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    This is a sampling of foods provided to research participants during the three weeks that they were eating a very-low-carb diet. Doubling or even nearly tripling saturated fat in the diet does not drive up total levels of saturated fat in the blood, according to a controlled diet study.–However, increasing levels of carbohydrates in the diet during the study promoted a steady increase in the blood of a fatty acid linked to an elevated risk for diabetes and heart disease. The finding “challenges the conventional wisdom that has demonized saturated fat and extends our knowledge of why dietary saturated fat doesn’t correlate with disease,” said senior author Jeff Volek, a professor of human sciences at The Ohio State University. In the study, participants were fed six three-week diets that progressively increased carbs while simultaneously reducing total fat and saturated fat, keeping calories and protein the same. The researchers found that total saturated fat in the blood did not increase — and went down in most people — despite being increased in the diet when carbs were reduced. Palmitoleic acid, a fatty acid associated with unhealthy metabolism of carbohydrates that can promote disease, went down with low-carb intake and gradually increased as carbs were re-introduced to the study diet. “It’s unusual for a marker to track so closely with carbohydrate intake, making this a unique and clinically significant finding. As you increase carbs, this marker predictably goes up,” Volek said. When that marker increases, he said, it is a signal that an increasing proportion of carbs are being converted to fat instead of being burned as fuel. Reducing carbs and adding fat to the diet in a well-formulated way, on the other hand, ensures the body will promptly burn the saturated fat as fuel — so it won’t be stored. “When you consume a very low-carb diet your body preferentially burns saturated fat,” Volek said. “We had people eat 2 times more saturated fat than they had been eating before entering the study, yet when we measured saturated fat in their blood, it went down in the majority of people. Other traditional risk markers improved, as well.” The research is published in the Nov. 21, 2014, issue of the journal PLOS ONE. Volek and colleagues recruited 16 adults for the study, all of whom had metabolic syndrome, defined as the presence of at least three of five factors that increase the risk for heart disease and diabetes (excess belly fat, elevated blood pressure, low “good” cholesterol, insulin resistance or glucose intolerance, and high triglycerides). After getting them to a baseline reduced-carb diet for three weeks, researchers fed the participants the exact same diets, which changed every three weeks, for 18 weeks. The diets started with 47 grams of carbs and 84 grams of saturated fat each day, and ended with 346 carb grams per day and 32 grams daily of saturated fat. Each day’s meals added up to 2,500 calories and included about 130 grams of protein. The highest-carb level represented 55 percent of daily calories, which roughly matches the estimated daily percentage of energy provided by carbs in the American diet.
    Compared to baseline, there were significant improvements in blood glucose, insulin and blood pressure that were similar across diets. Participants, on average, lost almost 22 pounds by the end of the trial. When looking at palmitoleic acid, however, the scientists found that it consistently decreased on the high-fat/low-carb diet in all participants. The fatty acid then showed a step-wise increase in concentration in the blood as carbs were progressively added to the diet. Elevated levels of palmitoleic acid in the blood have been linked to obesity and higher risk for inflammation, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, metabolic syndrome, type-2 diabetes, heart disease and prostate cancer. The study does not address what happens to palmitoleic acid levels when high carbs are combined with a diet high in saturated fat. Instead, Volek hoped to identify the carb-intake point at which participants began to store fat. “That turned out to be highly variable,” he said. “Everyone showed increased palmitoleic acid levels as carbs increased, but values varied widely between individuals, especially at the highest carb intake. This is consistent with the idea that people vary widely in their tolerance to carbohydrates.” Participants’ existing health risks were not a factor in the study because everyone ate the exact same diet for 18 weeks. Their bodies’ responses to the food were the focus of the work. “There is widespread misunderstanding about saturated fat. In population studies, there’s clearly no association of dietary saturated fat and heart disease, yet dietary guidelines continue to advocate restriction of saturated fat. That’s not scientific and not smart,” Volek said. “But studies measuring saturated fat in the blood and risk for heart disease show there is an association. Having a lot of saturated fat in your body is not a good thing. The question is, what causes people to store more saturated fat in their blood, or membranes, or tissues? “People believe ‘you are what you eat,’ but in reality, you are what you save from what you eat,” he said. “The point is you don’t necessarily save the saturated fat that you eat. And the primary regulator of what you save in terms of fat is the carbohydrate in your diet. Since more than half of Americans show some signs of carb intolerance, it makes more sense to focus on carb restriction than fat restriction.[F7]” Volek sees this palmitoleic acid as a potential biomarker to signal when the body is converting carbs to fat, an early event that contributes to what he calls “metabolic mayhem.””There is no magical carb level, no cookie-cutter approach to diet, that works for everyone,” he said. “There’s a lot of interest in personalized nutrition, and using a dynamically changing biomarker could provide some index as to how the body is processing carbohydrates.”-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Ohio State University. The original article was written by Emily Caldwell. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Brittanie M. Volk, Laura J. Kunces, Daniel J. Freidenreich, Brian R. Kupchak, Catherine Saenz, Juan C. Artistizabal, Maria Luz Fernandez, Richard S. Bruno, Carl M. Maresh, William J. Kraemer, Stephen D. Phinney, Jeff S. Volek. Effects of Step-Wise Increases in Dietary Carbohydrate on Circulating Saturated Fatty Acids and Palmitoleic Acid in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome. PLoS ONE, 2014; 9 (11): e113605 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113605
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    Show of the Month December 13 2014
    Wake Forest research confirms controversial nitrite hypothesis
    C-130 aircraft caught dropping massive ‘raindrop shaped fibers’ onto populace, lab tests confirm “metals”
    AEROSPACE WORKER FIRED After Admitting– “I Installed Chemtrail Devices
    Human exposure to metal cadmium may accelerate cellular aging
    These Substances may help to Detoxify Cadmium
    Bacterial biofilms are associated with colon cancer, imaging technique reveals
    Wake Forest research confirms controversial nitrite hypothesis[F8]
    By Bonnie Davis, 336-758-5390, [email protected] Office of Communications and External Relations
    Understanding how nitrite can improve conditions such as hypertension, heart attack and stroke has been the object of worldwide research studies. New research from Wake Forest University has potentially moved the science one step closer to this goal.–In a paper published online ahead of print in the February issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry, senior co-author Daniel Kim-Shapiro, professor of physics at Wake Forest, and others show that deoxygenated hemoglobin is indeed responsible for triggering the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide, a process that affects blood flow and clotting.—“We have shown that conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide by deoxygenated hemoglobin in red blood cells reduces platelet activation,” Kim-Shapiro said. “This action has implications in treatments to reduce clotting in pathological conditions including sickle cell disease and stroke.”–In 2003, Kim-Shapiro collaborated with Mark Gladwin, now at the University of Pittsburgh, who led a study that showed that nitrite (which is also used to cure processed meats), is not biologically inert as had been previously thought, but can be converted to the important signaling molecule nitric oxide (NO), and thereby increase blood flow[F9]. At that time, the researchers hypothesized that the conversion of nitrite to NO was due to a reaction with deoxygenated hemoglobin in red blood cells.–The main goal of the latest research, Kim-Shapiro said, was to determine how red blood cells perform these important signaling functions that lead to increased blood flow. The researchers used several biophysical techniques to measure NO production from nitrite and red blood cells and examined the mechanism of NO production.-“Importantly, this action was increased under conditions of low oxygen – so nitrite acts to increase blood flow in the body just when it is needed. What we’re showing with this research is what part of the red cell is doing this, and it’s consistent with our original hypothesis,” he said. “This speaks to the mechanisms and how they work – to how nitrite is dilating blood vessels and reducing clotting.”–As director of Wake Forest University’s Translational Science Center, Kim-Shapiro and others have conducted studies that look at how nitrite and its biological precursor, nitrate (found in beet root juice) can be utilized in treatments for a variety of conditions. In a 2010 study, they were the first to find a link between consumption of nitrate-rich beet juice and increased blood flow to the brain.—Kim-Shapiro said that next steps in the research include examining whether all red blood cells have this activation function and whether this function is diminished in red cell diseases like sickle cell disease, other blood diseases, or in the transfusion of older blood.–“Does this important function that we can now attribute to the hemoglobin in the red cells get compromised under certain conditions? And if so, how can we enhance it?” he said.
    This work was supported by NIH grants HL058091, HL098032, and the Translational Science Center of Wake Forest University and Hypertension & Vascular Research Center of Wake Forest School of Medicine.–Lead co-authors include Chen Liu and Nadeem Wajih, of WFU department of physics. Contributing authors include Xiaohua Liu, Swati Basu, John Janes, Madison Marvel, Christian Keggi, Amber N. Lee, Andrea M. Belanger, Debra I. Diz, Paul J. Laurienti, and David L. Caudell, all of Wake Forest; Christine C. Helms, University of Richmond; and Jun Wang and Mark T. Gladwin, from the Lung, Blood and Vascular Medicine Institute at the University of Pittsburgh.
    C-130 aircraft caught dropping massive ‘raindrop shaped fibers’ onto populace, lab tests confirm “metals”
    Independent lab tests point to mainstream cover-up of live biowarfare, geoengineering testing
    By Shepard Ambellas
    A C-130, tailed by two other aircraft, conducting biowarfare, geoengineering operations over Chino Valley, Arizona, Nov., 2014. –CHINO VALLEY, Ariz. (INTELLIHUB.COM) — Marie Snow and her friend Cori Gunnels knew they stumbled across something sinister, one November day, this year, when they saw what appeared to be 50 to 60-foot long “raindrops”, “solid” in nature, falling from the sky in clusters, after three military aircraft, including a C-130, flew overhead, minutes prior, at an altitude of an estimated 5,000-8,000 ft.–Using critical thinking skills, Snow and Gunnels, patriots and local residents, decided to collect samples of the fibrous material which was deployed from the three military planes earlier that day, saving the samples for testing. In fact, the fibers looked so ominous that Snow even opted not to touch them with her “bare hands” and collected them on “white pieces of paper”.–Visible fibers, 50 to 60 feet long, left after three military aircraft were flying at approx. 5,000-8,000 ft. altitude. –Soon after, Snow, determined to know the truth, contacted her local news station, KPHO, CBS 5, inviting them to investigate her fibrous discovery. —–Within days, CBS 5 took Snow up on her offer, sending reporter Greg Argos to investigate the fibrous samples she collected off of the natural terrain and nearby fence posts, also noting her eyewitness account to the 3 military aircraft which flew overhead that day. However, what happened after CBS 5 interviewed Snow may shock you.—According to Argos’ video piece, published Nov. 18, by CBS 5, samples of the unusual fibers, which are “thicker than a spider web and “very strong”, were taken to Grand Canyon University’s Forensic Science Lab for testing where a woman by the name of “Melissa Beddow” allegedly tested the samples under “40 times magnification”.–As reported in the Argos piece, Beddow stated that the fibrous samples were likely “biodegradable gauze” from “nearby cattle farms”, made up of “a mixture of wheat, gluten, flour and bacitracin, an antibiotic” in what the network touted as a “straight story”.–However, after the local news piece aired, Snow and others were skeptical of Argos’ findings. Snow was soon after urged by Al DiCicco, who appears in the documentary film “Shade the Motion Picture”, a film about covert and sinister bioweapons testing programs, to contact Intellihub News and get independent testing of the samples done by a reputable lab. And that’s just what Marie Snow did.—On Nov. 22, Snow reached out to me, [Intellihub’s Shepard Ambellas] to gather yet another opinion on how to proceed after something just didn’t feel right to Snow about KPHO, CBS 5′s report. –Once contacted by Snow, I, myself, recommended just what my friend Al DiCicco told her to do, “get some independent testing done”as we could than later do a “powerful article” if the results differed from KPHO, CBS 5′s findings.
    And again, that’s just what Snow and Gunnels did, sending the samples to a credible lab, a testing facility located in Redding California to properly and scientifically carry out tests of several fibrous samples. –Days after, the actual results came back from the lab, and what was found may shock you.–The work orders, numbered “14K0279“, dated Dec. 4, 2014 and “14K0683“, dated Dec. 2, 2014, stated that “All analysis were performed under strict adherence to our established Quality Assurance Plan” and that “solid” “fibers” were submitted by “Marie Snow” for “general testing”.
    Lab test “14K0683” dated Dec. 02, 2014. (Image Credit: Cori Gunnels)
    Lab test “14K0683” dated Dec. 02, 2014. (Image Credit: Cori Gunnels)
    Astonishingly, both tests concluded that both samples indeed tested positive for three metal analytes, “Aluminum”, “barium” and “strontium”, three substances commonly known by dedicated researchers to be found in persistent contrails, i.e. chemtrails and or geoengineering, terraforming operations as pointed out by investigative researcher, activist, Rosalind Peterson, Agriculture Defense Coalition, in Shade the Motion Picture.
    Lab test “14K0729” dated Dec. 04, 2014. (Image Credit: Marie Snow)
    Lab test “14K0729” dated Dec. 04, 2014. (Image Credit: Marie Snow)
    Coupling the Redding lab’s scientific findings, with Marie Snow’s eyewitness account of the three military planes flying overhead, the fibrous material collected, and other breakthrough research noted in Shade the Motion Picture, we must now hold the mainstream news accountable for not reporting actual scientific evidence and findings pertaining to persistent contrails, chemtrails, geoengineering or the terraforming of our planetary atmosphere.—In fact scientists, likely not credible ones, Bill Gates and others are now claiming that geoengineering is needed to block solar radiation, to prevent “global warming”. –Although some like Dr. Matthew Watson, University of Bristol, say that Solar Radiation Management (SRM) could have “profoundly terrifying” consequences possibly causing extreme drought or severe rainfall, conflicting weather, in opposite regions of the globe not typical to the locality.–Mysterious fibers containing barium, strontium and aluminum found on power lines after military test, Chino Valley, AZ. (Photo Credit: Marie Snow)–“Some of the techniques could also damage the ozone layer, leaving people at risk of skin cancer, or potentially trigger conflicts amid tensions between those affected by their deployment, the scientists said.”, as reported by The Telegraph in the article Six radical ways to tackle global warming. —But maybe even more bothersome is the fact that theses biological, chemical, and in some cases radiological, tests have all been approved to be conducted on the general public, at any time, by the U.S. government or military, under a public law.—
    Public Law 105–85 105th Congress
    PUBLIC LAW 105-85- NOV. 18, 1997: USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTSSEC. 1078. RESTRICTIONS ON THE USE OF HUMAN SUBJECTS FOR TESTING OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.(a) PROHIBITED ACTIVITIES. – The Secretary of Defense may not conduct (directly or by contract)(1) any test or experiment involving the use of a chemical agent or biological agent on a civilian population; or
    (2) any other testing of a chemical agent or biological agent on human subjects.(b) EXCEPTIONS.- Subject to subsections (c), (d), and (e), the prohibition in subsection (a) does not apply to a test or experiment carried out for any of the following purposes:(1) Any peaceful purpose that is related to a medical, therapeutic, pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, or research activity.
    (2) Any purpose that is directly related to protection against toxic chemicals or biological weapons and agents.
    (3) Any law enforcement purpose, including any purpose related to riot control.
    So section (a) prohibits these cruel and inhumane chemical and biological tests on humans.
    Then section (b) says that the prohibitions in section (a) do not apply to tests carried out for virtually any purpose. So section (b) completely negates the prohibitions of section (a).
    And don’t be fooled — testing is currently being conducted and is harming your health as pointed out by Luca Zanna and Al DiCicco in Shade the Motion Picture when lab work, i.e. official blood tests were revealed for the first time publicly, demonstrating that the very metals, “analyites” found in these chemtrail “raindrop” like fibers are also in the human bloodstream at alarmingly toxic levels.
    Ladies and gentlemen we are being exterminated ever so slowly. Our eventual deaths brought on by the bi-product of geoengineering applications, now being sold to the American people as necessary. And yes, the U.S. government is aware of it and has prepared quite the secret budget, unseen to most, kept under the radar of the American people.
    The secretive budget, that President Obama and other members of his administration don’t want you to know about, was first uncovered by myself [Shepard Ambellas] and Avalon,, in March of 2011, published in an article titled “Exposed: Secret presidential chemtrail budget uncovered — Congress exceeds billions to spray populace like roaches” which garnered worldwide attention.
    Focusing on exposing geoengineering, chemtrail, applications, the article called out the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP), which is composed of 13 federal member agencies, with FY budgets into the billions of dollars.
    The USGCRP, working hand-and-hand with the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the U.S. government, and other governments of the world are conducting sinister and experimental research on mother earth and all of its living inhabitants including humans, plants, animals and sea life.
    Moreover, massive money-making schemes may also be partly to blame for modern weather manipulation, geoengineering, and terraforming operations as weather derivatives can now be traded on the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
    In fact the CME Group’s official website confirms the market for such operations, reading, “From heat waves to arctic cold outbreaks, weather often has a significant impact on business – accounting for $5.3 billion of the $16 trillion US GDP. CME Group’s temperature-based index futures and options provide the tools to help you manage weather-related risk.” All big business and opportunity for the wealthy, despite being downplayed by publications such as Fortune.
    Snow’s personal encounter is described by her in the following memo sent to Intellihub News:
    My friend Cori Gunnels, who lives eight miles south-west of me, called and told me to go outside to see a C-130 or KC-130, with two escorts flying over her home. I went outside and looked to the south-west and saw a 130 with two escorts to the rear of it heading west. The second (northern most) escort split off from the other two and was headed in my direction, (north-east).
    When it began to fly directly over my house, (Cori was on the phone with me), I began seeing what looked like long rain drops, or extremely long cob-web type fibers (twenty to fifty feet long), falling from the direction of the aircraft. I did not see it falling directly from the aircraft, but it was an immediate action. The sun was in the perfect position for me to see this substance falling toward the ground, and on my head.
    The substance also fell from the sky on my friend Cori at the time the aircraft were present and passing over her. Neither of us saw the substance fall directly from the aircraft, however, it was at the exact time the different aircraft passed over both of us. Cori lives at an altitude of approx. 5,400 ft., and Cori told me that the aircraft were almost at the same altitude as Granite Mountain, which is 7,629 ft. Cori’s friend was working in Chino Valley at that exact time and he also reports seeing the substance fall from the sky. I am not sure if he saw the aircraft.
    I grabbed a white piece of paper and began collecting the unknown substance from mid-air. The fibers were so long that I had to wind the paper over and over for many minutes in order to collect it. I also collected the fibers from the cars, fences and plants. The telephone lines were covered in it. Not only was this substance found in my yard, but also all over of Chino Valley, the Yavapai College Campus in Chino Valley, Prescott, Williamson Valley, and there were reports in Phoenix as well.
    I am very afraid that this substance may be harmful, as the fibers are very fine and I, along with anyone else that was outside at the time, breathed them in. Because it landed in my organic garden, I disposed of anything growing there.
    I have many pictures of this substance, a picture of the three aircraft, and physical evidence we collected from the air, cars, fences and plants. The picture of the C130 seems to show the rear loading bay open on the back of the aircraft.
    This matter is urgent and needs attention. I called Ernest Love Field in Prescott to inquire whether they had any knowledge of a C-130 with two escorts were in the area… they know nothing. I have contacted the EPA, who referred me to Arizona Dept. of Environmental Quality… who referred me back to the EPA. I also filed three complaints with the FAA, have emailed all ninety-four AZ State representatives, and only heard back from Judy Burgess, who requested that I notify her of the results of the lab tests. If none of these agencies are responsible for an unknown substance falling from an aircraft, why do they exist?
    I contacted Luke AFB, and was told to contact Davis Monthan AFB. I spoke with an air force Lieutenant there, and they are investigating this event. I did a television interview with CBS on 11-12-14, they did not do an honest interview. When I left the interview they gathered their own samples and had them tested (Positive gauze, wheat gluten flour and bacitracin). I asked them to hold off on the story until we got our results back. We have sent two samples of the substance to different labs and as of 12-4-14, my results show highly positive for aluminum = 421mg (MDL = 156), Strontium = 70.8mg (MDL = 3.1), Cori’s results Aluminum 1020mg
    (MDL = 164) Barium = 34.1 (MDL = 11.9).
    Update, Nov. 19, 2014: Congressman Gosar has assigned the case to the EPA and I feel we are going to be heard finally.
    Update Nov. 21, 2014: I have heard from the EPA… they are taking the case.
    Update Dec. 02, 2014: We are searching for any labs: soil, air, rainwater, blood, fibers. Please help. Alerting alternative media to keep the truth alive.
    Thank you,
    Marie Snow
    It’s also important to point out that Corri Gunnels, an admin on “Uniting for Our Planet, Redding CA’s” Facebook page, told Intellihub News in an interview Friday, that she “knew they [KPHO, CBS 5] were going to marginalize the story”, despite the fact that the station’s news editor, Scott Davis, told Gunnels that he had never been directed by corporate to skew a report.
    Gunnels also wanted me to point out in this article that “three other eyewitnesses in Phoenix called CBS 5″, reporting the strange fibers days before Gunnel and Snow collected samples.
    Gunnels believes that this information was withheld from the local news report, as “biodegradable bandages” wouldn’t be of any use in the city of Phoenix as limited livestock exists there, further demonstrating a potential cover-up of the actual story.
    Other Sources:
    ‘Mysterious’ fibers in Chino Valley are biodegradable gauze — KPHO, CBS 5
    Six radical ways to tackle global warming – The Telegraph
    Recent U.S. snowstorms found to contain elements of entomological warfare being conducted on American populace –
    PUBLIC LAW 105–85—NOV. 18, 1997 —
    AEROSPACE WORKER FIRED After Admitting– “I Installed Chemtrail Devices”
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    New World Order Plans To Destroy and Take Over!
    In case you missed this relevant news mid-May, an ex-aerospace worker came forward and admitted that chemtrail devices are installed on airplanes (as he was one of the installers) and shares details about what they installed.–We need to be very concerned about this, as it is affecting the health of our loved ones, our children, ourselves, and society as a whole! It also has damaging catastrophic effects on the environment, our food supply, and much more.
    In his words, from the included video footage below:
    “We gutted the plane, mounted the tanks. Installed the cables and lines and spraying devices. I was a civilian worker supervised by the military. When we finished, we were told that this was a test conducted by the German Aeronautics and Space Administration. Meaning that the plane with the spraying devices goes ahead while a second plane with measuring devices flies behind and conducts measurements. Like, “we just want to find out how the particles do behave and propagate.–“So when we were finished with the installation, guys from the military came over and instructed us to wear full body protective clothing and breathing masks because they were now going to fill the tanks. And that the substances, like aluminum sulfides or barium oxides, would contain highly toxic nano particle sized polymers.–He then adds, “We are moving toward an ecological catastrophe! And those who don’t believe me, please come here and I will show you the proof!”
    Aerospace Worker: “I Installed Chemtrails Devices” – ENGLISH SUBS
    Human exposure to metal cadmium may accelerate cellular aging
    December 11, 2014
    George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health
    A new study led by a researcher at Milken Institute School of Public Health (Milken Institute SPH) at the George Washington University looks at the metal cadmium and finds that higher human exposure can lead to significantly shorter telomeres, bits of DNA at the ends of chromosomes that are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes and other diseases of old age[F10]. The study, which was published online in the American Journal of Epidemiology, is the largest-ever to look at cadmium exposure and telomeres.—“We looked at heavy metals in this study and found a strong association between exposure to low levels of cadmium and telomere shortening,” says Ami Zota, ScD, MS, an assistant professor of environmental and occupational health at Milken Institute SPH. “Our findings suggest that cadmium exposure can cause premature aging of cells.[F11] And they add to other evidence indicating this heavy metal can get into the bloodstream and trigger kidney disease and other health problems.”–The World Health Organization calls environmental exposure to cadmium a “major public health concern,” and notes this heavy metal has been associated with cardiovascular disease, respiratory problems, cancer and other serious diseases. People typically are exposed to small amounts of this toxic metal by inhaling tobacco smoke, eating fruits and vegetables grown in contaminated soil or living near an industrial site, according to Zota.—In this study, Zota and her colleagues looked at blood and urine samples taken from more than 6,700 adults who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999 to 2002, a nationally representative health survey of the U.S. population. The researchers obtained purified DNA from blood cells and then used a genetic technique known as polymerase chain reaction to measure the telomeres, the caps on the tips of chromosomes that help protect the genetic code[F12].–Then the researchers measured the concentration of cadmium in the blood and urine samples. They divided the participants up into fourths based on the concentrations of cadmium found in their bloodstream, finding that people in the highest group had telomeres that were about six percent shorter than those in the lowest group.–“People with the highest cadmium exposure had cells that looked on average 11 years older than their chronological age,” Zota said, adding that even people in the highest group of exposure still had very tiny amounts of metal in their bloodstream. “This study adds to evidence suggesting that no level of exposure to this metal is safe.”–Normal wear and tear on the telomeres leads to shortening as people get older. But other factors, including cadmium, may speed up that process. When the telomeres get too short, the cell can no longer divide and chronic diseases can be the result.–The findings of this study suggest that cadmium can elicit harmful effects on the human body at levels well below the current safety standards set by environmental and occupational safety agencies. Such findings suggest that public health officials may need to accelerate the efforts to reduce the contamination of the environment–so that people are protected from even trace amounts of this metal, Zota notes.–The World Health Organization says global efforts to reduce exposure to this metal are urgently needed in order to protect the public health. Because tobacco smoke releases cadmium into the air WHO recommends a ban on smoking in public places. The group also suggests that governments worldwide promote better ways of disposing batteries and other measures to prevent contamination of the environment. Interventions should be aimed at protecting the most vulnerable, such as minority or low-income populations, who are often disproportionately exposed.–For non-smokers, food is generally the largest source of cadmium exposure, Zota says. Cadmium levels in some foods can be increased due to the application of phosphate fertilizers [F13]or sludge that is applied to farm fields.–Many other studies have linked exposure to cadmium to a host of health problems but this is one of the first to suggest it can shorten telomeres and set people up for premature aging, Zota says. This study also looked at human exposure to the heavy metal lead but found no link between blood levels of lead and shorter telomeres, Zota says.–Still, she says the new study’s findings do not prove that exposure to cadmium actually causes telomeres to get shorter. Instead, this study finds an association between cadmium levels and shorter telomeres, a link that was strong and independent but must be proven with additional research.-Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Ami R. Zota, Belinda L. Needham, Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Jue Lin, Sung Kyun Park, David H. Rehkopf, and Elissa S. Epel. Associations of Cadmium and Lead Exposure With Leukocyte Telomere Length: Findings From National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2002. American Journal of Epidemiology, December 2014 DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwu293
    These Substances may help to Detoxify Cadmium
    Amino Acids
    Cysteine may chelate Cadmium from the body: [more info]
    -N-Acetyl-Cysteine (NAC) counteracts the toxic effects of Cadmium. references
    Cystine may chelate Cadmium from the body. [more info]
    Ethylene-Diamine-Tetra-Acetate (EDTA) – the synthetic Amino Acid used in Chelation Therapy – may chelate Cadmium from the body. references
    Methionine may chelate Cadmium from the body. references
    Taurine may facilitate the excretion of Cadmium and minimizes the toxic effects associated with Cadmium. references
    Alginates may bind to Cadmium in the Digestive Tract, may reduce its absorption and may facilitate its excretion. references
    Pectins may reduce the absorption of Cadmium in the digestive tract.
    Melatonin may counteract the ability of Cadmium to damage the Liver: references
    Melatonin may inhibit the depletion of Glutathione in the Liver that is caused by Cadmium accumulation.
    Calcium may increase the elimination of Cadmium from the body by competing with Cadmium for absorption. [more info]
    Copper may increase the elimination of Cadmium from the body. [more info]
    Iron may facilitate the elimination of Cadmium from the body. references
    Selenium may increase the elimination of Cadmium from the body and may inhibit Cadmium-induced stimulation of the Epithelium of the Prostate. references
    Zinc may prevent the accumulation of Cadmium (by competing with it for absorption). references
    Glutathione (usually after incorporation into the Glutathione Peroxidase enzyme) may chelate Cadmium from the body. [more info]
    Metallothionein (an endogenous Protein) immobilizes Cadmium by binding to it, making it unavailable to the tissues and organs.
    Sulfuric Compounds
    DMSA may prevent the absorption of Cadmium from the Gastrointestinal Tract. references
    Lipoic Acid may chelate (bind to and remove) accumulated Cadmium from the body and may help to prevent Liver damage caused by Cadmium. references
    Vitamin C (500 – 1,000 mg per day) may assist in removing accumulated Cadmium and may reverse the symptoms of Cadmium toxicity. references
    The Tocopherol Succinate form of Vitamin E may provide total protection to the body’s Cells from the toxic effects of Cadmium: references
    Vitamin E may inhibit the ability of Cadmium to reduce the activity of 5′-Deiodinase (the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of Thyroxine to Triiodothyronine).
    Hard Water may dissolve Cadmium that may be present in water pipes more easily than can Soft Water.
    Bacterial biofilms are associated with colon cancer, imaging technique reveals
    December 12, 2014
    Marine Biological Laboratory
    Bacteria forming a mixed biofilm on colon cancer tissue.
    Since the first “catalog” of the normal bacterial makeup of the human body was published in 2012, numerous connections between illness and disturbances in the human microbiota have been found. This week, scientists report yet another: Cancerous tumors in the ascending colon (the part nearest to the small intestine) are characterized by biofilms, which are dense clumps of bacterial cells encased in a self-produced matrix.—-“This is the first time that biofilms have been shown to be associated with colon cancer, to our knowledge,” says co-author Jessica Mark Welch, a scientist at the Marine Biological Laboratory (MBL) in Woods Hole, Mass.-The discovery, led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, draws on a novel way to “see” microbial community structure that was developed by Mark Welch and colleagues at the MBL. Called combinatorial imaging, it could potentially be used to clinically diagnose pre-cancerous and cancerous conditions in the ascending colon.–In healthy people, the colon is covered in a mucus layer (mucosa) that helps keep bacteria away from the colon’s “skin,” or epithelia. Remarkably, the team found that colon cancer patients who have tumor-associated biofilms also have biofilms on tumor-free areas of the nearby mucosa.-“This suggests that either the tumor allows the biofilm to form, or the biofilm is helping to cause the tumor,” says Mark Welch. “The breaching of the mucus layer could allow bacteria to come into contact with the host epithelial cells, and that is one thing that could lead to cancer.”–The team found that tumors in the descending colon (going to the rectum) do not have associated biofilms.–Mark Welch and MBL co-authors Gary Borisy (now at the Forsyth Institute) and Blair Rossetti are among a group of MBL scientists who invented the combinatorial imaging technique used in this research. Different colors of fluorescent probes (nine in this study) “light up” different species of bacteria in the biofilm, revealing the 3-D structure of its microbial community. They found that the biofilms associated with ascending colon tumors are composed of many species of bacteria; they are diverse (non-identical); and that the part of the biofilm that invades the mucosal layer contains a subset of all the bacterial strains in the biofilm, rather than just one invading strain[F14].
    Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Marine Biological Laboratory. The original article was written by Diana Kenney. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-Christine M. Dejea, Elizabeth C. Wick, Elizabeth M. Hechenbleikner, James R. White, Jessica L. Mark Welch, Blair J. Rossetti, Scott N. Peterson, Erik C. Snesrud, Gary G. Borisy, Mark Lazarev, Ellen Stein, Jamuna Vadivelu, April C. Roslani, Ausuma A. Malik, Jane W. Wanyiri, Khean L. Goh, Iyadorai Thevambiga, Kai Fu, Fengyi Wan, Nicolas Llosa, Franck Housseau, Katharine Romans, XinQun Wu, Florencia M. McAllister, Shaoguang Wu, Bert Vogelstein, Kenneth W. Kinzler, Drew M. Pardoll, Cynthia L. Sears. Microbiota organization is a distinct feature of proximal colorectal cancers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2014; 201406199 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1406199111
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    [F1]Most powerful Bioagent that is the most destructive mix ever to be released on humanity
    [F2]Signs of death or complete termination or destructive effects
    [F3]Binary Effect—a dual method of attacking the body
    [F4]Delivery method to impact the consumer—entering in a epigenetic venue and then to more readily take up more chemicals
    [F5]With out these key aminos —everything from serotonin-dopamaine thyroid-hypothalmus-pituatary are completely disabled
    [F6]This would mean taking your body weight divide by 2.2 to get the kilo conversion and then multiply the weight by the amount of protein in milligrams to grams
    180 lb person / 2.2- 81 kg then multiply by the amount of protein intake so a 180 lb person taking 1.1 gram per Kg = 90 grams of protein the equivalent of 2 -3 oz pieces of meat or approximately a scoop of 30 gram of protein powder 3 times a day
    [F7]The carbs as well that people would be intolerant to would be the ones that would be genetically engineered—processed or loaded with glyphosates that would have a huge impact on normal bodily functions
    [F8]Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood.
    [F9]This is where it can be a an issue —if the meat it self has some kind of carcinogen in it—then the nitric oxide when converted from the nitrate or nitrite will also carry this throughout as well—the same effect found in cigarettes the nicotinic acid acts as a delivery mechanism to send throughout the body the poisons attached amplifying the effect
    The nitrites would do the same—to offset this you would incorporate Vitamin C to negate the carcinogen—make the nitrite safe
    [F10]Vitamin C can reverse the telomeres from the damge of cadmium and it can be bound with a sulphur as well to remove this
    [F11]The have found higher then normal levels of cadmium in the northern part of Ontario where chemtrail activity has been
    [F12]Protein enzyme that protect the telomeres
    [F13]Glyphosates—these may even chealte or transport the metal more profoundly into the cells
    [F14]Tuesday, Jan. 8, 2013 – A new study published in the journal Current Microbiology describes the harmful effect of glyphosate on intestinal bacteria in poultry. The evidence is that glyphosate is toxic to beneficial bacteria such as Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus faecium, Bacillus badius, Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Lactobacillus spp, while pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella Entritidis, Salmonella Gallinarum, Salmonella Typhimurium, Clostridium perfringens and Clostridium botulinum are highly resistant to glyphosate.–A reduction of beneficial bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract disturbs the normal gut bacterial community and allows salmonella and clostridia species to grow unchecked thus increasing the incidence of these two diseases.–The researchers pointed out that glyphosate also has the potential to induce genetic mutations within bacteria, making it possible for a new level of pathogenicity to emerge following chronic exposure to this chemical.- Oral bioavailability of glyphosate: studies using two intestinal cell lines.
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    Show of the Month December 27 2014
    Polymorphism, bacteria inside us help dictate inflammation, antitumor activity
    Terrestrosin D, a steroidal saponin from Tribulus terrestris L., inhibits growth and angiogenesis of human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo
    Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris—Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats
    Wild blueberries (bilberries) can help tackle adverse effects of high-fat diet
    Creation of ‘rocker’ protein opens way for new smart molecules in medicine, other fields
    Bad air means bad news for seniors’ brainpower
    Polymorphism, bacteria inside us help dictate inflammation, antitumor activity
    December 20, 2014
    The Wistar Institute
    A common polymorphism — a variation in a person’s DNA sequence that is found with regularity in the general population — can lead to a chain of events that dictates how a tumor will progress in certain types of cancer, including a form of breast cancer as well as ovarian cancer, according to new research from The Wistar Institute that was published online by the journal Cancer Cell.–The research reveals a more explicit role about the symbiotic relationship humans have with the various bacteria that inhabit our body and their role during tumor progression.–“Our research indicates that interactions between the helpful bacteria in our bodies and immune cells at places situated away from tumors influence systemic responses in the host that alter how these tumors are able to progress,” said José Conejo-Garcia, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor and Program Leader in the Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis Program at The Wistar Institute and lead author of the study.–Humans are colonized with trillions of bacteria — known as commensal bacteria because there are benefits to having these bacteria in our bodies — that inhabit the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts and our skin. [F1]These bacteria provide a first line of defense against infection. Recent research has found that interactions between these bacteria and the immune system are critical for providing important defenses against tumors occurring outside of the intestines.–[F2]In order for the immune system to recognize commensal as well as microscopic organisms that can cause disease — or pathogens — many of our cells are programmed to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns. At least 23% of the general public carries mutations in a group of pathogen recognition receptors called Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes. One of the most abundant polymorphisms, occurring in about 7.5% of the general population, or slightly more than one in fifteen people, which results in loss of function, is in TLR5. Although this polymorphism is found in completely healthy individuals, the people who do carry it are susceptible to illnesses such as Legionnaires disease, urinary tract infections, and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Knowing that this variant could impact some immune responses, Wistar researchers set out to understand whether TLR5 signaling influences cancer.–The researchers found that TLR5 signaling influences certain types of cancer in different ways and is dependent upon the ability of the tumor to respond to interleukin 6 (IL-6), a small protein that can have both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory properties. In individuals with functional TLR5 expression, commensal bacteria are able to stimulate IL-6 production, greater mobilization of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), which in turn transform gamma delta T cells, a T cell subset that possesses innate-like properties, to produce high amounts of galectin-1, a protein that suppresses antitumor immune activity and hastens tumor progression.—However, the researchers also showed that TLR5 signaling does not always mean that tumors will grow faster. TLR5-deficient mice with tumors that produce low levels of IL-6 have faster tumor progression. In this instance, IL-17, another interleukin closely associated with autoimmune diseases and inflammation, is consistently found in higher levels in TLR5-deficient mice that have tumors, but IL-17 only accelerates cancer when the tumors are unresponsive to IL-6.—Researchers observed these phenomena were dependent upon commensal bacteria. When commensal bacteria were removed with antibiotics, the differences in TLR5-mediated tumor progression were not observed. The researchers noted that the differences in inflammation and progression of tumors are recapitulated in TLR5-responsive and unresponsive patients with ovarian and luminal breast cancer. The researchers performed a survival analysis using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) on patients for whom data on their TLR5 status was known.—-“Although independent sets of data and higher numbers of patients are needed, our data suggest that ovarian cancer reflects the evolution of IL-6-dependent tumors, while luminal breast cancer appears to become more aggressive in carriers of the polymorphism that abrogates TLR5 signaling,” Conejo-Garcia said.—[F3]For ovarian cancer, which is associated with high levels of IL-6, researchers found a significantly higher number of TLR5-deficient patients alive six years after their initial diagnosis compared with patients with TLR5, indicating a correlation between the absence of TLR5 and improved survival. For luminal breast cancer, which is associated with low levels of IL-6, the long-term survival prospects were worse for patients without TLR5.—Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Wistar Institute. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.—Journal Reference-Melanie R. Rutkowski, Tom L. Stephen, Nikolaos Svoronos, Michael J. Allegrezza, Amelia J. Tesone, Alfredo Perales-Puchalt, Eva Brencicova, Ximena Escovar-Fadul, Jenny M. Nguyen, Mark G. Cadungog, Rugang Zhang, Mariana Salatino, Julia Tchou, Gabriel A. Rabinovich, Jose R. Conejo-Garcia. Microbially Driven TLR5-Dependent Signaling Governs Distal Malignant Progression through Tumor-Promoting Inflammation. Cancer Cell, 2014; DOI: 10.1016/j.ccell.2014.11.009
    [F1]Glyphosates Destroy this bacteria opening everyone up to a variety or host of activity which can create all kinds of imbalances—with the added metals and biofilms as well from the chemtrails —you would be able to create a considerable overload and expedite the spread of anything to create the tumours-paracitical—viral—fungal and negative bacteria over load
    [F2]This can refer to skin lesions as well
    [F3]The reasons for different cancer activity in different regions what gets turned on and what gets turned off
    Terrestrosin D, a steroidal saponin from Tribulus terrestris L., inhibits growth and angiogenesis of human prostate cancer in vitro and in vivo.
    Pathobiology. 2014;81(3):123-32
    Authors: Wei S, Fukuhara H, Chen G, Kawada C, Kurabayashi A, Furihata M, Inoue K, Shuin T
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether terrestrosin D (TED) inhibits the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer and consider its mechanism.
    METHODS: Cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity and vascular endothelial growth factor secretion were detected by a caspase-3 assay and human vascular endothelial growth factor kit, respectively. A PC-3 xenograft mouse model was used to evaluate the anticancer effect of TED in vivo.
    RESULTS: In vitro, TED strongly suppressed the growth of prostate cancer cells and endothelial cells in a dose-dependent manner. TED induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PC-3 cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). TED-induced apoptosis did not involve the caspase pathway. TED also decreased ΔΨm in PC-3 cells and HUVECs. In vivo, TED significantly suppressed tumor growth in nude mice bearing PC-3 cells, without any overt toxicity. Immunohistochemical analysis showed TED induced apoptotic cell death and inhibited angiogenesis in xenograft tumor cells.
    CONCLUSION: Cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and endothelial cells might be plausible mechanisms of actions for the observed antitumor and antiangiogenic activities of TED.—PMID: 24642631 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Make a tea –with the herb—or a tincture —getting this herb in the spring may increase testosterone production which can fortify heart as well as muscle in the body—later in the harvest term the chemistry will not be same—which will be beneficial for kidney function as well
    Steroidal saponins from Tribulus terrestris.
    Kang LP1, Wu KL2, Yu HS2, Pang X3, Liu J4, Han LF4, Zhang J3, Zhao Y3, Xiong CQ3, Song XB4, Liu C3, Cong YW3, Ma BP5.
    Author information
    Sixteen steroidal saponins, including seven previously unreported compounds, were isolated from Tribulus terrestris. The structures of the saponins were established using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical methods. They were identified as: 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-2α,3β,22α,26-tetrol-12-one (terrestrinin C), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin D), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,6,12-trione (terrestrinin E), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-5α-furostan-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one (terrestrinin F), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-12β,22α,26-triol-3-one (terrestrinin G), 26-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25R)-furost-4-en-22α,26-diol-3,12-dione (terrestrinin H), and 24-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(25S)-5α-spirostan-3β,24β-diol-12-one-3-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-galactopyranoside (terrestrinin I). The isolated compounds were evaluated for their platelet aggregation activities. Three of the known saponins exhibited strong effects on the induction of platelet aggregation
    Protective effect of Tribulus terrestris linn on liver and kidney in cadmium intoxicated rats.
    Lakshmi GD1, Kumar PR, Bharavi K, Annapurna P, Rajendar B, Patel PT, Kumar CS, Rao GS.
    Author information
    Administration of cadmium (Cd) significantly increased the peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls along with significant decrease in antioxidant markers such as super oxide dismutase and reduced glutathione in liver and kidney tissues. Cadmium also caused a significant alteration in hepatic and renal functional markers in serum viz. total protein, albumin, alanine transaminase, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine. Prominent pathological changes observed in liver were severe vascular and sinusoidal congestion with diffuse degenerative changes and mononuclear infiltration into peripheral areas, while the kidney showed vascular and glomerular congestion, cloudy swelling of tubular epithelium. Coadministration of ethonolic extract of T. terrestris or vitamin E along with Cd significantly reversed the Cd induced changes along with significant reduction in Cd load.
    take wheat germ oil or any oils that are high in E–alnond–sunflower-olive–and take the tincture or extract and blend together in equal parts for about 5 minutes this will fuse the 2 –and then use 1/2 – 1 tsp increments
    Wild blueberries (bilberries) can help tackle adverse effects of high-fat diet
    December 18, 2014
    University of Eastern Finland
    Eating bilberries diminishes the adverse effects of a high-fat diet, according to a recent study at the University of Eastern Finland. For the first time, bilberries were shown to have beneficial effects on both blood pressure and nutrition-derived inflammatory responses.—Low-grade inflammation and elevated blood pressure are often associated with obesity-related diseases. The study focused on the health effects of bilberries on mice that were fed high-fat diet for a period of three months. Some of the mice were fed either 5% or 10% of freeze-dried bilberries in the diet. The researchers assessed the effects of the diets by looking at inflammatory cell and cytokine levels, systolic blood pressure, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and weight gain.–Mice on the high-fat diet experienced significant weight gain and detrimental changes in glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation factors and blood pressure. Bilberries diminished the pro-inflammatory effects of the high-fat diet, indicated by an altered cytokine profile and a reduced relative prevalence of inflammation supporting T-cells. Bilberries also prevented elevated blood pressure caused by the high-fat diet.—Bilberries constitute an integral part of the Nordic diet and they could be better utilized also elsewhere in the world. Bilberries are associated with several beneficial health effects and their use involves plenty of traditional wisdom. The beneficial health effects of bilberries are thought to be explained by polyphenols, especially anthocyanins, the levels of which are significantly higher in bilberries than in commercially cultivated blueberries.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by University of Eastern Finland. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–
    Creation of ‘rocker’ protein opens way for new smart molecules in medicine, other fields
    December 18, 2014
    Dartmouth College
    Gevorg Grigoryan, an assistant professor of computer science at Dartmouth College, and researchers from other institutions have built the first artificial transporter protein that carries individual atoms across membranes, opening the possibility of engineering a new class of smart molecules with applications in fields as wide ranging as nanotechnology and medicine[F1].—Human cells are protected by a largely impenetrable molecular membrane, but researchers have built the first artificial transporter protein that carries individual atoms across membranes, opening the possibility of engineering a new class of smart molecules with applications in fields as wide ranging as nanotechnology and medicine[F2].–The study, which appears Dec. 19, in the journal Science, is a milestone in designing and understanding membrane proteins. The study was conducted by researchers from Dartmouth College, the University of California-San Francisco, Massachusetts Institute of Technology and National Institute of Science Educational and Research in India.–Each human cell is surrounded by a lipid membrane, a molecular barrier that serves to contain the cellular machinery and protect it from the surrounding elements. This cellular “skin” is impenetrable to most biological molecules but also presents a conundrum: if chemicals can’t get in or out, how is a cell to receive nutrients (food) and remove unwanted products of metabolism (trash)[F3]? Nature has come up with an elegant solution to this logistical problem — transporter proteins (or transporters). These molecular machines are embedded in the cellular membrane and serve as gatekeepers, allowing specific chemicals to shuttle in and out when needed. Though biologists have known about transporters for many decades, their precise mechanism of action has been elusive.–The researchers set out to “build” an artificial transporter protein from scratch, to learn how transporters work, and to open the possibility of engineering a new class of smart molecules. They developed new computational techniques to model the necessary molecular physics, enabling them to design a transporter protein through computer simulation. Specifically, computer simulations suggested which amino-acid building blocks should comprise the future transporter, so that it would carry ionic atoms of metal zinc in one direction across membranes, while pumping protons in the other. Using this computational blueprint, they created the molecule in the lab, referring to it as “Rocker” due to its predicted molecular dynamic properties: the protein was expected to “rock” between two alternating states, allowing it to drive atoms through.—“To our great excitement, experiments showed that Rocker did indeed transport zinc and protons and it did, in fact, rock between two states just as designed,” says co-lead author Gevorg Grigoryan, an assistant professor of computer science at Dartmouth. “Further, Rocker showed great selectivity, not transporting ions of calcium, another design feature.”– Proteins are nature’s workhorse molecules, performing a great variety of tasks in the cell from catalysis and sensing to generation of mechanical work. Learning to design (from first principles) novel protein molecules to perform specific tasks would mean that the immense richness of function that proteins have to offer can be brought to bear in a variety of applications, from better therapeutics to smart materials and clean energy solutions.–“Our findings are an important step forward in this pursuit, demonstrating that through the use of computer simulations to orchestrate precise properties of atomic structure and molecular dynamics, proteins can now be designed to carry out complex functions that rival those of natural molecular machines,” Grigoryan says. “Further, our work represents a milestone in designing and understanding membrane proteins, a particularly challenging class of proteins.”Story Source–The above story is based on materials provided by Dartmouth College. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.–Journal Reference-N. H. Joh, T. Wang, M. P. Bhate, R. Acharya, Y. Wu, M. Grabe, M. Hong, G. Grigoryan, W. F. DeGrado. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2 -transporting four-helix bundle. Science, 2014; 346 (6216): 1520 DOI: 10.1126/science.1261172
    [F1]This is horrendously dangerous —this will effect environmental settings—these protens will get out into the field just like Genetics and other nano components but with a protein delivery system the natural protection in the field whether environmental—human-aquatic-mammalian or reptilian will all be impacted—with a vaccine the nano delivery method which is already being utilized is showing high levels of affliction—this has become an experiment —using humans as a guinea pig
    [F2]Anyone seeing the connection here with smart dust tech and ligand or protein binding agents—and there already effect on the environment
    [F3]That is the nature of defence against viral or fungal or bacterial invaders—when the barrier is penetrated with nano then it has no defence and becomes a re written cell and saturated with nano particles
    Bad air means bad news for seniors’ brainpower
    Date-November 16, 2012
    Source-The Gerontological Society of America
    Living in areas of high air pollution can lead to decreased cognitive function in older adults, according to new research presented in San Diego at The Gerontological Society of America’s (GSA) 65th Annual Scientific Meeting.–This finding is based on data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Health and Retirement Study. The analysis was conducted by Jennifer Ailshire, PhD, a National Institute on Aging postdoctoral fellow in the Center for Biodemography and Population Health and the Andrus Gerontology Center at the University of Southern California.–“As a result of age-related declines in health and functioning, older adults are particularly vulnerable to the hazards of exposure to unhealthy air,” Ailshire said. “Air pollution has been linked to increased cardiovascular and respiratory problems, and even premature death, in older populations, and there is emerging evidence that exposure to particulate air pollution may have adverse effects on brain health and functioning as well.”–This is the first study to show how exposure to air pollution influences cognitive function in a national sample of older men and women. It suggests that fine air particulate matter — composed of particles that are 2.5 micrometers in diameter and smaller, thought to be sufficiently small that if inhaled they can deposit deep in the lung and possibly the brain — may be an important environmental risk factor for reduced cognitive function.–The study sample included 14,793 white, black, and Hispanic men and women aged 50 and older who participated in the 2004 Health and Retirement Study (a nationally representative survey of older adults). Individual data were linked with data on 2004 annual average levels of fine air particulate matter from the Environmental Protection Agency’s Air Quality System monitors across the country. Cognitive function was measured on a scale of 1 to 35 and consisted of tests assessing word recall, knowledge, language, and orientation.–Ailshire discovered that those living in areas with high levels of fine air particulate matter scored poorer on the cognitive function tests. The association even remained after accounting for several factors, including age, race/ethnicity, education, smoking behavior, and respiratory and cardiovascular conditions.–Fine air particulate matter exposures ranged from 4.1 to 20.7 micrograms per cubic meter, and every ten point increase was associated with a 0.36 point drop in cognitive function score. In comparison, this effect was roughly equal to that of aging three years; among all study subjects, a one-year increase in age was associated with a drop 0.13 in cognitive function score.–Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by The Gerontological Society of America. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.