tools of light

CASH Rules For Integrity   GET A RECEIPT AND CHECK IT BEFORE LEAVING THE STORE A LOT OF SHOPS NOW ASK IF YOU NEED A RECEIPT ????? LEAVES IT WIDE OPEN DOESN’T IT Keep the Receipt This is worth reading if shopping at stores.... They do not automatically hand you a receipt anymore if the sale is under $30. You must ask for it! CHECK YOUR RECEIPTS BEFORE LEAVING THE CHECK-OUT An associate bought a heap of stuff the other day while on holidaying in Melbourne (over $450), & when he glanced at his receipt as the cashier was handing him the bags, he saw cash out of $20. He told her he didn't request any cash and to delete it. She said he'd have to take the $20 because she couldn't delete it. He told her to call a supervisor. Supervisor came and said he'd have to take it. He said NO Bloody way! Because taking the $20 would be a cash advance against his Credit Card and he wasn't paying interest on a cash advance!!!!! If they couldn't delete it then they would have to delete the whole order. So the supervisor had the cashier delete the whole order and re-scan everything! The second time he looked at the electronic pad before he pinned in his number and again cash-back of $20 popped up. At that point he told the cashier and she deleted it. The total then came out right. The cashier said that the Electronic Pad must be defective. Obviously the cashier knew the electronic pad was defective because she NEVER offered him any cash after either of the transactions. Can you imagine how many people went through before him and by the end of her shift how much money she pocketed? His wife went into a Coles Warehouse last week. She had her items rung up by the cashier. The cashier hurried her along and didn't give her a receipt.. She asked the cashier for the receipt and the cashier seemed annoyed but gave it to her. She didn't look at her receipt until later that night when back at their Hotel. The receipt showed that she had asked for $20 cash. SHE DID NOT ASK FOR ANY CASH, NOR WAS SHE GIVEN IT! So she called Coles who investigated but could not see that the cashier pocketed the money. They then spoke with a friend who works for one of the banks; they told them that this was a new scam that was bound to escalate. The cashier will key in that you asked for cash and then hand it to one of her friends when they next come through the check-out queue. This is NOT limited to Coles; they are just one of the largest retailers to have the most incidents. I wonder how many "seniors" have been, or will be, "stung" by this one????? To make matters worse .... THIS SCAM CAN BE DONE ANYWHERE, AT ANY RETAIL OR WHOLESALE LOCATION!!! IT COULD HAPPEN ANYWHERE. CHECK YOUR RECEIPT BEFORE LEAVING THE CHECK-OUT......... ...CHECK YOUR RECEIPT!!!!! I've since seen people do just that!! SO NOW I'LL START! PASS THIS ON TO YOUR FRIENDS, KIDS, LOVED ONES - let’s not get ripped off.     ********************************************************************* XNA is synthetic DNA that's stronger than the real thing     New research has brought us closer than ever to synthesizing entirely new forms of life. An international team of researchers has shown that artificial nucleic acids - called "XNAs" - can replicate and evolve, just like DNA and RNA. We spoke to one of the researchers who made this breakthrough, to find out how it can affect everything from genetic research to the search for alien life. The researchers, led by Philipp Holliger and Vitor Pinheiro, synthetic biologists at the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge, UK, say their findings have major implications in everything from biotherapeutics, to exobiology, to research into the origins of genetic information itself. This represents a huge breakthrough in the field of synthetic biology. The "X" Stands for "Xeno" Every organism on Earth relies on the same genetic building blocks: the the information carried in DNA. But there is another class of genetic building block called "XNA" — a synthetic polymer that can carry the same information as DNA, but with a different assemblage of molecules. The "X" in XNA stands for "xeno." Scientists use the xeno prefix to indicate that one of the ingredients typically found in the building blocks that make up RNA and DNA has been replaced by something different from what we find in nature — something "alien," if you will.   Strands of DNA and RNA are formed by stringing together long chains of molecules called nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three chemical components: a phosphate (labeled here in red), a five-carbon sugar group (labeled here in yellow, this can be either a deoxyribose sugar — which gives us the "D" in DNA — or a ribose sugar — hence the "R" in RNA), and one of five standard bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine or uracil, labeled in blue).   The molecules that piece together to form the six XNAs investigated by Pinheiro and his colleagues (pictured here) are almost identical to those of DNA and RNA, with one exception: in XNA nucleotides, the deoxyribose and ribose sugar groups of DNA and RNA (corresponding to the middle nucleotide component, labeled yellow in the diagram above) have been replaced. Some of these replacement molecules contain four carbons atoms instead of the standard five. Others cram in as many as seven carbons. FANA (pictured top right) even contains a fluorine atom. These substitutions make XNAs functionally and structurally analogous to DNA and RNA, but they also make them alien, unnatural, artificial. Information Storage vs Evolution But scientists have been synthesizing XNA molecules for well over a decade. What makes the findings of Pinheiro and his colleagues so compelling isn't the XNA molecules themselves, it's what they've shown these alien molecules are capable of, namely: replication and evolution. "Any polymer can store information," Pinheiro tells io9. What makes DNA and RNA unique, he says, "is that the information encoded in them [in the form of genes, for example] can be accessed and copied." Information that can be copied from one genetic polymer to another can be propagated; and genetic information that can be propagated is the basis for heredity — the passage of traits from parent to offspring.   In DNA and RNA, replication is facilitated by molecules called polymerases. Using a crafty genetic engineering technique called compartmentalized self-tagging (or "CST"), Pinheiro's team designed special polymerases that could not only synthesize XNA from a DNA template, but actually copy XNA back into DNA. The result was a genetic system that allowed for the replication and propagation of genetic information. A simplified analogy reveals the strengths and weaknesses of this novel genetic system: You can think of a DNA strand like a classmate's lecture notes. DNA polymerase is the pen that lets you copy these notes directly to a new sheet of paper. But let's say your friend's notes are written in the "language" of XNA. Ideally, your XNA-based genetic system would have a pen that could copy these notes directly to a new sheet of paper. What Pinheiro's team did was create two distinct classes of writing utensil — one pen that copies your friend's XNA-notes into DNA-notes, and a second pen that converts those DNA notes back into XNA-notes. Is it the most efficient method of replication? No. But it gets the job done. What's more, it does all this copying to and from DNA with a high degree of accuracy (after all, what good is replication if the copy looks nothing like the original?). The researchers achieved a replication fidelity ranging from 95% in LNA to as high as 99.6% in CeNA — the kind of accuracy Pinheiro says is essential for evolution: "The potential for evolution is closely tied with how much information is being replicated and the error in that process," he explains. "The more error-prone… a genetic system is, the less information can be feasibly evolved." A genetic system as accurate as theirs, on the other hand, should be capable of evolution.   The researchers put this claim to the test by showing that XNA strands made up of the HNA xeno-nucleotides like the one pictured here could evolve into specific sequences capable of binding target molecules (like an RNA molecule, or a protein) tightly and specifically. Researchers call this guided evolution, and they've been doing it with natural DNA for some time. The fact that it can also be accomplished in the lab with synthetic DNA indicates that such a system could, in theory, work in a living organism. "The HNA system we've developed," explains Pinheiro, is "robust enough for meaningful information to be stored, replicated and evolved." A Step Toward Novel Lifeforms The implications of the team's findings are numerous and far-reaching. For one thing, the study sheds significant light on the origins of life itself. In the past, investigations into XNA have been largely driven by the question of whether simpler genetic systems may have existed before the emergence of RNA and DNA; the fact that these XNAs appear to be capable of evolution adds to an ever-growing body of evidence of a genetic system predating DNA and RNA both.   What mysterious genetic material ruled the world before DNA and RNA? All living organisms use DNA as the carrier of genetic material and RNA as the messenger molecule… Read more Practical and therapeutic applications abound, as well. "The methodologies [we've developed] are a major step forward in enabling the development of nucleic acid treatments," says Pinheiro. Natural nucleic acids [i.e. DNA and RNA] can be forced to evolve so that they bind tightly and specifically to specific molecular targets. The problem is that these nucleic acids are unsuitable for therapeutic use because they are rapidly broken down by enzymes called nucleases. As a result, these evolved nucleic acid treatments have a short lifespan and have a difficult time reaching their therapeutic targets. To get around this, Pinheiro says medicinal chemistry is used to modify evolved DNA sequences in an attempt to create a functional molecule that can still bind to a therapeutic target but resist nuclease degradation. But doing this is tough: "Overall, this leads to high cost and a high failure rate for potential therapies - there is still only a single licenced [nucleic acid-based] drug on the market (Macugen)." But all six of the XNAs studied by Pinheiro and his team are stronger than regular DNA or RNA, in that they're more resistant to degradation by biological nucleases. As a result, these molecules would need little or no adaptation for therapeutic (or diagnostic) use. "Since these molecules can now be selected directly on XNA, medicinal chemistry should no longer be limiting," says Pinheiro. You could select a suitable XNA for its biocompatibility and therapeutic potential, and not worry about having it rapidly degrade inside the body. Pinheiro also says the outcome of the research could even have a strong impact on exobiology: In my view, exobiology looks for life in regions it cannot physically visit. In that context, it searches for tell tale signs of life that can be remotely monitored but it has only life on Earth as examples to identify such suitable markers. Based on extant biology, DNA and RNA are good candidates for such a search. However, by showing that other nucleic acids can also store information, replicate and evolve, our research may force a rethink as to whether DNA and RNA are the most suitable tell tale signs of life. Of course, nothing would call the indispensability of DNA- or RNA-based life into question more than the generation of an entirely synthetic, alternative life form, built from the ground up entirely by XNA. Such an organism would require XNA capable of driving its own replication, without the aid of any biological molecules. Pinheiro says that's still a ways off. "Even in its simplest setup... it would be very challenging to develop an XNA system within a cell." Such a system would require XNA capable of self-replication, and capable of undergoing evolution in a self-sustained manner. That said, his team's work represents a major step in the right direction. As the molecular machinery designed to manipulate XNAs grows, so, too, will the capacity for synthetic genetic systems to stand and operate on their own. The researchers' findings are published in today's issue of Science. Top image via Shutterstock; XNA moieties via Science; all other images via Wikimedia Commons One wonders if we'll ever come across creatures in the universe that evolved and emerged from XNA naturally. Life on earth only uses about 20 amino acids but there are many others so to stands to life elsewhere in the universe might be working in proteins based on a largely different set of amino acids. There's a growing body of evidence that suggests TNA (one of the six XNAs examined by Pinheiro's team) may have been a simple, four-carbon-sugar (threose) precursor to RNA. Alasdair did a good writeup on it a couple of months ago (the ASU researcher Alasdair quotes was a co-author on this latest study, as well). ************************************************************** Ukraine and Russia are likely to become the bridgehead for the introduction of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) into the rest of Europe,( the east bloc)   According to the ceo of the French agricultural seeds and grain co-operative Limagrain.--Speaking at the company’s research centre at Chappes near Clermont-Ferrand on Tuesday (June 1), Daniel Chéron said that while GMO maize was being adopted widely around the globe, Ukraine and Russia would lead its introduction in Europe.“[F1]With corn [maize]all the different markets in the world will increase their production with GMOs,” said Chéron. He noted that GM crops were already being grown extensively around the world in regions such as North and South America and South Africa, and suggested that various southern Asian countries would be growing them too soon. “My feeling is that in the Ukraine and Russia, sooner or later we will also have GMO. In the eastern countries of Europe, sooner or later, we will also have GMO,” he added Mha of GM crops in Ukraine About 4M hectares (4Mha) of various GM crops could be under unofficial cultivation in the Ukraine, another senior Limagrain source told Other sources at the event, organised to celebrate Limagrain’s 50th anniversary, suggested the 4Mha figure was a gross underestimate. “The question is, will France, Germany and, England use these technologies? We will be a museum in the long run [if we don’t ],” said Chéron. “I cannot imagine that we will stay out of GMOs, although this is only one technology among a lot of technologies [for improving the properties of crops I cannot imagine that we will not make use of the same tools as our main competitors, otherwise we will have a real handicap for farmers. We are now seeing worldwide production and all farmers are in competition. To stay in the race, you need to have the same tools Currently there is widespread resistance among green groups and politicians to allowing GM crops to be grown in the EU. But many scientists and farmers believe the technology is an essential part of the toolbox needed to meet the challenges of a growing global population and climate change[F2].( what a crock of BS another scare concept to deceive to sell something that is completely not true and for 4 decades there has been a objection to allow it to even being grown because of the damage it causes on the environment –you would have to be a alien invading a country to destroy the country from within to create a biological war without firing a bullet or bomb) Only GM crop To date, MON 810, a GM maize, is the only GM crop commercially permitted to be grown in the EU, although scientific GM field trials are allowed. However, a recent trial carried out by the UK Rothamsted Research Centre on a supposedly aphid-resistant GM wheat variety proved to be unsuccessful. The failure further fuelled the arguments made by the non-governmental organisations, such as GeneWatch, against GM technology. Chéron recognised that GM wheat posed more problems than the introduction of GM maize, not least because of its more complex genome. He thought it unlikely that GM wheat products would appear on the market before 2025. “The first country developing GMO wheat will be China,” he suggested. This was likely to be because of the centralised control it exerts over strategic decision making. Limagrain is using advanced genetics for seed selection and processing technologies – including GM, combined with the latest computer algorithms and analytical techniques to develop new strains of GM maize and wheat that have specific properties, such as drought, saline and pest resistance ************************************************************************ The Side Effects of Chemotherapy on the Body Chemotherapy drugs are powerful enough to kill rapidly growing cancer cells, but they also can harm perfectly healthy cells, causing side effects throughout the body. Chemo's Long-Term Effect on Bones     Chemotherapy drugs are powerful enough to kill rapidly growing cancer cells, but they also can harm perfectly healthy cells, causing side effects throughout the body. The Side Effects of Chemotherapy on the Body Cancer cells divide more quickly than healthy cells, and chemotherapy drugs effectively target those cells. Unfortunately, fast-growing cells that are healthy can be damaged too. There are many different chemotherapy drugs with the potential for many different side effects. These effects vary from person to person and from treatment to treatment. Factors that play a role in side effects include other ongoing treatments, previous health issues, age, and lifestyle. Some patients experience few side effects while others feel quite ill. Although most side effects clear up shortly after treatment ends, some may continue well after chemotherapy has ended, and some may never go away. Chemotherapy drugs are most likely to affect cells in the digestive tract, hair follicles, bone marrow, mouth, and reproductive system. However, cells in any part of the body may be damaged. Circulatory and Immune Systems Routine blood count monitoring is a crucial part of chemotherapy. That’s because the drugs can harm cells in the bone marrow, where blood is produced. This can result in several problems. Red blood cells carry oxygen to tissues. Anemia occurs when your body doesn’t produce enough red blood cells, making you feel extremely fatigued. Other symptoms of anemia include: lightheadedness pale skin difficulty thinking feeling cold general weakness Chemo can lower your white blood cell count, which results in neutropenia. White blood cells play an important role in the immune system: they help fight infection and ward off illness. Symptoms aren’t always obvious, but a low white blood cell count raises the risk of infection and illness. People with an immune system weakened by chemotherapy must take precautions to avoid exposure to viruses, bacteria, and other germs. Cells called platelets help the blood clot. A low platelet count, called thrombocytopenia, means you’re likely to bruise and bleed easily. Symptoms include nosebleeds, blood in vomit or stools, and heavier-than-normal menstruation. Some chemo drugs can weaken the heart muscle, resulting in cardiomyopathy, or disturb the heart rhythm, causing arrhythmia. This can affect the heart’s ability to pump blood effectively. Some chemo drugs can increase the risk of heart attack. These problems are less likely to occur if your heart is strong and healthy at the start of chemotherapy. Nervous and Muscular Systems The central nervous system controls emotions, thought patterns, and coordination. Chemotherapy drugs may cause problems with memory, or make it difficult to concentrate or think clearly. This symptom sometimes is called “chemo fog,” or “chemo brain.” This mild cognitive impairment may go away following treatment, or may linger for years. Severe cases can add to anxiety and stress. Some chemo drugs can cause pain, weakness, numbness, or tingling in the hands and feet (peripheral neuropathy). Muscles may feel tired, achy, or shaky. Reflexes and small motor skills may be slowed. It’s not unusual to experience problems with balance and coordination. Digestive System Some of the most common side effects of chemotherapy involve the digestive tract. Mouth sores and dry mouth can make it difficult to chew and swallow. Sores also may form on the tongue, lips, gums, or in the throat. Mouth sores can make you more susceptible to bleeding and infection. Many patients complain of a metallic taste in the mouth, or a yellow or white coating on the tongue. Food may taste unusual or unpleasant. These powerful drugs can harm cells along the gastrointestinal tract. Nausea is a common symptom, and may result in bouts of vomiting. However, anti-nausea medications given in conjunction with chemotherapy drugs can help alleviate this symptom. Other digestive issues include loose stools or diarrhea. In some people, hard stools and constipation can be a problem. This may be accompanied by pressure, bloating, and gas. Take care to avoid dehydration by drinking plenty of water throughout the day. Side effects involving the digestive system can contribute to loss of appetite and feeling full even though you haven’t eaten much. Weight loss and general weakness are common. Despite all this, it’s important to continue eating healthy foods. Hair, Skin, and Nails (Integumentary System) Many chemotherapy drugs affect the hair follicles and can cause hair loss (alopecia) within a few weeks of the first treatment. Hair loss can occur on the head, eyebrows, eyelashes, and body. As troubling as it can be, hair loss is temporary. New hair growth usually begins several weeks after the final treatment. Some patients experience minor skin irritations like dryness, itchiness, and rash. You may develop sensitivity to the sun, making it easier to burn. Your doctor can recommend topical ointments to soothe irritated skin. Fingernails and toenails may turn brown or yellow, and become ridged or brittle. Nail growth may slow down, and nails may crack or break easily. In severe cases, they can actually separate from the nail bed. It’s important to take good care of your nails to avoid infection. Sexual and Reproductive System Chemotherapy drugs can have an effect on your hormones. In women, hormonal changes can bring on hot flashes, irregular periods, or sudden onset of menopause. They may become temporarily or permanently infertile. Women on chemotherapy may experience dryness of vaginal tissues that can make intercourse uncomfortable or painful. The chance of developing vaginal infections is increased. Chemotherapy drugs given during pregnancy can cause birth defects. In men, some chemo drugs can harm sperm or lower sperm count, and temporary or permanent infertility is possible. Symptoms like fatigue, anxiety, and hormonal fluctuations may interfere with sex drive in both men and women. So can worrying about loss of hair and other changes in appearance. However, many people on chemotherapy continue to enjoy an intimate relationship and an active sex life. Kidneys and Bladder (Excretory System) The kidneys work to excrete the powerful chemotherapy drugs as they move through your body. In the process, some kidney and bladder cells can become irritated or damaged. Symptoms of kidney damage include decreased urination, swelling of the hands and feet (edema), and headache. Symptoms of bladder irritation include a feeling of burning when urinating and increased urinary frequency. You’ll be advised to drink plenty of fluids to flush the medication from your system and to keep your system functioning properly. Note: Some medications cause urine to turn red or orange for a few days. This isn’t cause for concern. Skeletal System Most people—and especially women—lose some bone mass as they age. Some chemotherapy drugs can cause calcium levels to drop and contribute to bone loss. This can lead to cancer-related osteoporosis, especially in post-menopausal women and those whose menopause was brought on suddenly due to chemotherapy. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), women who have been treated for breast cancer are at increased risk for osteoporosis and bone fracture. This is due to the combination of the drugs and the drop in estrogen levels. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fractures and breaks. The most common areas of the body to suffer breaks are the spine and pelvis, hips, and wrists. Psychological and Emotional Toll Living with cancer and dealing with chemotherapy can exact an emotional toll. You may feel fearful, stressed, or anxious about your appearance and your health. Some people may suffer from depression. Juggling work, financial, and family responsibilities while undergoing cancer treatment can become overwhelming. Many cancer patents turn to complementary therapies like massage and meditation for relaxation and relief. If you have trouble coping, mention it to your doctor. They may be able to suggest a local cancer support group where you can speak with others who are undergoing cancer treatment. If feelings of depression persist, professional counseling may be necessary. - See more at:   ******************************************************************* List of Digestive Enzymes and Functions Having a list of digestive enzymes may sometime come in handy for those that are experiencing digestive related problems. This way they will know which enzyme supplement they will take after eating foodstuffs that causes problems. The activity of the enzymes starts from the moment we place the food in our mouth and moves down to the stomach and is completed in the small intestine. These enzymes break down carbohydrates, proteins and fats and make it into a usable form for our body. Small Intestine Enzymes 1. Cholecystokinin – Stimulates digestion of proteins and fats 2. Secretin – Controls secretion of duodenum and osmoregulation 3. Sucrase – Converts sucrose to disaccharides and monosaccharides 4. Maltase – Converts maltose to glucose 5. Lactase – Converts lactose to glucose and galactose 6. Isomaltase – Converts maltose to isomaltose Stomach Enzymes 1 Pepsin is the main gastric enzyme. It breaks proteins into smaller peptide fragments. 2 Gelatinase, degrades type I and type V gelatin and type IV and V collagen, which are proteoglycans in meat. 3 Gastric amylase degrades starch, but is of minor significance. 4 Gastric lipase is a tributyrase by its biochemical activity, as it acts almost exclusively on tributyrin, a butter fat enzyme. 5 Pepsin enzyme is secreted by gastric glands 6 Renin enzyme change the liquid milk to solid Mouth Enzymes 1. Ptyalin – Converts starch to simple soluble sugars 2. Amylase – Converts starch to soluble sugars 3. Betaine – Maintains cell fluid balance as osmolytes 4. Bromelain – Anti-inflammatory agent, tenderizes meat Pancreas Enzymes 1. Pancreatic lipase – Degrades triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol 2. Chymotrypsin – Converts proteins to aromatic amino acids 3. Carboxypeptidase – Degradation of proteins to amino acids 4. Pancreatic amylase – Degradation of carbohydrates to simple sugars 5. Elastases – Degrade the protein elastin 6. Nucleases – Conversion of nucleic acids to nucleotides and nucleosides 7. Trypsin – Converts proteins to basic amino acids 8. Steapsin – Breakdown of triglycerides to glycerol and fatty acids 9. Phospholipase – Hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and lipophilic substances ************************************************************************* IgM Production and Support   IgM is a type of Antibody (an Immunoglobulin) that is the largest of all of the Antibodies. IgM comprises 5% of the total Antibody content of Blood Plasma.     Biological Functions of IgM   Immune System   IgM is a powerful activator of Complement (an endogenous Immune System Protein) that destroys Detrimental Bacteria that enter the bloodstream. IgM helps to prevent recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections (patients with sub-optimal IgM levels generally experience recurrent Respiratory Tract Infections). references   Dietary Sources of IgM references   IgM is a constituent of human and Bovine Colostrum. IgM is a constituent of Whey Protein.   These Substances may Enhance the Function of IgM   Lipids   Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) may increase IgM levels. references Squalene may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM. references   Microorganisms   Lactobacillus casei may increase the production of IgM. references   Vaccines   Biostim may lower elevated IgM levels. [more info]   Vitamins   Vitamin C (at least 1,000 mg per day) may stimulate the production of normal (non-excessive) amounts of IgM. references   These Foods/Herbs may Enhance the Function of IgM   Dairy Foods   Yogurt may increase the production of IgM. references   Herbs   Astragalus may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM. references Echinacea may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM. references Codonopsis may stimulate the production of optimal quantities of IgM. references   Immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are a group of disorders that involve defects of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system, leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection. In these disorders, specific diseasefighting antibodies (immunoglobulins such as IgG, IgA, and IgM) are either missing or are present in reduced levels. Children who have immunodeficiency syndromes may be subject to infection, diseases, disorders, or allergic reactions to a greater extent than individuals with fully functioning immune systems. Description Immunodeficiency is a defect of any component of the immune system or a defect of another system that affects the immune system leading to an increased incidence or severity of infection. Immunoglobulin deficiencies refer to missing or reduced levels of immunoglobulin (IgG, IgA, IgM) associated with an inability to make adequate specific antibody. These antibodies are specific proteins (immunoglobulins) produced by the immune system to respond to bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or toxins that invade the body. Each class of antibody binds to corresponding molecules (antigens) on the cell surfaces of certain foreign organisms or substances, attempting to protect the body against reactions or illness. When the immune system is challenged by invading organisms, the antibodies may each play a protective role: Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is the most abundant class of immunoglobulins, directed toward viruses, bacterial organisms, and toxins. It is found in most tissues and in plasma, the clear portion of blood. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is the first antibody produced in an immune response to any invading organism or toxic substance. Immunoglobulin A (IgA) is activated early in response to invasion by bacteria and viruses. It is found in saliva, tears, and all other mucus secretions. As of the early 2000s, IgD activity is not well understood. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) is found in respiratory secretions and is directed toward invasion of the body by parasites and in allergic reactions such as hay fever, atopic dermatitis , and allergic asthma . Immunoglobulins are made by white blood cells known as B cells (B lymphocytes). Any disease that harms the development or function of B cells will, therefore, affect the production of immunoglobulin antibodies. T cells, another type of white blood cell, may also be involved in immunodeficiency disorders. About 70 percent of immunoglobulin deficiencies involve B lymphocytes and 20–30 percent involve T lymphocytes. Another 10 percent may involve both B and T lymphocytes. Many of the infections that occur in children with immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are caused by bacterial organisms or microbes. Certain of these invasive organisms form capsules when they enter the body, a mechanism used to confuse the immune system. In a healthy body with an adequately functioning immune system, immunoglobulin antibodies bind to the capsule and overcome the bacteria's defenses. Streptococci, meningococci, and Haemophilus influenzae , organisms that cause diseases such as otitis media , sinusitis , pneumonia , meningitis , osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and sepsis, all make capsules. Children with immunoglobulin deficiencies are also prone to viral infections, including echovirus, enterovirus, and hepatitis B . They may also develop infection after receiving live (attenuated) polio vaccine . This is one of the reasons that live polio vaccine is no longer used routinely in the United States. There are two types of immunodeficiency diseases: primary and secondary. Immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes are primary immunodeficiency diseases. They account for 50 percent of all primary immunodeficiencies and are the largest group of immunodeficiency disorders. Some are well defined and some are not fully understood. Secondary disorders occur in normally healthy people who are suffering from an underlying disease that weakens the immune system. Successful treatment of the disease usually reverses the immunodeficiency. Examples of well defined immunoglobulin deficiency disorders include the following: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is an inherited disease stemming from a defect on the X chromosome, consequently affecting more males than females. Defect results in absence or reduced numbers of B cells that do not mature and perform normal function. Mature B cells are capable of making antibodies and developing memory, a feature in which the B cell will rapidly recognize and respond to an infectious agent the next time it is encountered. All classes of immunoglobulin antibodies are decreased in agammaglobulinemia. Immunoglobulin heavy chain deletion, a form of agammaglobulinemia, is a genetic disorder in which part of the antibody molecule is absent. This condition results in the loss of several antibody classes and subclasses, including most IgG antibodies and all IgA and IgE antibodies. The disease occurs because part of the gene for the heavy chain has been lost. X-linked hypogammaglobulinemia can occur in combination with growth hormone (GH) deficiency, producing short stature and delayed puberty , primarily in boys but also occurring in girls. Transient hypogammaglobulinemia of infancy is a temporary disease of unknown cause. It is believed to be caused by a defect in the development of T helper cells (cells that recognize foreign antigens and activate T and B cells in an immune response). As the child ages, the number and condition of T helper cells improves, and this situation corrects itself. Hypogammaglobulinemia is characterized by low levels of gammaglobulin antibodies in the blood. During the disease period, children may have decreased levels of IgG and IgA antibodies. In some infants with this disorder, laboratory tests are able to show that the antibodies present do not react properly with infectious bacteria. IgG subclass deficiency is a disorder associated with a poor ability to respond and make antibody against polysaccharide antigens, primarily pneumococcus. Selective IgA deficiency is an inherited disease characterized by a failure of B cells to switch from making IgM to IgA antibodies. The amount of IgA produced is limited in either serum or the mucosal linings of organs. This condition may result in more infections of mucosal surfaces, such as the nose, throat, lungs, and intestines. However, most persons with this abnormality are asymptomatic. IgM deficiency is characterized by the absence or low level of total IgM antibodies, the body's first defense against infection. This condition results in slow response to infective organisms and slow response to treatment. IgG deficiency with hyper-IgM is a disorder that results when B-cells fail to switch from making IgM to IgG. This condition produces an increase in the amount of IgM antibodies present and a decrease in the amount of IgG and IgA antibodies. This disorder is the result of a genetic mutation. Severe combined immunodeficiency (SVID) is not precisely an immunoglobulin deficiency, but a combined deficiency resulting from a T-cell disorder. The T-cell dysfunction can either be X-linked, affecting more males than females and characterized by the absence of T lymphocytes, or it can occur through autosomal inheritance (not sex linked), resulting in an absence of both T and B lymphocytes and a deficient thymus gland, the lymphoid organ that produces T-cell lymphocytes. Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency with onset of symptoms typically occurring in the second or third decade of life. It is never diagnosed before two years of age and is diagnosed only after drug toxicity and other primary immune deficiencies have been ruled out. IgG and IgA and/or IgM will be measured at about two standard deviations below normal. The individual will typically not make antibodies against protein or polysaccharide antigens and will not make IgM antibodies against incompatible blood group antigens (hemagluttinins). T-cell dysfunction is the variable in this disorder. Children who have this disorder are subject to recurring infections and may not respond appropriately to immunization.   TOP [F1]I like the way this is worded—GMO Maize( corn) being adopted—more like forced and utilize as a means of atrazine spreading-which we all know as a endocrine mutating chemistry that alters the heterosexual to a homosexual—and now this is going to be imported---another war on Europe without Bullets—just Genetics and BioWarfare [F2]This is hilarious and this came from info food site and they actually are reporting this as some kind of benefit—when in all reality no one wants this there is absolutely no need for this tech unless you wanted to cripple a countries health system or peoples health