, we believe our results have broad implications for the prevention of Alzheimer’s disease and dementia.-Evidence in the current study is the first to suggest that adequate quantities of specific cocoa polyphenols in the diet over time may prevent the glomming together of Aβ into oligomers that damage the brain, as a means to prevent Alzheimer’s disease.–The research team led by Dr. Pasinetti tested the effects of extracts from Dutched, Natural, and Lavado cocoa, which contain different levels of polyphenols. Each cocoa type was evaluated for its ability to reduce the formation of Aβ oligomers and to rescue synaptic function. Lavado extract, which has the highest polyphenol content and anti-inflammatory activity among the three, was also the most effective in both reducing formation of Aβ oligomers and reversing damage to synapses in the study mice.–“There have been some inconsistencies in medical literature regarding the potential benefit of cocoa polyphenols on cognitive function,” says Dr. Pasinetti. “Our finding of protection against synaptic deficits by Lavado cocoa extract, but not Dutched cocoa extract, strongly suggests that polyphenols are the active component that rescue synaptic transmission, since much of the polyphenol content is lost by the high alkalinity in the Dutching process.”–Because loss of synaptic function may have a greater role in memory loss than the loss of nerve cells, rescue of synaptic function may serve as a more reliable target for an effective Alzheimer’s disease drug, said Dr. Pasinetti.–The new study provides experimental evidence that Lavado cocoa extract may influence Alzheimer’s disease mechanisms by modifying the physical structure of Aβ oligomers. It also strongly supports further studies to identify the metabolites of Lavado cocoa extract that are active in the brain and identify potential drug targets.–In addition, turning cocoa-based Lavado into a dietary supplement may provide a safe, inexpensive and easily accessible means to prevent Alzheimer’s disease, even in its earliest, asymptomatic stages.–Story Source- The above story is based on materials provided by Mount Sinai Medical Center. –Journal Reference-Wang J, Varghese M, Ono K, Yamada M, Levine S, Tzavaras N, Gong B, Hurst WJ, Blitzer RD, Pasinetti GM. Cocoa Extracts Reduce Oligomerization of Amyloid-β: Implications for Cognitive Improvement in Alzheimer’s Disease. J Alzheimers Dis, June 2014 DOI: 10.3233/JAD-132231
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    Ceremonial PTSD therapies favored by Native American veterans
    Date:
    June 30, 2014
    Source:
    Washington State University
     
    Urquhart is a Native veteran and graduate student in the WSU College of Education.-Native American veterans battling Post Traumatic Stress Disorder find relief and healing through an alternative treatment called the Sweat Lodge ceremony offered at the Spokane Veterans Administration Hospital.-In the Arizona desert, wounded warriors from the Hopi Nation can join in a ceremony called Wiping Away the Tears. The traditional cleansing ritual helps dispel a chronic “ghost sickness” that can haunt survivors of battle.-These and other traditional healing therapies are the treatment of choice for many Native American veterans, — half of whom say usual PTSD treatments don’t work — according to a recent survey conducted at Washington State University. The findings will be presented at the American Psychological Association conference in Washington D.C. this August.
    The study is available online at https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/nativeveterans.
    Led by Greg Urquhart and Matthew Hale, both Native veterans and graduate students in the College of Education, the ongoing study examines the attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs of Native American veterans concerning PTSD and its various treatment options. Their goal is to give Native veterans a voice in shaping the types of therapies available in future programs.-“Across the board, Native vets don’t feel represented. Their voices have been silenced and ignored for so long that they were happy to provide feedback on our survey,” said Hale.-Historically, Native Americans have served in the military at higher rates than all other U.S. populations. Veterans are traditionally honored as warriors and esteemed in the tribal community.-A 2012 report by the Department of Veterans Affairs showed that the percentage of Native veterans under age 65 outnumbers similar percentages for veterans of all other racial groups combined.-The WSU survey provides a first-hand look at the veterans’ needs, but more importantly, reveals the unique preferences they have as Native American veterans, said Phyllis Erdman, executive associate dean for academic affairs at the college and mentor for the study.
    Cultural worldview
    Urquhart said many Native veterans are reluctant to seek treatment for PTSD because typical western therapy options don’t represent the Native cultural worldview.-“The traditional Native view of health and spirituality is intertwined,” he explained. “Spirit, mind, and body are all one — you can’t parcel one out from the other — so spirituality is a huge component of healing and one not often included in western medicine, although there have been a few studies on the positive effects of prayer.”-For many years, the U.S. government banned Native religious ceremonies, which subsequently limited their use in PTSD programs, said Urquhart. Seeking to remedy the situation, many Veterans Administration hospitals now offer traditional Native practices including talking circles, vision quests, songs, drumming, stories, sweat lodge ceremonies, gourd dances and more. Elders or traditional medicine men are also on staff to help patients process their physical and emotional trauma.-“PTSD is a big issue and it’s not going away anytime soon,” said Hale who identifies as Cherokee and was a mental health technician in the Air Force.-Urquhart, who is also Cherokee and developed mild symptoms of PTSD after a tour as a cavalry scout in Iraq, said there have been very few studies on Native veterans and PTSD. He and Hale designed their survey to be broader and more inclusive than any previous assessments. It is the first to address the use of equine therapy as a possible adjunct to both western treatments and Native ceremonial approaches.
    Standard treatments disappointing
    So far, 253 veterans from all five branches of the military have completed the survey, which includes 40 questions, most of them yes or no answers. It also includes an open-ended section where participants can add comments. The views reflect a diverse Native population ranging from those living on reservations to others who live in cities.-The majority of survey takers felt that “most people who suffer from PTSD do not receive adequate treatment,” said Urquhart. For Native veterans who did seek standard treatment, the results were often disappointing. Sixty percent of survey respondents who had attempted PTSD therapy reported “no improvement” or “very unsatisfied.”-Individual counseling reportedly had no impact on their PTSD or made the symptoms worse for 49 percent of participants. On the other hand, spiritual or religious guidance was seen as successful or highly successful by 72 percent of Native respondents. Animal assisted therapy — equine, canine, or other animals — was also highly endorsed.-“The unique thing about equine therapy is that it’s not a traditional western, sit-down-with-a-therapist type program. It’s therapeutic but doesn’t have the stigma of many therapies previously imposed on Native Americans,” said Urquhart.-Strongly supportive of such efforts, Erdman is expanding the long-running WSU Palouse Area Therapeutic Horsemanship (PATH) program to include a section open to all veterans called PATH to Success: A Warrior’s Journey.
    Giving veterans a voice
    Urquhart, Hale, and teammate, Nasreen Shah say their research is gaining wide support in Native communities throughout the nation.-The team plans to distribute the survey results to all U.S. tribes, tribal governments, Native urban groups, and veteran warrior societies. They also hope the departments of Veterans Affairs and Indian Health Services will take notice and continue to incorporate more traditional healing methods into their programs.-As one Iroquois Navy veteran commented on the survey, “Traditional/spiritual healing can be very effective together with in depth education and background in modern treatment methods.”-A Nahua Army veteran agreed, writing, “Healing ceremonies are absolutely essential, as is story telling in front of supportive audiences. We need rituals to welcome back the warriors.”-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Washington State University. The original article was written by Rebecca E. Phillips. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.
     
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    Future soldiers could be protected against germ warfare by genetically modified blood cells
    Steve Connor
    Monday, 30 June 2014
    Soldiers on future battlefields could be protected against germ warfare agents by having blood transfusions with genetically modified cells that can neutralise deadly biological toxins, scientists have found.—-Human red blood cells have been genetically engineered to produce protein antidotes and other antibody-based medicines that can be safely delivered to any part of the body, researchers said.—A study has shown that the technique works well when carried out on laboratory mice, and that modified human stay circulating in the body for up to four months, giving transfusion patients long red blood cells -term protection, they said.—Red blood cells normally carry oxygen from the lungs to the living tissues and are the most numerous of all the cells, accounting for about a quarter of the 100 trillion cells of the human body. They are deliberately small and flexible to allow them to flow through narrow capillaries.–They also lack their own chromosomes because the red cell nucleus is lost during development, making any genetic modification inherently safer as they cannot replicate to produce a cancerous tumour and are naturally removed from the bloodstream after four months[F1].–“We wanted to create high-value red cells that do more than simply carry oxygen. Here we’ve laid out the technology to make mouse and human red blood cells in culture that can express what we want and potentially be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes,” said Harvey Lodish of the Whitehead Institute for Biomedical Research in Massachusetts.–A study published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences shows that it is possible to use human red blood cells as microscopic vehicles for carrying a cargo of genetically engineered proteins in the cell’s outer membrane that can be targeted against specific toxins.-[F2]-The research was supported by the US Defence Research Projects Agency (Darpa),[F3] the scientific funding arm of the US military, which is interested in developing the technology for future treatments or vaccines against biological weapons, the researchers said.–“Because the modified human red blood cells can circulate in the body for up to four months, one could envision a scenario in which the cells are used to introduce [F4]antibodies that neutralise a toxin. The result would be long-lasting reserves of antitoxin antibodies,” said Hidde Ploegh, professor of biology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, one of the study’s senior authors.–The researchers made the genetic modifications to the precursor cells that develop into fully mature red blood cells. The technique could also be used to produce modified red cells engineered to remove bad cholesterol from the blood stream, to carry clot-busting proteins to treat strokes or deep-vein thrombosis or to deliver anti-inflammatory antibodies to alleviate chronic inflammation, the researchers said.–“Moreover, the established safety of blood transfusions inspires confidence that these engineered red blood cells indeed will find use in humans,” they said.—
    Special Comment –this whole thing is a farce—in order to inject anything one would need to know in advance what the enemy had in there biological arsenal that was going to be released this at best with be a hypothesis—and as a result the wrong mix would be in the blood and may in fact expedite the effect of what is being released
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    Exposure to a high fat diet in the womb could reduce anxiety and stress in adolescence,
    according to new research in rats
    The new results are contrary to earlier studies in adult rats which established a link between exposure to a high fat diet (HFD) and
    increased anxiety behaviour.However the new research, which examined the influence of maternal HFD on several
    measures of anxiety behaviour and gene development in adolescent offspring, found that the offspring of rats
    parentally exposed to HFD exhibited reduced levels of anxiety and this was especially the case in females The
    data suggests that adolescence constitutes an additional period when the effects of developmental programming may modify mental
    health trajectories the authors said Anxiety levels are controlled by corticosteroids (like glucocorticoid receptors – GR)
    in the limbic regions of the brain that control the body’s ability to reduce or increase inflammation and stress levels
    (the amygdala and hippocampus Previous studies on adult rats identified increased anxiety when exposed to a HFD, as well as increased
    inflammation The new latest data could suggest ‘a developmental shift’ between adolescence and adulthood in the effects of HFD on anxiety,
    said the team offspring less anxious Ten adult female rats (or dams) were placed on a HFD consisting of 60% fat, 20% protein
    and 20% carbohydrate and another 10 were exposed to the control house chow diet (CHD) comprising 3.5% fat, 28.5%
    protein, and 58% carbohydrate The rats started the diet four weeks before mating and throughout pregnancy and lactation and were
    subjected to three behavioural tests to gauge their responses to potentially stressful scenarios Results revealed a greater abundance of GR
    [F5]in the hippocampus among HFD-exposed male and female offspring compared to CHD offspring – with levels were significantly higher
    in females Adolescent analysis of corticosteroid receptors revealed that hippocampal GR expression was increased in HFD-exposed
    offspring, particularly in females, which supports our behavioral results indicating decreased anxiety among HFD-
    exposed offspring said the report There were no significant differences in GR gene activity in the amygdala of HFD-exposed adolescents
    Faster weight gain Dams-fed HFD gained more weight than CHD dams throughout gestation. There was no difference in body weight of
    the pups from either group at birth but those from HFD dams put on weight faster than CHD pups prior to weaning However
    by the time the ‘pups’ reached adolescent there was no discernible difference in body weight between the groups The researchers
    added: This suggests our findings are attributable to parental HFD exposure rather than differences in current body weight
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    [F1]This is alarming—any genetic modification initiates itself the the current DNA and rewrites the code this will enter every section of the body —and there is nothing to validate this—once the genetic matrix has been altered in plants or soil through the same measures and we see this being altered this will have a similar effect as well when it comes to he blood and any other protein that it may come in contact with
    [F2]Or can be utilize to target with bioengineered pathogens—you have to read this in the context that is really there not some misleading cozy idea of some breakthrough—basically this tech can be used to target a host just with a simple prick of a nano bot or a genetically engineered insect
    [F3]DARPA—really wanting to utilize something that is going to be constructive in a military –is this an oxy moron?
    [F4]A toxin to neutralize the immune system
    [F5]glucocorticoid receptors – GR
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    Show of the Month July 19 2014
     
    Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil
    Cinnamon may be used to halt progression of Parkinson’s disease
    Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics
    Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes’ Immune Boost
    Probiotics and athletic performance
    Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.
    Zinc deficiency magnifies, prolongs lethal immune response to sepsis
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    Airborne antituberculosis activity of Eucalyptus citriodora essential oil.
    J Nat Prod. 2014 Mar 28;77(3):603-10
    Authors: Ramos Alvarenga RF, Wan B, Inui T, Franzblau SG, Pauli GF, Jaki BU
    Abstract
    The rapid emergence of multi- and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR/XDR-TB) has created a pressing public health problem, which mostly affects regions with HIV/AIDS prevalence and represents a new constraint in the already challenging disease management of tuberculosis (TB). The present work responds to the need to reduce the number of contagious MDR/XRD-TB patients, protect their immediate environment, and interrupt the rapid spread by laying the groundwork for an inhalation therapy based on anti-TB-active constituents of the essential oil (EO) of Eucalyptus citriodora. In order to address the metabolomic complexity of EO constituents and active principles in botanicals, this study applied biochemometrics, a 3-D analytical approach that involves high-resolution CCC fractionation, GC-MS analysis, bioactivity measurements, and chemometric analysis. Thus, 32 airborne anti-TB-active compounds were identified in E. citriodora EO: the monoterpenes citronellol (1), linalool (3), isopulegol (5), and α-terpineol (7) and the sesquiterpenoids spathulenol (11), β-eudesmol (23), and τ-cadinol (25). The impact of the interaction of multiple components in EOs was studied using various artificial mixtures (AMxs) of the active monoterpenes 1, 2, and 5 and the inactive eucalyptol (33). Both neat 1 and the AMx containing 1, 2, and 33 showed airborne TB inhibition of >90%, while the major E. citriodora EO component, 2, was only weakly active, at 18% inhibition. –PMID: 24641242 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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    Cinnamon may be used to halt progression of Parkinson’s disease
    Date:
    July 9, 2014
    Source:
    Rush University Medical Center
    Neurological scientists at Rush University Medical Center have found that using cinnamon, a common food spice and flavoring material, can reverse the biomechanical, cellular and anatomical changes that occur in the brains of mice with Parkinson’s disease (PD). The results of the study were recently published in the June 20 issue of the Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology.–“Cinnamon has been used widely as a spice throughout the world for centuries,” said Kalipada Pahan, PhD, study lead researcher and the Floyd A. Davis professor of neurology at Rush. “This could potentially be one of the safest approaches to halt disease progression in Parkinson’s patients.”–“Cinnamon is metabolized in the liver to sodium benzoate, which is an FDA-approved drug used in the treatment for hepatic metabolic defects associated with hyperammonemia[F1],” said Pahan. It is also widely used as a food preservative due to its microbiocidal effect.–Chinese cinnamon (Cinnamonum cassia) and original Ceylon cinnamon (Cinnamonum verum) are two major types of cinnamon that are available in the US.–“Although both types of cinnamon are metabolized into sodium benzoate, by mass spectrometric analysis, we have seen that Ceylon cinnamon is much more pure than Chinese cinnamon as the latter contains coumarin, a hepatotoxic molecule,” said Pahan[F2].–“Understanding how the disease works is important to developing effective drugs that protect the brain and stop the progression of PD,” said Pahan. “It is known that some important proteins like Parkin and DJ-1 decrease in the brain of PD patients.”–The study found that after oral feeding, ground cinnamon is metabolized into sodium benzoate, which then enters into the brain, stops the loss of Parkin and DJ-1, protects neurons, normalizes neurotransmitter levels, and improves motor functions in mice with PD.–This research was supported by grants from National Institutes of Health.–“Now we need to translate this finding to the clinic and test ground cinnamon in patients with PD. If these results are replicated in PD patients, it would be a remarkable advance in the treatment of this devastating neurodegenerative disease,” said Dr. Pahan.–Parkinson’s disease is a slowly progressive disease that affects a small area of cells within the mid-brain known as the substantia nigra. Gradual degeneration of these cells causes a reduction in a vital chemical neurotransmitter, dopamine. The decrease in dopamine results in one or more of the classic signs of Parkinson’s disease that includes: resting tremor on one side of the body; generalized slowness of movement; stiffness of limbs; and gait or balance problems. The cause of the disease is unknown. Both environmental and genetic causes of the disease have been postulated.
    Parkinson’s disease affects about 1.2 million patients in the United States and Canada. Although 15 percent of patients are diagnosed before age 50, it is generally considered a disease that targets older adults, affecting one of every 100 persons over the age of 60. This disease appears to be slightly more common in men than women.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Rush University Medical Center. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Saurabh Khasnavis, Kalipada Pahan. Cinnamon Treatment Upregulates Neuroprotective Proteins Parkin and DJ-1 and Protects Dopaminergic Neurons in a Mouse Model of Parkinson’s Disease. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology, 2014; DOI: 10.1007/s11481-014-9552-2
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    Performance Enhancing Effects of Probiotics
     
    by Pip Taylor
    A quick glance in the dairy case and it’s obvious that probiotics are wildly popular. Their range of health benefits spans everything from the prevention of obesity to a better mood. They’ve been praised for their ability to reduce allergies and certain cancer risks as well, for which there is well-supported scientific evidence. But what about for endurance athletes? Can these “friendly” bacteria offer a performance-enhancing boost?–Probiotics are live microbes available in supplements or fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir and homemade versions of sauerkraut and pickled vegetables. Probiotics help support and maintain the existing human gut flora, which is being found to hold the key to determining many aspects of human health. The composition, numbers and types of bacteria that reside in our gut influence body weight, mood state, oral and skin health and, most importantly, our immune system function. –For triathletes, probiotics may be considered a performance enhancer—albeit an indirect one—due to the following effects:
    Strengthened immunity: For the elite or serious amateur athlete, frequent hard training means that the immune system is often suppressed, leaving you more susceptible to common colds and illnesses. Studies have shown that athletes who supplement with probiotics are less likely to suffer from upper respiratory infections, and when they do, the duration and severity of that cold is less
    Reduced incidence of GI distress: GI issues are the bane of many athletes’ existence, striking pros and amateurs alike and often even after careful race planning. Probiotics have been shown to prevent or reduce various gastrointestinal symptoms such as cramping, nausea, diarrhea and vomiting, which translates to less time spent in the port-a-potties and more time setting PR’s.
    Improved digestion and absorption of nutrients: Better nutrient uptake means that athletes pushing the limits will be better placed to not only nail hard workouts, but also recover faster and be able to return to training more quickly. Although the mechanisms may not be yet understood, all of these effects lead to more consistent training and enhanced recovery.—Originally from: http://www.ironman.com/triathlon-news/articles/2013/08/probiotics-for-triathletes.aspx#ixzz36pkCZW8A
     
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    Probiotics Give Endurance Athletes’ Immune Boost
    Stephen Daniells
    A daily probiotic capsule was found to enhance the activity of T cells, key players in the immune system, report the researchers after following 20 elite, endurance athletes during four months of intensive winter training.—“In combination with the recent report that L rhamonasus supplementation reduced the duration of gastrointestinal symptoms in marathon runners in the 2 weeks after the race [Int J Sport Nutr Exer Metab, 2007, Vol. 17, pp. 352-363], our findings point to the potential benefits of this form of nutritional intervention,” wrote the authors led by David Pyne from the Australian Institute of Sport.–The study is published online ahead of print in the British Journal of Sports Medicine.–Consumers are increasingly aware of the health benefits associated with probiotics, including improved intestinal health and immune system stimulation.–Indeed, probiotics remains a major growth market. The European sector is set to more than triple in value over the next few years, according to Frost & Sullivan, to reach $137.9 million (€118.5m) in 2010.–The new study adds to the body of science by reporting that the ‘friendly’ bacteria may also produce benefits in endurance athletes undergoing strenuous training, previously reported to be more susceptible to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) linked to the role of strenuous exercise in suppressing the immune system. –Pyne and co-workers recruited the athletes and randomly assigned them to receive either a daily probiotic supplement containing Lactobacillus fermentum or placebo. After 28 days of receiving either the probiotic or placebo, they received nothing for one month (washout period) before crossing over to the other intervention. By the end of the study all the athletes had each had the probiotic and placebo formulations.–Athletic performance of the subjects was assessed using a treadmill, while blood samples were taken at regular intervals to measure the immune response. The length and severity of respiratory tract infections were recorded by the subjects themselves.–The researchers report no difference in running performance as a result of placebo or probiotics supplementation. On the other hand, the number of days of symptoms of URTI was halved when the athletes took the probiotic, compared to placebo.–
    Specifically, symptoms of URTI’s lasted 30 days when receiving the Lactobacillus supplements, compared to 72 days while taking the placebo. The severity of the symptoms was also less when receiving probiotics, stated the researchers. –The blood samples showed that blood levels of interferon gamma, an important component of the body’s immune response, were doubled when the subjects received probiotics, compared to placebo. However, no significant differences were observed in levels of immunoglobulin A and immunoglobulin A1 in the saliva, or levels of interleukin (IL)4 and IL12.–Pyne and co-workers report that the benefits appear to be mediated via an enhancement of the functioning T-lymphocyte function. They do state, however, that the specific mechanism remains unclear and that it was not possible to draw definitive conclusions from the findings of the current study.—“Further investigations are required to determine whether the beneficial effects of probiotic administration can translate to both the general public and specialised populations like elite athletes, clinical conditions, immuno-compromised subjects, and military and industrial settings,” wrote Pyne and co-workers. —“The finding of clinical benefits with probiotic supplementation in a small cohort of physically fit subjects, provides the basis for further studies examining the beneficial effects of L fermentum VRI-003 administration on immune function in both the general community and specific populations,” they concluded. —Source: British Journal of Sports Medicine
    Published online ahead of print, doi 10.1136/bjsm.2007.044628
    “Oral administration of the probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum VR1-003 and mucosal immunity in endurance athletes”–Authors: A.J. Cox, D.B. Pyne, P.U. Saunders, P.A. Fricker
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    Probiotics and athletic performance
    Nichols AW.
    Author information
    Abstract
    Probiotic bacteria are defined as live food ingredients that are beneficial to the health of the host. Probiotics occur naturally in fermented food products such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, cabbage kimchee. Numerous health benefits have been attributed to probiotics, including effects on gastrointestinal tract function and diseases, immune function, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and allergic conditions. A systematic review of the medical literature failed to identify any studies that directly investigated the potential ergogenic effects of probiotics on athletic performance. Two published articles suggest that probiotics may enhance the immune responses of fatigued athletes. In summary, although scientific evidence for an ergogenic effect of probiotics is lacking, probiotics may provide athletes with secondary health benefits that could positively affect athletic performance through enhanced recovery from fatigue, improved immune function, and maintenance of healthy gastrointestinal tract function.
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    Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics.
    de Vrese M1, Schrezenmeir J.
    Author information
    Abstract
    According to the German definition, probiotics are defined viable microorganisms, sufficient amounts of which reach the intestine in an active state and thus exert positive health effects. Numerous probiotic microorganisms (e.g. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, L. reuteri, bifidobacteria and certain strains of L. casei or the L. acidophilus-group) are used in probiotic food, particularly fermented milk products, or have been investigated–as well as Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917, certain enterococci (Enterococcus faecium SF68) and the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces boulardii–with regard to their medicinal use. Among the numerous purported health benefits attributed to probiotic bacteria, the (transient) modulation of the intestinal microflora of the host and the capacity to interact with the immune system directly or mediated by the autochthonous[F3] microflora, are basic mechanisms. They are supported by an increasing number of in vitro and in vivo experiments using conventional and molecular biologic methods. In addition to these, a limited number of randomized, well-controlled human intervention trials have been reported. Well-established probiotic effects are: 1. Prevention and/or reduction of duration and complaints of rotavirus-induced or antibiotic-associated diarrhea as well as alleviation of complaints due to lactose intolerance. 2. Reduction of the concentration of cancer-promoting enzymes and/or putrefactive (bacterial) metabolites in the gut. 3. Prevention and alleviation of unspecific and irregular complaints of the gastrointestinal tracts in healthy people. 4. Beneficial effects on microbial aberrancies, inflammation and other complaints in connection with: inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, Helicobacter pylori infection or bacterial overgrowth. 5. Normalization of passing stool and stool consistency in subjects suffering from obstipation or an irritable colon. 6. Prevention or alleviation of allergies and atopic diseases in infants. 7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections (common cold, influenza) and other infectious diseases as well as treatment of urogenital infections. Insufficient or at most preliminary evidence exists with respect to cancer prevention, a so-called hypocholesterolemic effect, improvement of the mouth flora and caries prevention or prevention or therapy of ischemic heart diseases or amelioration of autoimmune diseases (e.g. arthritis). A prebiotic is “a selectively fermented ingredient that allows specific changes, both in the composition and/or activity in the gastrointestinal microflora that confers benefits upon host well being and health”, whereas synergistic combinations of pro- and prebiotics are called synbiotics. Today, only bifidogenic, non-digestible oligosaccharides (particularly inulin, its hydrolysis product oligofructose, and (trans)galactooligosaccharides), fulfill all the criteria for prebiotic classification. They are dietary fibers with a well-established positive impact on the intestinal microflora. Other health effects of prebiotics (prevention of diarrhoea or obstipation, modulation of the metabolism of the intestinal flora, cancer prevention, positive effects on lipid metabolism, stimulation of mineral adsorption and immunomodulatory properties) are indirect, i.e. mediated by the intestinal microflora, and therefore less-well proven. In the last years, successful attempts have been reported to make infant formula more breast milk-like by the addition of fructo- and (primarily) galactooligosaccharides.
     
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    Zinc deficiency magnifies, prolongs lethal immune response to sepsis
    Date:
    July 15, 2014
    Source:
    Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science
     
    The immune system recognizes proteins unique to bacteria and immediately starts to recruit zinc into cells to help fight off the infection. New research from Ohio State scientists has found that adequate zinc is essential for keeping the immune system in balance, particularly during severe infections like sepsis.—During a severe infection known as sepsis, a deficiency in zinc intake can cause an amplified and potentially deadly immune response, according to new research conducted by scientists at The Ohio State University. By analyzing the DNA of zinc-deficient mice with sepsis, the researchers identified a critical immune system pathway that relies on zinc to stop overproduction of an inflammatory protein that if left unchecked, can start to destroy healthy cells.–“When the body detects an infection, zinc is recruited to help produce immune response proteins, and then it’s used to stop their production,” said lead author Daren Knoell, PharmD, PhD, a professor of pharmacy and internal medicine at Ohio State. “But zinc deficiency during sepsis appears to cause a catastrophic malfunctioning of the system, resulting in a magnified and prolonged inflammatory response.”–Sepsis, a complication resulting from a systemic infection, is a leading cause of death in US intensive care units. As many as 20% of people who develop sepsis will die, not from the infection itself — but from the overload of inflammatory chemical signals created by the immune system which ultimately leads to organ failure.–Knoell and his research team found that zinc moderates the pathway that controls the “on-off switch” of genes that produce immune response proteins, preventing the inflammation they cause from harming healthy tissue. It’s the second zinc-dependent immune regulating pathway that Knoell and his team have discovered in the past five years.–“This research builds upon our past findings and further demonstrates that our immune system requires zinc to achieve a balanced and effective defense against overwhelming infection,” said Knoell. “This new evidence provides further incentive to determine the extent to which zinc may be useful to prevent or treat sepsis, particularly in patients that may be zinc deficient.”–While the findings seem to suggest that zinc supplementation could benefit patients at risk for sepsis, Knoell says it’s not that simple.–“During illness, the body diverts zinc from the blood to the organs, so a deficiency is hard to detect, particularly in people who are already sick,” said Knoell, who is a member of Ohio State’s Food Innovation Center. “Without a way to better define the deficiency, we aren’t able to define the ideal patient or a therapeutic dose of zinc.”–Determining zinc’s role in sepsis is also challenging. Next to iron, zinc is the most abundant mineral in the human body, interacting with as many as 10,000 proteins within the genome. While scientists have known that zinc is essential to human health and the immune system for hundreds of years, until recently, very little was known about how it functions on a molecular level.– To help identify genes and signaling pathways that may be influenced by zinc, Knoell and his team performed a genome-wide microarray analysis of lung tissue taken from zinc-deficient mice with sepsis. They found that in the presence of sepsis, multiple networks and pathways were impacted by the zinc deficiency. One of the most robust alterations was observed in the JAK-STAT3 pathway and the production of serum amyloid A (SAA) — a protein which has only recently been identified as a key player in the body’s immune response–“Without zinc present in sufficient quantities, the JAK-STAT pathway keeps giving the genes the “on” signal, and continues production of this inflammatory protein,” said Knoell. “When we add zinc back into the equation, it stops JAK-STAT, SAA production and the acute response activity– Knoell says that finding SAA’s presence in the development of sepsis is interesting, as the protein has been connected with other inflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer’s and cardiovascular disease.– These findings not only provide some evidence for why zinc-based cold remedies may work, but also provide hints of how a zinc imbalance might also play a role in chronic diseases connected with inflammation– Knoell, who is also a researcher at Ohio Stat’s Dorothy M. Davis Heart and Lung Institute, has been studying the relationship between zinc and sepsis for 8 years. Previous research by his lab identified zinc’s impact on another immune regulating pathway called NF-kappaB. Knoell’s lab was the first to show how the mineral helped control activity of an NF-kappaB protein called IKKbeta in human immune cells, subsequently reducing inflammation and preventing damage to cells.— Earlier research conducted by Knoell also showed that zinc-deficient mice developed overwhelming inflammation in response to sepsis and were three times more likely to die than mice on a normal diet. Zinc supplementation improved outcomes in the zinc-deficient mice–Knoell says a next step is to see if these recent findings apply to humans. Knoell says his lab and other researchers are also actively looking for zinc-related biomarkers that can help scientists determine how much zinc is being utilized by the immune system and to help predict who might be at risk for developing sepsis-“Once we can determine at risk patients, then we can start a much more systematic evaluation of zinc supplementation,” Knoell said. “With so few interventions available for sepsis, I’m hopeful we’ll see more energy around developing a zinc-based therapy in the next few years.”– Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University Center for Clinical and Translational Science. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Ming-Jie Liu, Shengying Bao, Jessica R. Napolitano, Dara L. Burris, Lianbo Yu, Susheela Tridandapani, Daren L. Knoell. Zinc Regulates the Acute Phase Response and Serum Amyloid A Production in Response to Sepsis through JAK-STAT3 Signaling. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (4): e94934 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094934 .