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    New piece in the ‘French paradox’ diet and health puzzle: Cheese metabolism
    April 8, 2015
    American Chemical Society
    Figuring out why the French have low cardiovascular disease rates despite a diet high in saturated fats has spurred research and many theories to account for this phenomenon known as the “French paradox.” Most explanations focus on wine and lifestyle, but a key role could belong to another French staple: cheese. The evidence, say scientists in ACS’ Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, is in cheese metabolism.–Hanne Bertram and colleagues note that recent research on some dairy products’ positive effects on health has cast doubt on the once-firm rule that saturated fats are bad for our hearts. For example, one study found that cheese reduced “bad” cholesterol when compared to butter with the same fat content, suggesting that high cheese consumption could help explain the French paradox. To further investigate this possible explanation, Bertram’s team looked into how cheese gets digested.-The researchers compared urine and fecal samples from 15 healthy men whose diets either contained cheese or milk, or who ate a control diet with butter but no other dairy products. They found that those who consumed cheese had higher fecal levels of butyrate, a compound produced by gut bacteria. Elevated butyrate levels were linked to a reduction in cholesterol. Their results, they say, suggest a role for gut microbes and further shore up the connection between cheese and the French paradox.-The authors acknowledge funding from the Danish Council for Strategic Research, Arla Foods and the Danish Dairy Research Foundation.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by American Chemical Society. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length-Journal Reference-Hong Zheng, Christian C. Yde, Morten R. Clausen, Mette Kristensen, Janne Lorenzen, Arne Astrup, Hanne C. Bertram. Metabolomics Investigation To Shed Light on Cheese as a Possible Piece in the French Paradox Puzzle. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2015; 63 (10): 2830 DOI: 10.1021/jf505878a
    Cheese—acting as ‘carrier’ for probiotic bacteria—found to improve immune response of elderly
    Wiley – Blackwell
    Scientists in Finland have discovered that cheese can help preserve and enhance the immune system of the elderly by acting as a carrier for probiotic bacteria. The research, published in FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, reveals that daily consumption of probiotic cheese helps to tackle age-related changes in the immune system.–“The increase in the proportion of aged individuals in modern society makes finding innovative ways to thwart the deterioration of the immune system a priority,” said lead author Dr Fandi Ibrahim from the University of Turku in Finland. “The intake of probiotic bacteria has been reported to enhance the immune response through other products and now we have discovered that cheese can be a carrier of the same bacteria.”–Dr Ibrahim’s team believe that the daily intake of probiotic cheese can tackle the age-related deterioration of the immune system known as immunosenescene[F1]. This deterioration means the body is unable to kill tumour cells and reduces the immune response to vaccinations and infections. Infectious diseases, chronic inflammation disorders and cancer are hallmarks of immunosenescene
    To tackle immunosenescene the team targeted the gastrointestinal tract, which is the main entry for bacteria cells into the body through food and drink and is also the site where 70% of vital immunoglobulin cells are created.-The team asked volunteers aged between 72 and 103, all of which lived in the same care home, to eat one slice of either placebo or probiotic Gouda cheese with their breakfast for four weeks. Blood tests where then carried out to discover the effect of probiotic bacteria contained within the cheese on the immune system.-The results revealed a clear enhancement of natural and acquired immunity through the activation of NK blood cells and an increase in phagocytic activity.-“The aim of our study was to see if specific probiotic bacteria in cheese would have immune enhancing effects on healthy older individuals in a nursing home setting,” concluded Ibrahim. “We have demonstrated that the regular intake of probiotic cheese can help to boost the immune system and that including it in a regular diet may help to improve an elderly person’s immune response to external challenges.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Wiley – Blackwell. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Fandi Ibrahim, Suvi Ruvio, Linda Granlund, Seppo Salminen, Matti Viitanen, Arthur C. Ouwehand. Probiotics and immunosenescence: cheese as a carrier. FEMS Immunology & Medical Microbiology, 2010; 59 (1): 53 DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.2010.00658.x
    Microbes help produce serotonin in gut
    California Institute of Technology
    Gut microbes play an important role in modulating metabolites that impact health and disease.–Credit: E. Hsiao/Caltech–Although serotonin is well known as a brain neurotransmitter, it is estimated that 90 percent of the body’s serotonin is made in the digestive tract. In fact, altered levels of this peripheral serotonin have been linked to diseases such as irritable bowel syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and osteoporosis. New research at Caltech, published in the April 9 issue of the journal Cell, shows that certain bacteria in the gut are important for the production of peripheral serotonin.-“More and more studies are showing that mice or other model organisms with changes in their gut microbes exhibit altered behaviors,” [F2]explains Elaine Hsiao, research assistant professor of biology and biological engineering and senior author of the study. “We are interested in how microbes communicate with the nervous system. To start, we explored the idea that normal gut microbes could influence levels of neurotransmitters in their hosts.”-Peripheral serotonin is produced in the digestive tract by enterochromaffin (EC) cells and also by particular types of immune cells and neurons. Hsiao and her colleagues first wanted to know if gut microbes have any effect on serotonin production in the gut and, if so, in which types of cells. They began by measuring peripheral serotonin levels in mice with normal populations of gut bacteria and also in germ-free mice that lack these resident microbes.-The researchers found that the EC cells from germ-free mice produced approximately 60 percent less serotonin than did their peers with conventional bacterial colonies[F3]. When these germ-free mice were recolonized with normal gut microbes, the serotonin levels went back up—showing that the deficit in serotonin can be reversed.-“EC cells are rich sources of serotonin in the gut. What we saw in this experiment says Jessica Yano is that they appear to depend on microbes to make serotonin—or at least a large portion of it,”, first author on the paper and a research technician working with Hsiao.-The researchers next wanted to find out whether specific species of bacteria, out of the diverse pool of microbes that inhabit the gut, are interacting with EC cells to make serotonin.-After testing several different single species and groups of known gut microbes, Yano, Hsiao, and colleagues observed that one condition—the presence of a group of approximately 20 species of spore-forming bacteria—elevated serotonin levels in germ-free mice. The mice treated with this group also showed an increase in gastrointestinal motility compared to their germ-free counterparts, and changes in the activation of blood platelets, which are known to use serotonin to promote clotting.-Wanting to home in on mechanisms that could be involved in this interesting collaboration between microbe and host, the researchers began looking for molecules that might be key. They identified several particular metabolites—products of the microbes’ metabolism—that were regulated by spore-forming bacteria and that elevated serotonin from EC cells in culture. Furthermore, increasing these metabolites in germ-free mice increased their serotonin levels.-Previous work in the field indicated that some bacteria can make serotonin all by themselves. However, this new study suggests that much of the body’s serotonin relies on particular bacteria that interact with the host to produce serotonin, says Yano. “Our work demonstrates that microbes normally present in the gut stimulate host intestinal cells to produce serotonin,” she explains.-“While the connections between the microbiome and the immune and metabolic systems are well appreciated, research into the role gut microbes play in shaping the nervous system is an exciting frontier in the biological sciences,” says Sarkis K. Mazmanian, Luis B. and Nelly Soux Professor of Microbiology and a coauthor on the study. “This work elegantly extends previous seminal research from Caltech in this emerging field.”-Additional coauthor Rustem Ismagilov, the Ethel Wilson Bowles and Robert Bowles Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, adds, “This work illustrates both the richness of chemical interactions between the hosts and their microbial communities, and Dr. Hsiao’s scientific breadth and acumen in leading this work.”-Serotonin is important for many aspects of human health, but Hsiao cautions that much more research is needed before any of these findings can be translated to the clinic.-“We identified a group of bacteria that, aside from increasing serotonin, likely has other effects yet to be explored,” she says. “Also, there are conditions where an excess of peripheral serotonin appears to be detrimental.”-Although this study was limited to serotonin in the gut, Hsiao and her team are now investigating how this mechanism might also be important for the developing brain. “Serotonin is an important neurotransmitter and hormone that is involved in a variety of biological processes. The finding that gut microbes modulate serotonin levels raises the interesting prospect of using them to drive changes in biology,” says Hsiao.-Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by California Institute of Technology. The original article was written by Jessica Stoller-Conrad. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference-Jessica M. Yano, Kristie Yu, Gregory P. Donaldson, Gauri G. Shastri, Phoebe Ann, Liang Ma, Cathryn R. Nagler, Rustem F. Ismagilov, Sarkis K. Mazmanian, Elaine Y. Hsiao. Indigenous Bacteria from the Gut Microbiota Regulate Host Serotonin Biosynthesis. Cell, 2015; 161 (2): 264 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.02.047
    Health Benefits of Butyric Acid
    Cardiovascular System
    Butyric Acid may stimulate Blood Circulation to the Large Intestine. references
    Digestive System
    Butyric Acid may alleviate Colitis (Butyric Acid is the major Fatty Acid fuel source for the Cells that line the Colon): references
    · Butyric Acid (Sodium Butyrate form administered via enema) may increase the synthesis of Mucin in the Colon in Ulcerative Colitis patients. references
    Butyric Acid may reduce Inflammation in Crohn’s Disease patients. references
    Butyric Acid may stimulate the growth of the Intestinal Mucosa of the Intestinal Wall.
    Butyric Acid may reduce Intestinal Permeability (due to Butyric Acids’ role as a nutrient for the growth of the Cells of the Intestinal Wall). [more info]
    Butyric Acid may stimulate growth of the Large Intestine: [more info]
    · Butyric Acid comprises 15% to 20% of the total Volatile and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in the Colon. Butyric Acid may promote the proliferation of healthy Cells in the (distal) Colon and may provide Energy to the Cells of the Colon. It is the preferred metabolic fueld for the Cells of the Colon (colonocytes). references
    Immune System
    Butyric Acid may help to prevent Colon Cancer (by stimulating the growth of normal cells in the Colon and retarding the growth of cancerous cells in the Colon and by inhibiting the expression of certain Proto-Oncogenes that are involved in Colon Cancer). Butyric Acid (administered via enema) may also be a useful treatment for pre-existing Colon Cancer. references
    Butyric Acid may cause the differentiation of Leukemia cells back to normal cells. references
    Butyric Acid may inhibit the synthesis of Cholesterol in the Liver and Intestines. references
    Sexual System
    Butyric Acid is believed to be a constituent of Copulins (female Pheromones).
    Butyric Acid may Enhance the Function of these Substances
    Butyric Acid functions as a nutrient for the Beneficial Bacteria within the Digestive Tract. references
    Butyric Acid may facilitate the absorption of Calcium in the Colon. references
    Butyric Acid may facilitate the absorption of Magnesium in the Colon. references
    These Substances may Enhance the Function of Butyric Acid
    Dietary Carbohydrates (especially Polysaccharides) are fermented (by Beneficial Bacteria) within the Large Intestine resulting in the manufacture of Butyric Acid: references
    · Inulin may enhance the production of Butyric Acid in the Colon. references
    · Of all Carbohydrates, Starch produces the greatest concentration of Butyric Acid: references
    · The constituent of Starch that most contributes to the production of Butyric Acid is Amylose that escapes digestion (i.e. Resistant Starch). references
    Fructooligosaccharides (FOS) (by nourishing Beneficial Bacteria in the Intestines which produce Butyric Acid) may facilitate the endogenous production of Butyric Acid in the digestive tract. references
    Larch Arabinogalactan may stimulate the body’s production of Butyric Acid. references
    Psyllium may increase the production of Butyric Acid in the Intestines (especially in the Colon). This effect occurs from Beneficial Bacteria in the Intestines fermenting Psyllium. references
    Acetic Acid may enhance the ability of Butyric Acid to stimulate the absorption of Calcium and Magnesium in the Colon. references
    Beneficial Bacteria within the Large Intestine (especially the Colon) are responsible for the fermentation of dietary Carbohydrates that result in the production of Butyric Acid. references
    Pharmaceutical Drugs
    Aspirin may enhances the ability of Butyric Acid to prevent Colon Cancer. references
    Pharmaceutical Drugs
    Resveratrol may enhance the ability of Butyric Acid to prevent Colon Cancer. references
    High-fat dairy products linked to reduced type 2 diabetes risk
    Lund University
    Consumption of high-fat yoghurt and cheese are linked to a reduction in the risk of type 2 diabetes by as much as a fifth, according to new research from Lund University in Sweden. High meat consumption[F4], on the other hand, is linked to a higher risk.—The findings, which have been published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, are in line with previous studies of eating habits that indicated a link between high consumption of dairy products and a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes.-However, the new study indicates that it is high-fat dairy products specifically that are associated with reduced risk.—“Those who ate the most high-fat dairy products had a 23 per cent lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those who ate the least. High meat consumption was linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes regardless of the fat content of the meat,” said Ulrika Ericson, who conducted the study.—The researchers studied the eating habits of 27,000 individuals aged 45 to 74. The participants took part in the Malmö Diet and Cancer study in the early 1990s, in which they provided details of their eating habits. Twenty years on, over ten per cent — 2 860 people—had developed type 2 diabetes.—The aim of the study has been to clarify the significance of fat in food for the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Instead of focusing on the total intake of saturated fat, the researchers looked at different sources of saturated fat. both meat and dairy products contain saturated fat, but certain saturated fatty acids are particularly common in dairy products. This difference could be one of the reasons why most studies show that those who eat meat are at higher risk of type 2 diabetes, whereas those who eat a lot of dairy products appear to have a lower risk.—“When we investigated the consumption of saturated fatty acids that are slightly more common in dairy products than in meat, we observed a link with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. However, we have not ruled out the possibility that other components of dairy products such as yoghurt and cheese may have contributed to our results. We have taken into account many dietary and lifestyle factors in our analysis, such as fermentation, calcium, vitamin D and physical activity. However, there may be other factors that we have not been able to measure that are shared by those who eat large quantities of high-fat dairy products. Moreover, different food components can interact with each other. For example, in one study, saturated fat in cheese appeared to have less of a cholesterol-raising effect than saturated fat in butter.—“Our results suggest that we should not focus solely on fat, but rather consider what foods we eat. Many foodstuffs contain different components that are harmful or beneficial to health, and it is the overall balance that is important.”—Story Source-The above story is based on materials provided by Lund University. Note: Materials may be edited for content and length.-Journal Reference- Ulrika Ericson, Sophie Hellstrand, Louise Brunkwall, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Emily Sonestedt, Peter Wallstrom, Bo Gullberg, Elisabet Wirfalt, and Marju Orho-Melander. Food sources of fat may clarify the inconsistent role of dietary fat intake for incidence of type 2 diabetes. Am J Clin Nutr, April 2015 DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.114.103010
    [F1]Immune Supporting and Anti Aging
    [F2]Glyphosates will do exactly thi cause a complete disemboweling of the health bacteria in the colon
    [F3]A diet of nonliving bacteria or antibacterials in foods that are put there to preserve the food supply would have this disruptive effect—nano silver is being utilized in the food industry to preserve foods which would also disrupt the bacteria in the colon
    [F4]This would have to be defined as to what is a high consumption
    TOP A
    Show of the Month April 11 2015
    Copper supplement with cocoa for copper deficiency in patients with long-term enteral nutrition
    Omega 3 –deadly and Not so Healthy
    Study confirms link between omega-3 fatty acids and increased prostate cancer risk
    Fish oil toxicity dangers
    Fish Oils—What is not being Said
    Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements
    A Potent Inflammation Fighter and Rejuvenator
    By Walter Last
    Copper is an essential trace mineral. All tissues of the body need it for normal metabolic functions. It is excellent for reducing inflammations, strengthening connective tissue, restoring hair colour and the oxidative energy metabolism as well as fighting parasites and cancer, and it may even improve brain and liver functions.–If you give animals a choice between drinking normal water and water in which a copper pipe has been immersed, they will reportedly prefer the high copper water. This helps to keep them free of parasites. Copper armbands are well known to reduce arthritis. Copper serum levels are elevated up to threefold above normal with inflammations and with many chronic and infectious diseases, apparently because the body mobilizes all tissue stores of copper to fight the condition. During remissions the copper blood levels return to normal.
    Copper Biochemistry
    In the blood copper is transported by the proteins ceruloplasmin and copper-albumin, while inside cells it is stored as proteins called metallothioneins, or used as copper containing enzymes. Copper enzymes include:
    · cytochrome C oxidase needed for oxidative energy production within cells;
    · superoxide dismutase, a strong antioxidant for protection against free radicals;
    · dopamine hydroxylase for producing catecholamine neurotransmitters such as dopamine and noradrenaline. A copper enzyme is also needed for the synthesis of adrenalin (epinephrine);
    · lysyl oxidase for the production of connective tissue such as collagen and elastin for healthy skin, bones, joints and blood vessels;
    · tyrosinase for pigmentation of hair and skin;
    · clotting factor V, a blood clotting factor, and
    · ceruloplasmin, an antioxidant needed for the iron metabolism.
    Sometimes there is too much inorganic copper in supplements or drinking water as from acid water flowing through copper pipes. It can then accumulate in the body and lead to toxicity symptoms with signs of zinc deficiency, over-stimulation, psychosis and liver damage. But normally only as much copper is absorbed and retained as can be incorporated into these copper transport, storage and enzyme systems. The liver is the main storage organ for copper. Excess copper is normally excreted with the bile. -A deficiency of transport and storage proteins can lead to copper deficiency in the same way as low dietary intake. Copper deficiency is widespread. I regard copper deficiency as the main cause of grey or white hair. For adults a daily intake of 2-3 mg is generally recommended but intakes of less than 1 mg are very common. Unfortunately there is no reliable test to see if we have enough copper. Blood tests are totally unreliable, and also hair tests are uncertain.
    Supplementation with high amounts of vitamin C (e.g. 1000 mg) or zinc (e.g. 30 mg) during a meal tends to prevent the absorption of copper. Therefore supply additional copper with meals when these are not being used. However copper salicylate may not to be affected by vitamin C and zinc. –Prolonged cortisone treatment has been shown to increase the body’s excretion of copper and may lead to copper deficiency. This may cause various health problems, including the development or acceleration of osteoporosis, scoliosis, skeletal abnormalities and susceptibility to fractures.
    Copper and Diseases
    Adequate copper intake is essential for normal functioning of the immune system. The immune system is significantly weakened at marginal copper levels that do not even affect tissue copper levels or the activity of copper enzymes. A weakening of the immune system could be detected as soon as one week after starting a diet low in copper. Conversely, the addition of sufficient copper improved the suppressed immune system within one week (1). All forms of copper compounds are also effective fungicides.–[F1]Copper deficiency has been shown to have a strong role in anemia, arthritis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, epilepsy, fat metabolism, free radical damage, immune functions, inflammatory diseases, osteoporosis, and thyroid function (underactive). Wilson’s disease is a rare genetic condition with a lack of ceruloplasmin, low serum copper levels, and high copper stores in the liver[F2]. –Deficiency symptoms include anemia, bone disorders, defective spinal cord, hair greying and hair becoming fine and straight, losing its curl, infertility; weak connective tissue as evidenced by heart problems such as enlarged heart, weak aorta with holes and ruptures, aneurisms, varicose veins, wrinkling skin, and hernias. Copper deficiency greatly increases the lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins and cardiovascular tissue. It causes high cholesterol levels, and heart attack victims have low copper levels in the heart.–With atherosclerosis serum copper levels are high but levels in the aorta and liver are low. Copper supplementation leads initially to even higher serum copper levels but then to a normalization of all copper values as well as significant improvements in cholesterol levels and atherosclerosis.
    With cancer copper serum levels behave similar to those described for atherosclerosis. Various studies show a beneficial effect of copper on cancer. However, if growing tumours are present, then copper is needed to form new blood vessels. Therefore one form of cancer therapy creates artificial copper deficiency by removing copper with a molybdenum compound, and high amounts of zinc may be used to prevent the absorption of copper. It has now been shown that in the long-term this so-called anti-angiogenesis therapy does more harm than good by stressing tumours and inducing them to spread (2). The main metabolic defect of cancer cells, according to Dr Johanna Budwig and other researchers, is a deficiency of the enzyme cytochrome oxidase. This causes a blockage in the cellular respiration or oxidative energy production of the affected cells. Cytochrome oxidase is a copper dependent enzyme and additional copper might be beneficial. In the final stages of this oxidative energy production cytochrome oxidase transfers electrons to copper (II) and iron (III) to form copper (I) and iron (II). In the last step these electrons are then transferred to oxygen, which now can attract hydrogen ions to form water. In cancer cells this electron transfer is blocked and energy is inefficiently produced by converting glucose into lactic acid. –Due to copper deficiency this electron transfer is defective in Menkes disease, a genetic disorder of early childhood. This is sometimes called Menkes kinky hair disease because such babies have very fragile hair; they also have abnormal brain development and a low body temperature. They are very floppy, lack energy and usually will not survive beyond 3 years of age.–Australian soils are generally copper deficient, and the importance of copper for development was discovered in Australia where sheep or lambs started to develop ataxia, a loss of muscle coordination. This was traced down to the defective development of the myelin sheet around nerves, especially the cerebellum and spinal cord. These changes are identical with human cerebral palsy, and defective myelin sheets are also present with Multiple Sclerosis. For more details about the role of copper in various diseases see (1).
    Copper Salicylate Complexes
    Copper complexes are highly effective anti-inflammatory agents. In addition, copper complexes have shown great potential in the treatment of numerous chronic diseases. These include, in addition to inflammatory diseases, gastrointestinal ulcers, cancers, epilepsy, and diabetes. Commonly copper complexes are related to salicylic acid. The main copper complex is copper salicylate. –Another commonly used complex is copper aspirinate, the copper complex of aspirin, which is acetyl-salicylic acid. However, copper salicylate seems to work better than copper aspirinate. In addition copper ascorbate has strong anti-viral properties. Copper salicylate is remarkably stable and does not change the chemistry of the blood or liver as most other copper supplements do [F3](3). Dr John R.J. Sorenson at the University of Arkansas has done most of the pioneering research work on copper complexes. In one of his publications he states that with the exception of Wilson’s disease, there are no chronic degenerative diseases in man known to result from non-industrial exposure to copper. Copper salicylate has a stronger anti-inflammatory effect than cortisone but without the side effects.[F4]
    The therapeutic potency and safety of the copper complexes of aspirin (acetyl-salicylic acid) and salicylic acid is much better than for aspirin itself or for other copper compounds such as copper acetate. These complexes are 5 to 8 times more effective than aspirin but less toxic. The therapeutic index (the margin between effectiveness and toxic effects) has been stated as being significantly greater than for other anti-inflammatory drugs (4). –While aspirin and other anti-inflammatory drugs cause or aggravate ulcers and gastro-intestinal bleeding and distress, the copper complexes have a better ulcer-healing effect than commonly used anti-inflammatory ulcer drugs. Harmful effects of aspirin, salicylic acid and similar drugs apparently arise because they bind copper in the stomach and intestines wall and cause a localised copper deficiency in these tissues. This then causes connective tissue disintegration with bleeding and ulcers. Copper salicylate supplies the necessary copper in a useable form to heal these lesions. I believe that people who are allergic to salicylates are mainly reacting because of copper deficiency. –Because copper salicylate cannot be patented and is too cheap anyway, it is not widely used. It is much more profitable to first sell drugs that cause ulcers and then sell ulcer drugs. However, there exist several patents regarding the application of salicylates to the skin in combination with other ingredients.-Salicylates are a common ingredient of many fruits and vegetables but recently it has been discovered that they are also produced in the human and animal body. A researcher stated: “This simple organic chemical is, we propose, likely to become increasingly recognized as an animal bio-regulator, perhaps in a class of its own”(5).–The copper-zinc enzyme Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) is one of the most important antioxidants and inflammation fighters produced in the body to protect cells and bio-molecules from oxidation damage by free-radicals. Many copper complexes, and in particular copper salicylate, demonstrate SOD activity. For this reason they have sometimes been called ‘SOD-mimetics’ because they protect cells in a similar way as SOD. Furthermore the great stability and wide-ranging health effects of copper salicylate suggest that it may also function in the body as a quasi transport and storage molecule.–Glutathione is another important cellular antioxidant. Copper salicylate has a positive effect on the glutathione status of the liver, and it has been found that this could be achieved with oral or topical application (3). –Stress is a main factor in activating granulocytes, immune cells that cause inflammation, and are largely responsible for the symptoms of autoimmune diseases (6). Copper salicylate complexes have been found to control the metabolic activation of granulocytes (4). –A copper complex of histamine has been shown to be the active form of histamine. Life-threatening allergic reactions due to histamine overactivity can be treated with salicylic acid, which chelates the copper and inactivates the histamine (4).
    Cancer and Epilepsy
    In addition copper salicylate has also good anti-cancer, anti-tremor and anti-convulsive properties suitable for treatment of epilepsy and possibly Parkinson’s disease. After the liver the brain is the second-highest copper-containing organ. There are at least 6 important copper-dependent enzymes in the brain.
    A feature of severe copper deficiency is degeneration of the central nervous system. Lambs born to ewes on copper deficient pastures have tremors and ataxia which can be prevented with copper. With epilepsy serum copper levels are high but brain copper levels are low. Children with severe copper deficiency constantly have convulsive seizures. Many copper complexes such as copper salicylate have good anti-epileptic properties without the many and often severe side-effects of conventional anti-epileptic drugs (4).
    In experiments copper salicylate prevented chemically induced skin cancers. A single application resulted in a 55% reduction in experimental animal tumours within 20 weeks (3). Another study has shown that there is a relationship between aortic aneurism and malignancy, and this is probably due to copper deficiency (1).-Elevated serum copper levels typical for inflammatory diseases are also present with cancer. With remission serum copper levels usually return to normal while patients who do not respond to therapy or surgery have persistently elevated serum copper level. Tumor cells have decreased SOD activity and copper salicylate complexes show anti-cancer, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-mutagenic effects. There is even experimental evidence that copper complexes can cause established tumor cells to re-differentiate into normal cells and it has been suggested that “…the future use of copper complexes to treat neoplastic diseases has some exciting possibilities” (1).
    Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases
    Inflammatory and autoimmune diseases are associated with higher serum copper levels and lover tissue copper levels than normal. Copper complexes have lower toxicity and stronger anti -inflammatory activity than their parent compounds. This means, for instance, copper salicylates has much stronger anti-inflammatory effects than either common copper compounds or salicylic acid or for that matter other anti-inflammatory drugs. –Dr Werner Hangerter, head of medicine at the University of Kiel, successfully used copper salicylates for over 20 years with more than 1100 patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other inflammatory conditions. Of 620 patients with rheumatoid arthritis 65% became free of pain and other symptoms, and another 23% improved significantly, only 12% remained unchanged. With acute rheumatic fever 100% became symptom free. –[F5]Also neuromuscular problems such as sciatica, neuralgia and cervical spine-shoulder problems responded very well as did Sarcoidosis. Even short-term treatment of rheumatoid arthritis resulted in long-term remissions or improvements. Objective measures of improvement were remission of fever, increased joint mobility, decreased swelling, and normalisation of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (3, 4).–Wearing copper bracelets is a time-tested anti-inflammatory treatment but the amount of copper dissolved with the sweat is relatively low. In contrast, copper salicylates were found to be the best copper complex for the treatment of arthritic pain (3, 4).–Prion diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob or “mad cow” disease, and also Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease are related to the accumulation of wrongly folded and entangled prion proteins. It has now been shown that this may be due to a copper deficiency in the brain, and that copper stabilises prions and helps them to fold correctly [F6](7).-In contrast to the disinterest of drug companies there is much interest in the research community in copper complexes as anti-inflammatories and anti-arthritics as evidenced by a large number of reviews and symposia in recent years. This research shows that copper complexes have strong anti-inflammatory activity in numerous models of inflammation (1).
    Skin and Connective Tissue
    Old, wrinkling and sagging skin is one of the signs of copper deficiency. Expensive copper peptides are being sold for the improvement of aging skin. In addition there is also much interest in salicylic acid as a skin rejuvenator. Commonly this has been used for short periods in rather concentrated form, but in 1998 Proctor & Gamble has patented the application on the skin of low dose salicylic acid and salicylates (including copper salicylate) as long-term treatment to prevent, reduce or manage aging skin and wrinkles (8). –The elastic fibers of arteries and other connective tissue need copper for tensile strength. Common examples of weak connective tissue are hernias, varicose veins and aneurisms. Aneurisms are ballooning arteries with very thin walls that easily burst. Albert Einstein and Paavo Aerola (pioneering naturopath and nutritionist) died of ruptured cerebral aneurisms, many individuals with white hair died of abdominal aneurisms. About 5% of autopsied Americans died of ruptured aneurisms, and another 40% have aneurisms that have not yet ruptured ( interesting story in regard to aneurisms has been told by Dr Joel Wallach. In 1957 the US Department of Agriculture introduced a “wonder food pellet” for turkeys, guaranteed to grow them faster, bigger and fatter. But that year half of the entire nation’s flock of turkeys died of ruptured aortic aneurysms. Analysis showed copper deficiency. The next year copper content of the feed was doubled, and no more turkeys died from ruptured aortic aneurysms (9). –Osteoarthritis is primarily a connective tissue disease and any inflammation may be caused by joints rubbing together without sufficient protection. Therefore, response to copper salicylate may be less dramatic than with rheumatoid arthritis, take longer to eventuate and require additional co-factors such as MSM, N-Acetyl Glucosamine, fish oils and various vitamins and minerals.
    Restoring Hair Colour
    Hair is coloured by the production of melanin in the hair bulbs. There are two kinds of melanin, eumelanin which colours the hair brown to black, and pheomelanin that makes it yellow-blond to red. Different combinations of these two kinds of melanin determine then the exact colour and shade of the hair.
    Gray or grey hair results when insufficient nutrients are supplied to the scalp to maintain normal melanin production in hair cells called melanocytes. Several nutrients are responsible to convert the amino acid tyrosine into melanin. The most common deficiency is with copper. -A convincing demonstration has been conducted with black sheep. When their feed was alternated several times containing high and low amounts of copper, they developed alternating black and white coloured bands in their wool; also the curliness was reduced when copper was low (10). –Grey hair contains much less copper, magnesium and calcium than naturally coloured hair. It is not clear if high copper hair levels due to high intake of inorganic copper can be used for melanin production but I assume that it cannot be used. To restore hair colour I regard it as most useful to rub diluted copper salicylate solution directly into the scalp but additional oral intake will be helpful. –[F7]Next in effectiveness seems to be para-amino benzoic acid or PABA, which is related to the B group of vitamins. Generally PABA has been effective in 10 -25% of cases to darken gray or white hair; after stopping application the colour tends to fade again after several weeks. In clinical trials amounts from 400 mg up to 15 g of oral PABA have been used daily. PABA, used orally or topically, is also a natural sunscreen.–PABA itself is not water-soluble but may be dissolved by adding about one-third of bicarbonate to PABA suspended in water. Use about half a teaspoon of PABA. After some fizzing the water will clear and the solution may now be rubbed into the scalp. Additional PABA may be taken internally with meals, but again I regard the direct application as more effective. If available you may buy directly the water-soluble potassium or sodium salts of PABA. –Other nutrients required to maintain or restore natural hair colour are the B vitamins pantothenic acid, folic acid (in green leaves) and biotin (highest in egg yolk), and the quasi B vitamin inositol. Inositol stabilises cell membranes. This protects the hair bulbs and helps to keep the hair moist and so darkens its colour; severe deficiency may cause baldness. Zinc may be required in addition as well as iodine and sufficient calcium and magnesium. Overacidity causes mineral deficiency and premature gray hair.–Another cause of fading hair colour is chronic stress. This may be due to emotional stress or to antioxidant deficiency. In the normal metabolism free radicals and hydrogen peroxide are being formed. These need to be detoxified otherwise the melanin-producing enzymes are being damaged. In addition to copper salicylate a high antioxidant intake can avoid this problem (11).
    From this it also follows that regularly applying oxidants to the scalp as in the form of chlorinated water will lead to premature greying, and also seems to contribute to male-pattern baldness. Also drinking chlorinated water or cooking in it, or frying, all increase the ingestion of oxidized products and contribute to early greying. Hair colouring damages the hair, and it may then take longer for a natural colour to reappear. It is not clear if and to what degree white hair can regain some natural colouring; this may depend very much on additional measures to improve overall vitality and blood circulation to the scalp. –There is much anecdotal evidence that increased blood circulation to the scalp can restore hair colour. This may be done by frequently keeping the head lower than the heart, such as with inversion equipment or slant boards, or by rubbing irritating substances into the scalp such as a solution of cayenne or some aromatic oils.
    How to Use Copper Salicylate
    The amount and mode of application of copper salicylate depends very much on the problem that is to be treated. With most conditions an oral dose of 40 to 60 mg of copper salicylate may be combined with an external or topical application of the same amount. Orally it should be taken during a meal that does not contain supplements of zinc or vitamin C. Always increase high-dose supplements or remedies gradually. –Generally it is much more effective to apply copper salicylate directly to the site of the problem, rubbing a suitable solution into an arthritic joint or an inflamed muscle, ulcerated leg, aged skin or graying hair[F8]. Copper salicylate dissolves in water and it may be applied in this way. However, to penetrated the skin it should be kept moist for an extended period or combined with a suitable carrier. –When rubbing it on the skin or around a joint you may, for instance, mix the copper salicylate with some magnesium oil which then keeps the area moist for a long time, just guard against accidentally rubbing it off, or cover with a cloth. Another possibility is to apply it together with aloe vera gel. Also MSM helps to soften the skin and is also beneficial for most conditions anyway. –The most effective carrier is dimethyl sulfoxide or DMSO, a liquid that is a close relative of the crystallised MSM. Like MSM, it is an active sulphur compound and has corresponding healing qualities, especially for connective tissue. A disadvantage of DMSO is its garlic smell but compared to an autoimmune disease that may be a lesser problem. –You may mix copper salicylate with one or several of the indicated ingredients and apply them together in one application. Alternatively, you may rub first some copper salicylate solution onto the skin. After it has partly dried you may rub a small amount of magnesium oil on, and finally some Aloe vera, dissolved MSM or DMSO.–For applications to maintain or restore your hair colour you may dilute copper salicylate with a sufficient amount of water to thoroughly moisten the whole scalp and possibly the beard. You can keep these moist for longer by following up with a solution of neutralised PABA. Afterwards pat the scalp and skin and keep the head low for a minute to increase the blood circulation. –After your problem has cleared up or as a general maintenance dose you may use 20 to 30 mg of copper salicylate once a day with a suitable meal or apply it to the skin or hair several times a week–Caution: Do not apply copper salicylate to open, inflamed or very sensitive skin as this may cause irritation and pain, or try only in a very diluted form.
    The Schweitzer Formula
    In addition to copper salicylate complexes also a salicylate complex with zinc and boron is a good healing remedy. This has been called the Schweitzer Formula, and is formed from zinc (oxide or carbonate), boron (boric acid) and salicylic acid. It has been used as an antibiotic, disinfectant, fungicide, and anti-inflammatory agent.–The Schweitzer Formula supposedly was developed 1915 in Germany and sold worldwide since 1920. In addition to any kind of infection or inflammation, it has been used in cancer treatment, to improve the immune response and blood oxygenation. Applied externally it is claimed to heal injuries and skin diseases, including acne, scarring varicose veins and varicose ulcers.–To make the Schweitzer Formula dissolve 9.2 g of salicylic acid, 2.1 g of boric acid and 2.7 g of zinc oxide or 4 g of zinc carbonate in 2 litres of hot water. [F9]You may get these ingredients from a pharmacist or supplier of fine chemicals and have these quantities weight out. However, it is sufficient to use approximate amounts. You may use 2 level teaspoons of salicylic acid and half a teaspoon each of boric acid and zinc oxide or one level teaspoon of zinc carbonate.–Use distilled or de-ionised water and a non-metal container. Heat for about an hour, and stir occasionally with a non-metal spoon until no more of the zinc oxide or zinc carbonate at the bottom of the container dissolves. Then decant or filter into a glass container and store in a dark and cool place. Any surplus of zinc oxide or carbonate that remains undissolved shows that all the boric acid and salicylic acid have been used up.[F10]–Originally Schweitzer Formula was sold as crystals. If you do want to crystallise the complex, then let the water evaporate very slowly in a flat non-metal tray covered with fine gauze. As a general rule, the slower the crystallisation, the bigger the crystals. Therefore, keep the tray undisturbed in a cool place. For quick crystallisation and smaller crystals you may expose the tray to direct sunlight. For use you may then dissolve the crystals again in 2 litres of hot water.–You may take this at the ratio of one tablespoon daily[F11]. The long-term use of copper or zinc should be balanced by using the other mineral as well. If internal remedies are used then zinc and copper should be taken with separate meals. As with copper salicylate I believe that also zinc-boron salicylate complex is safer and more effective than the long-term use of aspirin or other anti-inflammatory drugs.–Schweitzer Formula in high amounts has been used extensively in the healing system of Body Electronics. One tablespoonful of Schweitzer contains about 15 mg of zinc, 15 mg of boric acid or 2.5 mg of boron, and 70 mg of salicylic acid. As with copper salicylate, I believe that individuals sensitive to salicylates in food may not negatively react to Schweitzer Formula but that may need to be individually tested.
    (1) Gissen A.S.: Copper: The Maligned Mineral. This article appeared first in the April-July/August, 1994 issues of VRP’s Newsletter, now at
    (2) Moss, R.: Shadow Falls on Anti-Angiogenic Drugs. Cancer Decisions Newsletter March 15, 2009, and
    (3) Bland, J.: Copper Salicylates and Complexes in Molecular Medicine. Int Clin Nutr Review 4, 3, 130-134, 1984.
    (4) Sorenson J.R.J.: Copper Chelates as possible Active Metabolites in the Antiarthritic and Antiepileptic Drugs. J Applied Nutrition 32, 1&2, 4-25, 1980.
    (5) SCIENCE BLOG 2008-12-22: New evidence that people make aspirin’s active principle; and
    (6) Abo T.: Your Immune Revolution. Koroko Publ. N.Y. 2007.
    (7) SCIENCE BLOG 2009, June 25: A penny for your prions;; also Hodak, M. and Chisnell, R.: Cu2+ Binding to the Prion Protein: Functional Implications and the Role of Copper. Online publication in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, June 22, 2009,
    (8) US Patent 5776917 – Compositions for regulating skin wrinkles and/or skin atrophy –
    (9) Wallach, J.: Dead Doctors Don’t Lie. A widely distributed audio tape that was later followed by a book with the same title, see
    (10) Adams, R. and Murray. F.: Minerals: Kill or Cure? Larchmont Books, NY 1974.
    (11) ABC News in Science: Grey hair? Blame the bleach. 4 March 2009,
    Copper supplement with cocoa for copper deficiency in patients with long-term enteral nutrition.
    [Article in Japanese]
    Wakugami K, Suenaga H, Egashira A, Taira T, Tokashiki T, Yamazaki T, Maehara A, Uechi K.
    Copper deficiency (normal serum copper level: 78-136 micrograms/dl) has been reported in patients with long-term enteral nutrition, caused by a copper deficit in enteral nutrition. Occasionally, this leads to anemia and leukopenia. We used Hershey’s pure cocoa that is rich in copper (content 3.8 mg/cocoa 100 g) for copper deficiency. A total of 86 (40 men and 46 women, mean age 69 years) patients on enteral nutrition were studied. The primary diseases were cerebral vascular disease in 71 patients, neurological disease in 5 and others in 10. Those who showed serum copper levels of 20 micrograms/dl or less (N = 8) were given 30-45 g of cocoa (copper content 1.14-1.71 mg) per day for about 40 days. Among them, two patients could not continue because of vomiting and diarrhea and were excluded from this study. Mean serum copper levels increased from 8.7 +/- 6.2 to 99.0 +/- 25.4 micrograms/dl (N = 6). Those who showed serum copper levels 20-77 mg/dl (N = 31) were given 10 g of cocoa (copper content 0.38 mg) per day for about 40 days. When mean serum copper levels increased from 50.5 +/- 19.3 to 89.0 +/- 12.9 micrograms/dl with cocoa administration, anemia and neutropenia caused by copper deficiency showed a tendency to improve. After completing the study period, cocoa was reduced to 5 g (copper content 0.19 mg) per day in 23 patients. The mean serum copper levels increased from 90.7 +/- 10.4 to 100.6 +/- 17.1 micrograms/dl for about 100 days. Recently, the amount of daily copper requirement for adults has been reported to be 1.28-2.5 mg per day. We showed that 10 g of cocoa (0.6 mg total copper: 0.38 mg in cocoa and 0.22 mg in other nutrients) is sufficient to treat copper deficiency, and 5 g of cocoa (0.37 mg total copper: 0.19 mg in cocoa and 0.18 mg in other nutrients) is enough to maintain the normal level of serum copper in patients with long-term enteral nutrition
    Omega 3 –deadly and Not so Healthy
    The source of some omega-3 fatty acids may be a health concern. Many large predatory fish contain toxic chemicals absorbed from pollution. Unfortunately, there is no way for a consumer to know what might be present in any particular fish, although some fish tend to have higher levels of contamination than others. Swordfish, shark, king mackerel, and tilefish (golden bass or golden snapper), for instance may contain high levels of mercury. Grouper, red snapper, and fresh or frozen tuna may have smaller amounts. -[F12]-Mercury[F13] poses the greatest risk to young children and unborn babies because of effects on the developing nervous system. Young children and women who are pregnant, trying to get pregnant, or nursing should not eat swordfish, shark, king mackerel, or tilefish. Fish that are lower in mercury such as canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, catfish, and shrimp are safer for children and women of childbearing age, but still should be limited to 2 servings per week. (White or albacore tuna should be eaten only once per week.)[F14] The precise risks and benefits of eating these fish are not known at this time. Experts recommend that adults vary the type of fish they eat as part of a healthy, balanced diet to reduce the chances of getting too many contaminants.–For men and middle-aged or older women (after menopause), the benefits of eating fish may outweigh the risks of mercury or other contaminants. Even so, experts suggest limiting intake of the most-contaminated fish to one serving per week.–Prolonged use of fish oil supplements can cause vitamin E deficiency, which is why vitamin E is added to many supplements. Fish liver oils (such as cod liver oil) can cause toxic levels of vitamins A and D if overused. Supplements may also cause fishy breath odor, belching, or abdominal bloating. They may also increase a tendency toward anemia in menstruating women. -Studies of rats that were fed large amounts of omega 3-fatty acid during pregnancy had offspring with poor weight gain, shorter life spans, and hearing problems later in life. Even though human studies have not been done, women who are pregnant or breast-feeding should talk to their doctors before adding extra omega-3 to their diets.
    Study confirms link between omega-3 fatty acids and increased prostate cancer risk
    Consumption of fatty fish and fish-oil supplements linked to 71 percent higher risk
    Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center
    SEATTLE – A second large, prospective study by scientists at Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center has confirmed the link between high blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids and an increased risk of prostate cancer. –Published July 11 in the online edition of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, the latest findings indicate that high concentrations of EPA, DPA and DHA – the three anti-inflammatory and metabolically related fatty acids derived from fatty fish and fish-oil supplements – are associated with a 71 percent increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer. The study also found a 44 percent increase in the risk of low-grade prostate cancer and an overall 43 percent increase in risk for all prostate cancers.–The increase in risk for high-grade prostate cancer is important because those tumors are more likely to be fatal.–The findings confirm a 2011 study published by the same Fred Hutch scientific team that reported a similar link between high blood concentrations of DHA and a more than doubling of the risk for developing high-grade prostate cancer. The latest study also confirms results from a large European study.—“The consistency of these findings suggests that these fatty acids are involved in prostate tumorigenesis and recommendations to increase long-chain omega-3 fatty acid intake, in particular through supplementation, should consider its potential risks,” the authors wrote.–“We’ve shown once again that use of nutritional supplements may be harmful,” said Alan Kristal, Dr.P.H., the paper’s senior author and member of the Fred Hutch Public Health Sciences Division. Kristal also noted a recent analysis published in the Journal of the American Medical Association that questioned the benefit of omega-3 supplementation for cardiovascular diseases. The analysis, which combined the data from 20 studies, found no reduction in all-cause mortality, heart attacks or strokes.–“What’s important is that we have been able to replicate our findings from 2011 and we have confirmed that marine omega-3 fatty acids play a role in prostate cancer occurrence,” said corresponding author Theodore Brasky, Ph.D., a research assistant professor at The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center who was a postdoctoral trainee at Fred Hutch when the research was conducted. “It’s important to note, however, that these results do not address the question of whether omega-3’s play a detrimental role in prostate cancer prognosis,” he said.–Kristal said the findings in both Fred Hutch studies were surprising because omega-3 fatty acids are believed to have a host of positive health effects based on their anti-inflammatory properties. Inflammation plays a role in the development and growth of many cancers. It is unclear from this study why high levels of omega-3 fatty acids would increase prostate cancer risk, according to the authors, however the replication of this finding in two large studies indicates the need for further research into possible mechanisms. One potentially harmful effect of omega-3 fatty acids is their conversion into compounds that can cause damage to cells and DNA, and their role in immunosuppression. Whether these effects impact cancer risk is not known.–The difference in blood concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids between the lowest and highest risk groups was about 2.5 percentage points (3.2 percent vs. 5.7 percent), which is somewhat larger than the effect of eating salmon twice a week, Kristal said.–The current study analyzed data and specimens collected from men who participated in the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a large randomized, placebo-controlled trial to test whether selenium and vitamin E, either alone or combined, reduced prostate cancer risk. That study showed no benefit from selenium intake and an increase in prostate cancers in men who took vitamin E. –The group included in the this analysis consisted of 834 men who had been diagnosed with incident, primary prostate cancers (156 were high-grade cancer) along with a comparison group of 1,393 men selected randomly from the 35,500 participants in SELECT.
    Fish oil toxicity dangers
    A possible consideration against the fish oil consumption is the quality of the supplements. Many supplements derive from a fish that may potentially carry dangerous levels of toxins which are potentially hazardous, carcinogenic and even fatal even at low levels of exposure over time. These include but not limited to
    Dioxins – byproducts of industrial processes such as those used in manufacturing plants. Most are highly toxic compounds and are the major hazardous elements of the environmental pollution
    PCBs (Polychlorinated biphenyls) – used in electronic devices and coolant fluids in production of transformers and electric motors
    Mercury – a serving of fish may contain up to 1,000ppb of mercury, which is considered highly toxic if used in a daily diet
    Nutrient spoilage – peroxides are byproduct of fish oil production
    Raw fish oil production materials – these are other elements that are introduced into the fish oil contents during the production, that assist in processes of refining, concentration, extraction, storage and transportation
    With daily consumption of the supplements, fish oil toxins may accumulate to dangerous levels and eventually cause an array of systemic illnesses that would be very difficult to diagnose and treat.
    Another example of the real fish oil toxicity dangers was a lawsuit filed by the California environmental group in 2010 that presented an evidence of eight brands of the supplements that contained excessive levels of toxic substances in their omega-3 supplements. The vendors that were accused of poisoning their product consumers were Twinlab, CVS pharmacy, Nature Made, Rite Aid, GNC, Solgar, Now Health, and Omega Protein
    [F15]Fish oil supplementation side effects and dangers associated with dietary fish oil supplements
    Although omega-3 supplementation may seem like a logical choice for health benefits, too much of anything or even a modest consumption of fish oils may produce different effects on a human body. While the studies have connected the omega-3 fatty acids to improvement in certain conditions, most numbers represent a statistical calculation that does not always represent an accurate picture of the nutritional and physiological states of the studies’ participants.–Despite the numerous studies that have been praising the fish oil benefits, an extremely profitable 1.1 billion industry, the latest studies have been providing a different view on the omega-3 hype.
    Some of the health risks associated even with the highest quality fish oil supplements are
    Prostate cancer – Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle conducted a study that those who had the highest concentration of EPA, DHA and DPA were at highest risk of prostate cancer
    A review of 20 studies in the Journal of the American Medical Association found that consumption of fish oil supplements did not reduce the risk of heart attack or a stroke
    BMJ group examined 38 studies and found that statistically those who ate 2 to 4 servings of fish week had reduction of stroke risk by only 6%. However, the results of the randomized trial studies did not reveal an actual significant reduction of heart attacks or strokes
    A review of the long standing studies by Cochrane Collaboration resulted in conclusion that omega-3 pills have failed to prevent or improve cognitive decline conditions
    The most common fish oil supplementation side effects are
    Increased risk of bleeding in liver disease
    Reduction of immune system function
    Reactivation of herpes family viruses, resulting in cold sores, genital herpes and shingles
    Gastrointestinal discomfort
    Gallbladder attacks in those who are predisposed
    Skin rashes
    Bipolar disorder symptoms aggravation
    High or low blood pressure
    Heartburn and Acid Reflux
    Weight gain
    Increase in blood glucose levels
    Increase in cholesterol levels, specifically increase in harmful LDL cholesterol
    Seafood allergy
    Upper respiratory tract swelling
    Implications in HIV/AIDS conditions
    Increased risk of cancer in people with Familial adenomatous polyposis
    Implications in pregnancy and breastfeeding
    It is strongly recommended that fish oil supplements are takes only on a short term basis and under supervision of a doctor. The best long term benefits of consuming Omega-3 fats can be obtain via consuming a wild caught fish such as cod, salmon, tilapia and mahi. The farm raised fish should be avoided as its mostly raised with soy and corn.
    Fish Oils—What is not being Said
    A systematic review of 20 studies published in JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association found that neither eating fish for dinner nor taking fish oil supplements reduces the risk of stroke, heart attack or death.-A review published in the online journal BMJ examined data from 38 studies and found that eating two to four servings of fish a week reduced stroke risk by 6 percent compared with eating one serving or less, and having five servings a week reduced the risk by 12 percent. But the results of the randomized trials that used fish oil supplements showed no significant effect on risk.–A review of studies published on behalf of the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that fish oil pills failed to prevent or treat cognitive decline. Although many studies link consumption of fish oil to reduced depression, a 2011 meta-analysis by Yale University researchers debunked the idea that omega-3s alleviate the blues.
    Experts caution that the latest research is not the final word on fish oils; at the very least, the science remains murky.
    Toxins can be a problem
    Although the good omega-3s reside in the fatty tissue of fish, that is also the very place where environmental contaminates bioaccumulate, which means that oil derived from these tissues may contain high concentrations of environmental contaminants.—Heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, lead and mercury come to us by way of industry and are not easily broken down, and thus end up throughout the environment at low levels, especially in fish. And fish oil. Adverse effects from ingesting heavy metals can include cognitive impairments, nervous system dysfunction, blindness, lack of coordination, deafness, development of certain cancers, irreversible liver and kidney damage and death. Along with heavy metals, there are also other toxic compounds that bioaccumulate in fish. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) can lead to skin problems, muscle spasms, chronic bronchitis and nervous system disorders; and dioxins and furans have been linked to a number of adverse health effects including skin, liver and immune system problems, endocrine and reproductive disruptions and the development of certain cancers.–One of the trickiest parts about navigating which fish to eat, for many people, is figuring out which fish have the least amount of toxins versus which fish are sustainable. To help with similar issues when selecting fish oil, you can check with the International Fish Oil Standards Program (IFOS) which is a third party toxin testing and accreditation program for omega-3 fish oil product–Fish oil supplements may cause nausea, diarrhea, loose stools, decreased appetite, constipation, vomiting and fat in the stool. Gastrointestinal side effects may be minimized if fish oils are taken with meals and if doses are started low and gradually increased.-There are rare reports of mania in patients with bipolar disorder or major depression. Restlessness and formication (the sensation of ants crawling on the skin) have also been reported.–Other potential side effects include loss of short-term memory, headache, hemolytic anemia, depression, somatic disorders, increased risk of colon cancer, nasopharyngitis, worsening of asthma symptoms, decreased physical activity, increased appetite, increased blood pressure and an uncomfortable feeling.–Omega-3 fatty acids may increase blood sugar levels. Caution is advised in patients with diabetes or hypoglycemia, and for those taking drugs, herbs, or supplements that affect blood sugar. Blood glucose levels may need to be monitored by a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist.–
    Omega-3 fatty acids may increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, may worsen symptoms for patients with ventricular tachycardia, may increase the risk of bleeding, and may decrease blood pressure.—disorders such as Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, ischemia,spinal cord trauma, and head injury. The purpose of this review is tosummarize and integrate the vast literature on metabolites generated by PLA2 for a wider audience. The authors hope that this discussion will jump−start more studies not only on the involvement of PLA2 in neurological disorders but also on the importance of PLA2−generated lipid mediators in physiological and pathological processes. Fish oil also changes one’s “immune system” in a way that is similar to what happens in many “AIDS” cases, for example: “…the anti−inflammatory effects of FO may be explained in part by a shift in the Th1/Th2 balance, due to the direct suppression of Th1 development, and not by enhancement of the propensity of CD4+ T cells to be polarized toward a Th2 phenotype…” Thus, the “anti−inflammatory” effect is “toxic,” that is, it prevents the body from protecting itself, and so it counteracts the effects of arachidonic acid overload syndrome by creating a condition that may be much worse –
    Determination of lipid oxidation products in vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements
    Bente Lise Halvorsen and Rune Blomhoff*
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    There is convincing evidence that replacing dietary saturated fats with polyunsaturated fats (PUFA) decreases risk of cardiovascular diseases. Therefore, PUFA rich foods such as vegetable oils, fatty fish, and marine omega-3 supplements are recommended. However, PUFA are easily oxidizable and there is concern about possible negative health effects from intake of oxidized lipids. Little is known about the degree of lipid oxidation in such products.
    To assess the content of lipid oxidation products in a large selection of vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements available in Norway. Both fresh and heated vegetable oils were studied.
    A large selection of commercially available vegetable oils and marine omega-3 supplements was purchased from grocery stores, pharmacies, and health food stores in Norway. The content of lipid oxidation products were measured as peroxide value and alkenal concentration. Twelve different vegetable oils were heated for a temperature (225°C) and time (25 minutes) resembling conditions typically used during cooking.
    The peroxide values were in the range 1.04–10.38 meq/kg for omega-3 supplements and in the range 0.60–5.33 meq/kg for fresh vegetable oils. The concentration range of alkenals was 158.23–932.19 nmol/mL for omega-3 supplements and 33.24–119.04 nmol/mL for vegetable oils. After heating, a 2.9–11.2 fold increase in alkenal concentration was observed for vegetable oils.
    The contents of hydroperoxides and alkenals in omega-3 supplements are higher than in vegetable oils.[F17] After heating vegetable oils, a large increase in alkenal concentration was observed.
    In “Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease” (by Shils and Young, 7th edition, page 102), for example, they say the “data certainly do not support the published assumption that n−3 fatty acids possess a specific retarding effect on atherogenesis… in rabbits at least, they seem to stimulate atherosclerosis.” The animals had liver damage as well as “Periportal fibrosis, lipogranulomas filled with lipofuscin, and bile duct hyperplasia.” The authors go on to say: “Other potentially harmful effects of 20:5 n−3 and 22:6 n−3 [that is, EPA and DHA] rich fish oils are neglected by the advocates of increased human consumption of fish oils. The pathologically increased bleeding times, as observed after aspirin ingestion, also occurs in Eskimos on a high fish oil diet.” The authors go on to talk about “a promoting role of [EPA/DHA] in the development of carrdiac necrosis and an increased sensitivity to catecholamine stress.” They then talk about extreme tocopherol (“vitamin E”) deficiency in animals and say that to repeat the experiments in humans might be dangerous. Another telling quotation: “…the most severe degree of atherosclerosis was observed in rabbits fed fish oil, with a similar trend in the [flax] oil group., rather than after feeding palm oil [F18]with its high concentration of palmitic and stearic acid [saturated fatty acids].” In the second addition of Maria C. Linder’s “Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism,” second edition, page 462, we learn of the “potential toxic effects of such fatty acids [the omega 3s in fish oil], causing inreased bleeding, ‘yellow fat disease,’ cardiac necrosis… as well as ulcers, platelet and immune malfunction…” Another interesting point about how toxic and potent fish oil is: “…fish oils may be…better than cyclosporine[F19] in suppressing the immune system They say: “…it has not been established that inake of omega−3 fish oils per so will reduce the risk of CHD [“heart disease”]. Furthermore, it is not known whether long−term ingestion of these PUFAs will lead to undesirable side effects. The information available does not support a rcommendation to use fish oil supplements to reduce the risk of CHD.” They also note that the use of the native Greenlander diet as an example of the supposed benefits of fish oil need to be considered more carefully, since these people “…usually die before middle age.” And they point out a basic and disturbing biochemical fact that many medical doctors are not even aware of, that is “…the extreme susceptibility of the omega 3 fatty acids in fish oil to oxidation.” — An excess of omega−3 fatty acid intake can allow uncontrolled bleeding and may cause hemorrhagic stroke… Overall, excessive consumption of omega−3 fatty acids as such can be as problematic as inadequate consumption. Currently, health experts do not recommend that healthy people use fish oil supplements… Biologist Ray Peat has cited much older studies, such as how dogs fed fish oil all died of cancer- Fifty years ago, it was found that a large amount of cod liver oil in dogs’ diet increased their death rate from cancer by 20 times, from the usual 5% to 100%. A diet rich in fish oil causes intense production of toxic lipid peroxides, and has been observed to reduce a man’s sperm count to zero.