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    Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis
    Family: Lamiaceae
    1 Part Used-2 Abstracts of Published Research on Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis-3 Oligo-elements-4 Vitamins and Minerals-5 Phytochemical Constituents-6 Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications-6.1 Neurology & Nervous System-6.2 Cardio Vascular System-6.3 Hematology Oncology-6.4 Immunology-6.5 Infectious Disease-6.6 Pulmonary System-6.7 GI – Digestive – Hepatology-6.8 Musculoskeletal System-6.9 Ob Gyn/Reproductive System-6.10 Uro Genital System-6.11 Endocrine System-6.12 Dermatology-6.13 Opthalmology-6.14 Environmental Medicine
    Part Used:  Young Shoots
    NOTE: These indications are only for use with embryonic plant stem cell tissues. Adult plants do not have the same constituents, actions or applications in most cases.
    The Rosmarinus officinalis is a woody, perennial herb that is native to the Mediterranean region. Its Latin name, ros-marinus, meaning “dew of the sea,” is presumed to be linked to the plant’s preference to grow near the sea. The Rosmarinus officinalis has gray, scaly bark and grows about 6 feet tall with a spread of 4 to 5 feet. The pungent fragrance exuded by its needle-like leaves is reminiscent of pine. About an inch long, the leaves are evergreen on top and grayish-white underneath. Clusters of delicate, sea-blue flowers blossom in spring and last throughout the summer in warm, humid environments. Common uses include dye, essential oil, ground cover, hair, hedges, incense, insect repellent.
    Drug Interaction:
    Doxorubicin In a laboratory study, rosemary extract increased the effectiveness of doxorubicin in treating human breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, those taking doxorubicin should consult with a healthcare practitioner before taking rosemary.
    Most evidence for rosemary’s medicinal uses comes from clinical experience rather than from scientific studies. However, recent laboratory studies have shown that rosemary slows the growth of a number of bacteria such as E. coli and S. aureus that are involved in food spoilage, and may actually perform better than some commercially used food preservatives.
    Alopecia One traditional use of rosemary has been to try to stimulate hair growth. In one study of 86 people with alopecia areata (a disease of unknown cause characterized by significant hair loss, generally in patches), those who massaged their scalps with rosemary and other essential oils (including lavender, thyme, and cedar wood) every day for 7 months experienced significant hair re-growth compared to those who massaged their scalps without the essential oils. It is not entirely clear from this study whether rosemary (or a combination of rosemary and the other essential oils) was responsible for the beneficial effects.
    Cancer Both laboratory and animal studies suggest that rosemary’s antioxidant properties may have activity against colon, breast, stomach, lung, and skin cancer cells. However, much more research in this area, including trials involving people, must be conducted before conclusions can be drawn about the value of rosemary for cancer. Carnosol is a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol found in rosemary. Carnosol functions as an antioxidant and anticarcinogenic. In the present study, we compared the antioxidant activity of carnosol and other compounds extracted from rosemary. Carnosol showed potent antioxidative activity in -diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenge and DNA protection from Fenton reaction. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in inflammation and multiple stages of carcinogenesis.
    Rosemary’s Effect on Insulin Levels
    Al-Hader, A.A., Z.A. Hasan, and M.B. Aqel. “Hyperglycemic and Insulin Release Inhibitory Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology. Vol 43 1994: An aqueous extract prepared from leaves of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is widely used in Jordan as a folk remedy for abdominal colic. It has been suggested that rosemary’s volatile oil causes smooth muscle relaxation by inhibiting the increase in cytosolic free calcium concentrations; in turn, a raised cytosolic free calcium level is known to be a trigger for pancreatic insulin release. With this information in consideration, the present study was conducted, using normal and diabetic rabbits, to determine the potential effects of rosemary oil on insulin release and blood glucose levels. It was found that administration of the oil produced a significant change in plasma glucose and serum insulin levels in the normal rabbits, and a significant hyperglycemic effect in the diabetic rabbits. No effect on the fasting plasma glucose levels in normal rabbits was observed. Based on these results, the authors conclude that the volatile oil of rosemary leaves (young shoots) has significant hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects.
    Other Uses:
    Dye; Essential; Ground cover; Hair; Hedge; Incense; Repellent.
    Abstracts of Published Research on Rosemary – Rosmarinus Officinalis:
    J Food Prot. 2009 Aug;72(8):1744-52
    In vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of commercial rosemary extract formulations.Klancnik A, Guzej B, Kolar MH, Abramovic H, Mozina SS.
    2. J Food Prot. 2009 May;72(5):1107-11
    Inhibitory effect of commercial green tea and rosemary leaf powders on the growth of foodborne pathogens in laboratory media and oriental-style rice cakes. Lee SY, Gwon SY, Kim SJ, Moon BK.
    3. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2009 Jun 15;33(4):642-50. Epub 2009 Mar 13.
    Antidepressant-like effect of the extract of Rosmarinus officinalis in mice: involvement of the monoaminergic system.Machado DG, Bettio LE, Cunha MP, Capra JC, Dalmarco JB, Pizzolatti MG, Rodrigues AL.
    4. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009 Apr;48(4):440-6. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
    The antimicrobial activity of four commercial essential oils in combination with conventional antimicrobials. van Vuuren SF, Suliman S, Viljoen AM.
    5. J Med Food. 2008 Dec;11(4):741-6.
    Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in experimental animal models.Takaki I, Bersani-Amado LE, Vendruscolo A, Sartoretto SM, Diniz SP, Bersani-Amado CA, Cuman RK.
    6. Harefuah. 2008 Oct;147(10):783-8, 838.
    The treatment of respiratory ailments with essential oils of some aromatic medicinal plants. Rakover Y, Ben-Arye E, Goldstein LH.
    7. J Nutr. 2008 Nov;138(11):2098-105.
    Rosmarinic acid antagonizes activator protein-1-dependent activation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human cancer and nonmalignant cell lines. Scheckel KA, Degner SC, Romagnolo DF.
    8. Neuroreport. 2008 Aug 27;19(13):1301-4.
    Beneficial effects of carnosic acid on dieldrin-induced dopaminergic neuronal cell death. Park JA, Kim S, Lee SY, Kim CS, Kim do K, Kim SJ, Chun HS.
    9. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2008 Nov-Dec;59(7-8):691-8.
    Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. Ozcan MM, Chalchat JC.
    B, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, Si, Zn.
    Vitamins and Minerals:
    B-1, B-2, B-3, C, Calcium.
    Phytochemical Constituents:
    1,8-Cineole, 13-O-Acetyloleanolic-Acid, Acetic-Acid, Alpha-Amyrin, Alpha-Humulene, Alpha-Phellandrene, Alpha-Pinene, Alpha-Selinene, Alpha-Terpinene, Alpha-Terpineol, Alpha-Thujone, Apigenin, AR-Curcumene, Ascorbic-Acid, Benzyl-Alcohol, Beta-Amyrin, Beta-Carotene, Beta-Elemene, Beta-Phellandrene, Beta-Pinene, Beta-Sitosterol, Beta-Thujone, Betulin, Betulinic-Acid, Borneol, Bornyl-Acetate, Caffeic-Acid, Camphene, Camphor, Carnosic-Acid, Carnosol, Carvacrol, Carvone, Caryophyllene, Caryophyllene-Oxide, Chlorogenic-Acid, Delta-3-Carene, Delta-Cadinene, Diosmetin, Diosmin, Dipentene, Elemol, Ethanol, Eugenol-Methyl-Ether, Fenchone, Fiber, Gamma-Terpinene, Genkwanin, Geraniol, Glycolic-Acid, Hesperidin, Hispidulin, Hispiduloside, Isoborneol, Isobornyl-Acetate, Isobutyl-Acetate, Isopulegol, Isorosmanol, Labiatic-Acid, Limonene, Luteolin, Luteolin-3′-O-(3-O-Acetyl)-Beta-D-Glucuronide,Luteolin-3′-O-(4-O-Acetyl)-Beta-D Glucuronide, Luteolin-7-Glucoside, Methyl-Eugenol, Myrcene, Myrtenol, Neo-Chlorogenic-Acid, Nepetin, Nepetrin, Octanoic-Acid, Oleanolic-Acid, P-Cymene, Pectin, Piperitenone, Rosmadial, Rsomanol, Rosmaridiphenol, Rosmarinic-Acid, Rosmariquinone, Sabinene, Safrole, Salicylates, Sinensetin, Squalene, Styrene, Tannin, Terpinen-4-OL, Terpinolene, Thymol, Toluene, Trans-Anethole, Trans-Carveol, Trans-Pinocarveol, Ursolic-Acid, Verbenone, Zingiberine
    Diterpenes such as picrosalvin (= carnosol), carnosolic acid, rosmariquinone and salicylates.
    Miscellaneous; rosmaricine, the triterpenes ursolic acid, oleanolic acid & derivatives.
    Carnosol is a naturally occurring phytopolyphenol found in rosemary. Carnosol functions as antioxidant and anticarcinogenic. In the present study, we compared the antioxidant activity of carnosol and other compounds extracted from rosemary. Carnosol showed potent antioxidative activity in, -diphenyl-ß-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals scavenge and DNA protection from Fenton reaction. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) are produced by inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in inflammation and multiple stages of carcinogenesis.
    Studies have shown Rosemary to be as effective as the synthetic preservatives BHA and BHT.
    Several laboratory studies suggest that rosemary contains compounds that prevent carcinogenic chemicals from binding to and inducing mutations in DNA.
    The compounds epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and carnosol are known to be anti-inflammatory and cancer preventive.
    Therefore, we studied their effect on the generation of peroxynitrite radicals and nitrite. They inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) induced nitrite production by mouse peritoneal cells by more than 50% at 2.5-10 microM. Cell viability assays verified that the inhibition was not due to general cellular toxicity.
    Rosemary seems to have also anti-cancer properties. Researchers at Rutgers University have demonstrated that rosemary oil can prevent the development of tumors in animals. When applied externally, rosemary oil reduced the risk of skin cancer and when taken internally it reduced the incidence of colon and lung cancer. Plant Stem Cell Therapy Indications: The Greatest Liver Agent!
    Neurology & Nervous System:
    ‘P’ Balances Nervous Equilibrium euphoric action, Improves Memory, Neuro vegetative dystonia. Rosemary may prevent the breakdown of acetylcholine, a chemical that allows neurons within the brain to communicate with each other. Neuroprotective carnosic acid activates a novel signaling pathway that protects brain cells from free radical damage, seen in stroke and other neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Carnosic acid to promote the production of Nerve Growth Factor. Cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion. Carnosic acid reduces cytokine-induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Carnosic acid, may shield the brain from free radicals, lowering the risk of strokes and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s and Lou Gehrig’s. For this purpose you will have to use 10 to 20 drops 3 x a day.
    Carnosic acid has two therapeutic properties that make it a vital neuroprotective agent:
    1. It protects against the narrowing of the left and right middle cerebral arteries – two of the major arteries carrying blood to the brain. Narrowing of these arteries with age is a common and important factor contributing to the development of neurodegenerative diseases.
    2. Carnosic acid increases the body’s production of the antioxidant, glutathione. Glutathione is one of the most important antioxidants that help to protect the brain against free radical damage.
    Also the antiplatelet activity of carnosic acid is mediated by the inhibition of cytosolic calcium mobilization and that carnosic acid has the potential of being developed as a novel antiplatelet agent.
    CA activates the Keap1/Nrf2 transcriptional pathway by binding to specific (Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1, also known as KEAP1, is a human gene) Keap1 cysteine residues, thus protecting neurons from oxidative stress and excitotoxicity. In cerebrocortical cultures, CA-biotin accumulates in non-neuronal cells at low concentrations and in neurons at higher concentrations. It was presented evidence that both the neuronal and non-neuronal distribution of CA may contribute to its neuroprotective effect. Furthermore, CA translocates into the brain, increases the level of reduced glutathione in vivo, and protects the brain against middle cerebral artery ischemia/reperfusion, suggesting that CA mayrepresent a new type of neuroprotective electrophilic compound.
    References: Journal of Neurochemistry, Volume 104, Number 4, February 2008 , pp. 1116-1131(16).
    Cardio Vascular System:
    ‘P’ Reduces Cholesterol LDL and Triglycerides due to the rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid which assists the liver in breaking down lipids. Atherosclerosis, Improves Circulation of the extremities. Reduces the level of urea and uric acid. General detoxification by being an anti oxidant. Balances the Ionic and Mineral equilibrium. Normalizes the Vagus response A study found that depressed patients with VNS improved over time in terms of remission and response and also improved in their ability to function. It protects against the narrowing of the left and right middle cerebral arteries – two of the major arteries carrying blood to the brain. Carnosic acid prevents the migration of human aortic smooth muscle cells by inhibiting the activation and expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and NF-kB activation may be due to its antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties. Carnosic acid, a new class of lipid absorption inhibitor lowers triglycerides, its effectiveness in inhibiting LDL (low density lipoprotein). Carnosic Acid is the starting element of a process known as the “Carnosic Acid Cascade” of chemical reactions in the body where free radicals are quenched. Carnosic acid is transformed into carnosol; carnosol into rosmanol; and rosmanol into galdosol. With each of these transformations, free radicals are quenched. Its containment of this multi-step process that makes Rosemary young shoots one of the most potent antioxidants found in nature.
    A study showed that carnosic acid effectively inhibited the TNF-a-induced migration of HASMC. The levels of ROS production, MMP-9 activation and expression, and nuclear translocation of NF-kB p50 and p65 were also all reduced by CA pretreatment. The present results led us to conclude that CA inhibits TNF-a-induced nuclear translocation of p50 and p65, thereby suppressing the activation and protein expression of MMP-9, resulting in decreased HASMC migration. Thus, CA may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis.
    References: British Journal of Nutrition (2008), 100, 731–738.
    Elemol (sesquiterpene) a γ-lactone and not a δ-lactone as previously assumed: Antiacetylcholinesterase, Anticheilitic, Anticoronary, Antidementia, Antidepressant, Antigingivitic, Antiglossitic, Antigout, Antiinfertility, Antimetaplastic, Antimyelotoxic, Antineuropathic, Antiperiodontal, Antiplaque, Antipolyp, Antipsychotic, Antiulcer, Cancer-Preventive, Hematopoietic, Immunostimulant, Uricosuric, Xanthine-Oxidase-Inhibitor. Effect of elemol,, on the tracheal smooth muscle.
    Fenchone (monoterpene and a Ketone): Antialzheimeran; Anticholinesterase; Counterirritant; Perfumery; Secretolytic.
    Carnosic acid reduces cytokine-induced adhesion molecules expression and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells.
    References: European journal of nutrition 48(2):101-6, 2009 March.
    Rosmariquinone (RQ), an ortho-quinone diterpenoid: act as a hydrogen-donating antioxidant.
    Hematology Oncology:
    ‘P’ Increases RBCs, Anticoagulant. Reduced the incidence of skin, colon and lung cancer. Anti-Cancer. Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells through Caspase Activation and Poly (ADP-ribose) Polymerase Cleavage.
    ‘P’ Increases WBC, Allergies associated with liver problems. Eye-related symptoms associated with seasonal allergies. Rosmarinic acid (suggested as a treatment for septic shock, since it suppresses the endotoxin-induced activation of complement). Rosmarinic Acid Induces p56lck-Dependent Apoptosis in Jurkat and Peripheral T Cells via Mitochondrial Pathway Independent from Fas/Fas Ligand Interaction 1.
    Rosmarinic acid
    has been shown to kill allergy-activated T cells and neutrophils during allergic reactions without affecting the T cells or neutrophils in their resting state. Using traditional antihistamines in allergic reactions, on the other hand, is somewhat analogous to turning off a fire alarm without putting out the fire. Antihistamines do nothing to lower the number of excess immune cells once they are formed. High levels of immune cells in their active form can lead to other dangers, such as free radical damage to normal tissues and to circulating proteins like HDL. They are many different types of Luteolins in Rosemary which inhibits antigen-specific proliferation and interferon-gamma production by murine and human autoimmune T cells. Flavonoids such as luteolin and apigenin are inhibitors of interleukin-4 and interleukin-13 production by activated human basophils.
    Infectious Disease:
    ‘P’ Contains 44 Antibacterial phytochemicals, 26 Antiviral and 12 Antiherpetic phytochemicals. Effective against: H-Pylori, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.
    Pulmonary System:
    ‘P’ Respiratory Decompensation. Advanced Tuberculosis. Antiasthmatic; Acute Asthma; Allergic Rhinitis; Chronic Bronchitis. In another study, researchers showed that rosmarinic acid inhibited lung injury from diesel exhaust particles, and outlined the exact steps by which rosmarinic acid brings about the cell death of activated T cells. The study also showed that the accumulation of neutrophils in human lung disease is directly related to the localized elevation of the cytokine IL-8, which supports the theory that IL-8 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.
    GI – Digestive – Hepatology:
    ‘P’ Intestinal Decompensation, Epithelial action on colon mucosa intestinal smooth muscle relaxant. Crohn’s Disease & Colitis, Diverticulosis, Celiac Disease, Hepatic Function: Hepato Protective 63%. Liver Insufficiency, Biliary Dyskinesia. Cholelithiasis, Liver & Gallbladder major detoxifier, Gallbladder antispasmodic action in Chronic Cholecystitis. Antiacetylcholinesterase, Hepatitis A, B & C. Maintains good liver function in patients on birth control pills and implants. Protects against damage of Excess fat consumption. Carnosol and carnosic acid have been suggested to account for over 90% of the antioxidant properties of rosemary extract. Carnosic acid increases the body’s production of the antioxidant, glutathione. Fenchone components have a secretolytic effect on the respiratory tract. Also help to relieve smooth muscle spasms in the bowel.
    Keap1 regulates both cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling and degradation of Nrf2 in response to electrophiles. Transcription factor Nrf2 regulates the expression of a set of detoxifying and anti-oxidant enzyme genes. Several lines of evidence suggest that electrophiles and reactive oxygen species liberate Nrf2 from its cytoplasmic repressor Keap1 and provoke the accumulation of Nrf2 in the nucleus.
    Piperitenone (monoterpene ketone): Antiacetylcholinesterase; Intestinal smooth muscle relaxant.
    Musculoskeletal System:
    ‘P’ Contains 33 Antiinflammatory phytochemicals, 21 Analgesic and 8 COX-2-Inhibitor phytochemicals. α-thujone (pain killing) effect, comparable to codeine.
    Ob Gyn/Reproductive System:
    ‘A’ Frigidity, Dysmenorrhea.
    Uro Genital System:
    ‘A’ Prostate Congestion. Reduces the level of urea and uric acid.
    Endocrine System:
    ‘A’ Adrenal Insufficiency, Gonad Senescence, (Potential for diabetes as from the latest research). Andropause, Impotency, sexual anomaly functional, Dysendocrinia. Anti-TSH action of rosmarinic acids for Hyperthyroidism.
    ‘A’ Skin regenerative and wound healing, displays its main activity in the dermis,Rosmarinic Acid is a potent Antioxidant it inhibits the activity of Elastase (an Enzyme that catalyzes the breakdown of Elastin). verbenone phytochemical especially useful for treating chronic skin conditions, dermatitis, eczema and psoriasis. Acne prone skin may respond favorably to the renewing effects of Rosemary verbenone, as well as to its action to fight infection and promote glandular balance and function. Its skin nourishing action makes it ideal for dry and mature skin. Alopecia, Oily Hair, Skin, Scalp conditions, and Dandruff. Antiscar.
    A Hispiduloside, Nepetrin and Sinensetin (flavonoids): Anticataract. Rosmarinic acid particularly inhibited the eye-related symptomsassociated with seasonal allergies.
    Environmental Medicine:
    ‘A’ as a treatment for septic shock, since it suppresses the endotoxin-induced activation of complement. Rosmarinic acid inhibits lung injury from diesel exhaust particles, and outlined the exact steps by which rosmarinic acid brings about the cell death of activated T cells. The accumulation of neutrophils in human lung disease is directly related to the localized elevation of the cytokine IL-8, which supports the theory that IL-8 plays a central role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury.
    New mosquito-borne virus spreads in Latin America
    SANTO DOMINGO, Dominican Republic — An excruciating mosquito-borne illness that arrived less than a year ago in the Americas is raging across the region, leaping from the Caribbean to the Central and South American mainland, and infecting more than 1 million people. Some cases have already emerged in the United States.–While the disease, called chikungunya, is usually not fatal, the epidemic has overwhelmed hospitals, cut economic productivity and caused its sufferers days of pain and misery. And the count of victims is soaring.–In El Salvador, health officials report nearly 30,000 suspected cases, up from 2,300 at the beginning of August, and hospitals are filled with people with the telltale signs of the illness, including joint pain so severe it can be hard to walk.–“The pain is unbelievable,” said Catalino Castillo, a 39-year-old seeking treatment at a San Salvador hospital. “It’s been 10 days and it won’t let up.”–Venezuelan officials reported at least 1,700 cases as of Friday, and the number is expected to rise. Neighboring Colombia has around 4,800 cases but the health ministry projects there will be nearly 700,000 by early 2015. Brazil has now recorded its first locally transmitted cases, which are distinct from those involving people who contracted the virus while traveling in an infected area.–Hardest hit has been the Dominican Republic, with half the cases reported in the Americas. According to the Pan American Health Organization, chikungunya has spread to at least two dozen countries and territories across the Western Hemisphere since the first case was registered in French St. Martin in late 2013.–There have been a few locally transmitted cases in the U.S., all in Florida, and it has the potential to spread farther, experts say, but Central and South America are particularly vulnerable. The chief factors are the prevalence of the main vector for the virus, the aedes aegypti mosquito, and the lack of immunity in a population that hasn’t been hit with chikungunya in modern medical history, said Scott C. Weaver, director of the Institute for Human Infections and Immunity at the University of Texas Medical Branch.–“There are going to be some very large populations at risk down there, much larger than the Caribbean,” Weaver said.—Chikungunya is a word that comes from the Makonde language of Tanzania in eastern Africa and translates roughly as “that which bends up,” in reference to the severe arthritis-like ache in joints that causes sufferers to contort with pain. It’s usually accompanied by a spiking fever and headache. There have been only 113 deaths linked to the region’s outbreak, according to the most recent data, but chikungunya can be crippling.–Herman Slater, a 60-year-old gardener in Jamaica’s capital of Kingston, said he was laid out for almost two weeks this month with unimaginable joint pain, hammer-pounding headaches and fevers that came in waves.–“I tell you, I was surprised by how painful it was. It was taking me five minutes to get out of bed, and then I could hardly even walk,” Slater said. “My hands were so bad I couldn’t open a bottle, couldn’t comb my hair. Every night I was wet from sweat.”–In acute cases, pain can last for months. Joanna Rivas, who works as a maid in the Dominican capital of Santo Domingo, said she has had joint pain since May, and her 12-year-old daughter’s case is so severe the girl can’t hold her pen at school. Both have been taking the pain reliever acetaminophen, the main treatment for chikungunya, which has no cure or vaccine.–Besides the suffering, chikungunya has caused economic damage with the cost of providing treatment and controlling mosquitoes and by absenteeism from work. A study by the Universidad Eugenio María de Hostos in the Dominican Republic found nearly 13 percent of businesses said they had people miss work because of chikungunya in June.–Authorities throughout the region have been spraying pesticide and encouraging people to remove water containers where mosquitoes can breed. Oxitec, a British company that has tested genetically modified aedys aegypti to combat dengue in Brazil, Cayman Islands and Panama, says it has received a surge of interest since the start of the outbreak.–Chikungunya, which has been known for decades in parts of Africa and Asia, is transmitted when a mosquito bites an infected person and then feeds on someone else. It may have found fertile ground in Latin America and the Caribbean because many people are outside in the daytime, when aedes aegypti bite, or lack adequate screens on their windows.–In an article in the New England Journal of Medicine, Dr. Erin Staples of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said access to air conditioning to keep mosquitoes at bay might also be a factor. During an outbreak of mosquito-borne dengue in 1999 along the Texas-Mexico border, aedes aegypti were three times as abundant on the U.S. side but the number of people infected with dengue was twice as high on the Mexican side.-Conditions vary widely in the region. Haiti, where many people live in flimsy shacks with little protection from mosquitoes, has been hit hard. In Venezuela, air conditioning is widespread but the country has a shortage of insect repellent and pesticide sprayers due to the country’s economic problems.–Staples said past outbreaks have been known to affect around 30 per cent of a population, so there is room for the epidemic to grow, although it’s too early to accurately project how many will get sick or whether chikungunya will become endemic to the region like dengue.–The good news is that people seem to acquire immunity to all major strains.–“We do believe currently that if someone is unfortunate enough to get infected, they should not be infected again,” Staples said.
    Mycotoxin present in many types of food deteriorates neuroregeneration
    September 19, 2014
    Asociación RUVID
    The research, carried out in the Faculty of Health Sciences of CEU Cardenal Herrera University, in cooperation with the University of Valencia, was published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology. This is one of the first articles worldwide to research the effect of Ochratoxin A on the subventricular zone of the brain, which in the adult mammalian brain is where neurogenesis primarily occurs.–Researchers at the Institute for Biomedical Sciences at CEU-UCH, in cooperation with colleagues of University of Valencia, showed through in vitro as well as in vivo experiments on lab animals the potential negative effect on neuroregeneration caused by Ochratoxine A, a mycotoxine found in many types of food, especially cereals and their derivatives. The study showed that Ochratoxine A deteriorates the formation of new neurons in the brain, a process called neurogenesis that, in particular, takes place in the subventricular zone, which in the adult brain is the largest of the neurogenic zones.–CEU-UCH professors José Miguel Soria, head of the research group ‘Strategies in Neuroprotection and Neuroreparation’ at the CEU-UCH Faculty of Health Sciences, and María Ángeles García Esparza, a member of the group, monitored the research, which was published in the Journal of Applied Toxicology. The authors further show that Ochratoxin Acan accumulate in the brain, where it causes increased cellular decay in the neurogenic zones, which in turn affects the production of neural stem cells. As neural stem cells regenerate neural populations, a decreased production of these could be a crucial factor in neurodegenerative diseases.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Asociación RUVID. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Sara Paradells, Brenda Rocamonde, Cristina Llinares, Vicente Herranz-Pérez, Misericordia Jimenez, Jose Manuel Garcia-Verdugo, Ivan Zipancic, Jose Miguel Soria, Mª Angeles Garcia-Esparza. Neurotoxic effects of ochratoxin-A on the subventricular zone of adult mouse brain. Journal of Applied Toxicology, July 2014 DOI: 10.13140/2.1.1347.1362
    How to make silver citrate
    Norton, Steve Thu, 21 Jan 2010 13:45:10 -0800
    Richard, Marshall has already provided some excellent information. I do make anduse silver citrate. I think it has a place but I also believe that EISdoes as well. I think that EIS is best in some applications and thatsilver citrate has benefits in others. Remember that what you read onweb sites is biased towards the sellers products and the information maynot be accurate. I do not think that one can state that in general thatEIS or silver citrate is better than the other but maybe in certain usesone is better than the other. Below are some repeats of information Ihave posted below on silver citrate. They may be of help. – Steve N _______________________________________________________ I know of three versions of silver citrate on the market. One is calledSliver 100 and is made by Opti-Silver:  It is made using silver oxide as the ionic silver source. The silveroxide is mixed with citric acid and tripotassium citrate to create SC.According to the manufacturer: “While the patent covers a broad range ofsubstances, the company has chosen to use citrate as the complexingagent, and potassium as the counter-ion for maximum stability” While Idon’t make this version, I would guess that you could add tripotassiumcitrate to standard SC if you are interested in potassium as thecounter-ion. A patent related to the product is at:   A second silver citrate supplier is Pure Bioscience who sells SC forboth internal use and as a disinfectant under the Biocide and Axenohllabels. They sell the SC in concentrations of up to 2400 ppm. I haveseen other SC sellers that appear to buy the concentrate, dilute it to20 ppm and sell it under their private label. Pure Bioscience refers totheir SC as silver dihydrogen citrate, but it is simply SC made same thesame way as EIS but using a citric acid solution instead of distilledwater. Here is an article regarding their disinfectant spray:<  The antibacterial spray is silver citrate at 30 ppm. Not to be outdone,they also have a patent:   _______________________________________________________ You need to use powdered citric acid. I use 1/8 cup for 2 liters water.The citric acid increases the conductivity of the solution so you cannotuse an automated CS generator. Also if the generator uses currentlimiting it will take a long time to get to a high ppm. A manual setupwithout current limiting is best. Also, a battery powered setup may nothave enough current capability.   _______________________________________________________  You can only achieve about a 285 ppm concentration of silver citrate inwater. To get higher concentrations, you need to have the silver citratedissolved in a citric acid solution and that is the reason for theadditional citric acid. In my first attempt at silver citrate, I used a10 percent solution because the following patent performed testing withsolutions of 1, 5, and 10 percent:  According to the patent, 400 ppm SC made with 5 and 20 percentsolutions of citric acid are stable during storage but with 1 percent itwas not. I had plenty of citric acid powder so I went with 10 percentfor the first try. Next, I used a 5% solution, by volume, of citric acid dissolved indistilled water for concentrations of up to 600 ppm. Measurement of thecitric acid was not critical since I used more citric acid than isnecessary.  Currently, I am using 1/8 cup for 2 liters water, which I think is inthe 2 – 3% range. I do it to keep the tart taste of the SC at anacceptable level while easing the effort to make the SC. The solution isstable over time too. I use a manual setup with no stirring.  When Imake the SC, I just cut the top off a gallon distilled water plasticbottle to where I will have 2 liters water in the container and a littleadditional height to prevent spillage. The separation if the electrodesis determined by the container’s width..Given, the conductivity of thesolution, I could use a wider container but there is no need to.  My earlier attempts with higher citric acid concentrations showed alittle formation of silver oxide on the negative electrode near the endif the generation. With the current concentration I see oxide formationstarting just around the 200 ppm concentration. So I continue to use the1/8 cup of citric acid to minimize the need to clean the electrode.Also, the higher citric acid concentrations showed little or no currentdrop off during the generation. At the present concentration, I do seesome drop off of electrode current. The current plus the silver oxideformation  indicate to me that I might be getting around the max ppm forthe concentration. Remember that the patent indicated that 400 ppm at a1% solution is not stable and that some of the citric acid is consumedin the making of the silver citrate. Just FYI:If you use enough citric acid you can generate silver citrate solutionsto over 23,000 ppm. See Figure 4 in:  “Silver citrate is a white substance with a very limited solubility inwater. Under the normal physicochemical conditions, 1 part of silvercitrate is soluble in 3500 parts of water, which corresponds to 285 ppmof Ag(I) ion in the solution [11].” “Formation of silver citrate/citric acid complexed solutions wasinvestigated. Although, silver citrate is minimally soluble in water, itcan successfully be dissolved in citric acid solutions. The maximumconcentration of Ag(I) in solution is estimated at 23 to 25 g/L if theconcentration of citric acid is at least 4 mol/L or higher.” In the report above, the graph in Figure 4 shows how much citric acidyou need vs the ppm of the silver citrate. Please note that the graphdoes not include the citric acid needed to create the silver citrate inthe first place so one will need to use more than is shown.  –The Silver List is a moderated forum for discussing Colloidal Silver. Instructions for unsubscribing are posted at: To post, address your message to: [email protected] Address Off-Topic messages to: silver-off-topic-l… The Silver List and Off Topic List archives are currently down… List maintainer: Mike Devour <mdev…>
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    Show of the Month  October 10 2014
    Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells
    Copper  Power- Copper in medicine- Incorporation of copper into chitosan scaffolds promotes bone regeneration-
    A Brief History of The Health Support Uses of Copper– Ancient Uses of Copper-
    19th  Century Copper-20th Century Copper– Copper in the 21st Century- Copper sulphate as a fish disease treatment
    Disinfectant and method of making
    Turmeric compound boosts regeneration of brain stem cells
    September 25, 2014
    BioMed Central
    A bioactive compound found in turmeric promotes stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the brain, reveals new research published today in the open access journal Stem Cell Research & Therapy. The findings suggest aromatic turmerone could be a future drug candidate for treating neurological disorders, such as stroke and Alzheimer’s disease.–The study looked at the effects of aromatic (ar-) turmerone on endogenous neutral stem cells (NSC), which are stem cells found within adult brains. NSC differentiate into neurons, and play an important role in self-repair and recovery of brain function in neurodegenerative diseases. Previous studies of ar-turmerone have shown that the compound can block activation of microglia cells. When activated, these cells cause neuroinflammation, which is associated with different neurological disorders. However, ar-turmerone’s impact on the brain’s capacity to self-repair was unknown.—Researchers from the Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine in Jülich, Germany, studied the effects of ar-turmerone on NSC proliferation and differentiation both in vitro and in vivo. Rat fetal NSC were cultured and grown in six different concentrations of ar-turmerone over a 72 hour period. At certain concentrations, ar-turmerone was shown to increase NSC proliferation by up to 80%, without having any impact on cell death. The cell differentiation process also accelerated in ar-turmerone-treated cells compared to untreated control cells.–To test the effects of ar-turmerone on NSC in vivo, the researchers injected adult rats with ar-turmerone. Using PET imaging and a tracer to detect proliferating cells, they found that the subventricular zone (SVZ) was wider, and the hippocampus expanded, in the brains of rats injected with ar-turmerone than in control animals. The SVZ and hippocampus are the two sites in adult mammalian brains where neurogenesis, the growth of neurons, is known to occur.–Lead author of the study, Adele Rueger, said: “While several substances have been described to promote stem cell proliferation in the brain, fewer drugs additionally promote the differentiation of stem cells into neurons, which constitutes a major goal in regenerative medicine. Our findings on aromatic turmerone take us one step closer to achieving this goal.”—Ar-turmerone is the lesser-studied of two major bioactive compounds found in turmeric. The other compound is curcumin, which is well known for its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.–Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by BioMed Central. Journal Reference    Joerg Hucklenbroich, Rebecca Klein, Bernd Neumaier, Rudolf Graf, Gereon Fink, Michael Schroeter, Maria Rueger. Aromatic-turmerone induces neural stem cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 2014; 5 (4): 100 DOI: 10.1186/scrt500
    Copper  Power
    Copper in medicine- homeostasis, chelation therapy and antitumor drug design.
    Wang T1, Guo Z.
    Author information
    As one of the most important essential transition metals, copper is involved in a variety of biological processes such as embryo development, connective tissue formation, temperature control and nerve cell function. It is also related to severe diseases such as Wilson’s and Menkes diseases and some neurological disorders. Novel components of copper homeostasis include copper-transporting P-type ATPases, Menkes and Wilson proteins, and copper chaperones in humans have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. These findings have paved the way towards better understanding of the role of copper deficiency or copper toxicity in physiological and pathological conditions. Therefore, organic compounds that can interfere with copper homeostasis may find therapeutic application in copper-dependent diseases. The antitumor activity of copper complexes was reported several decades ago, and many new complexes have demonstrated great antitumor potential. Copper complexes may have relatively lower side effects than platinum-based drugs, and are suggested to be able to overcome inherited or acquired resistance of cisplatin. In this overview, the most recent advances in copper homeostasis, copper-related chelation therapy and design of copper-based antitumor complexes will be summarized.
    Incorporation of copper into chitosan scaffolds promotes bone regeneration in rat calvarial defects.
    D’Mello S1, Elangovan S, Hong L, Ross RD, Sumner DR, Salem AK.
    Author information