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Show of the Month July 25 2015
 
Photo’s of fruits with exposure to nano chemistry
Soybean oil causes more obesity than coconut oil, fructose
Panax ginseng hair re-growth
Breakthrough in knowledge of how nanoparticles grow
Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified
Rare form- Novel structures built from DNA emerge
 
DNA nanoforms- Miniature architectural forms — some no larger than viruses — constructed through DNA origami
Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step
 
World’s largest DNA origami created
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Photo’s of fruits with exposure to nano chemistry
 
 
 
Apple Sprayed
 
 
Pear nano
 
 
Nano Cherry
 
 
 
Apple sprayed nano
 
 
Pear nano2
 
 
Cherry coated with nano
 
NANO Spray on foods we eat-these are topical and the skis are loaded with these toxins—based on the studies in the nanodata and nanodanger links they could not wash this out after 4 days in a solution with pears—you can se the penetration ongoing here in all 3 of the fruits—these were taken with a 800X camscope—you can see these as well with a 60 X scope as well
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Soybean oil causes more obesity than coconut oil, fructose
A diet high in soybean oil causes more obesity and diabetes than a diet high in fructose, a sugar commonly found in soda and processed foods, UC Riverside researchers found.–The scientists fed male mice a series of four diets that contained 40 percent fat, similar to what Americans currently consume. In one diet the researchers used coconut oil, which consists primarily of saturated fat. In the second diet about half of the coconut oil was replaced with soybean oil, which contains primarily polyunsaturated fats and is a main ingredient in vegetable oil. That diet corresponded with roughly the amount of soybean oil Americans currently consume.–The other two diets had added fructose, comparable to the amount consumed by many Americans. All four diets contained the same number of calories and there was no significant difference in the amount of food eaten by the mice on the diets. Thus, the researchers were able to study the effects of the different oils and fructose in the context of a constant caloric intake.–Compared to mice on the high coconut oil diet, mice on the high soybean oil diet showed increased weight gain, larger fat deposits, a fatty liver with signs of injury, diabetes and insulin resistance, all of which are part of the Metabolic Syndrome.[F1] Fructose in the diet had less severe metabolic effects than soybean oil although it did cause more negative effects in the kidney and a marked increase in prolapsed rectums, a symptom of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which like obesity is on the rise.–The mice on the soybean oil-enriched diet gained almost 25 percent more weight than the mice on the coconut oil diet and 9 percent more weight than those on the fructose-enriched diet. And the mice on the fructose-enriched diet gained 12 percent more weight than those on a coconut oil rich diet[F2].–“This was a major surprise for us — that soybean oil is causing more obesity and diabetes than fructose — especially when you see headlines everyday about the potential role of sugar consumption in the current obesity epidemic,” said Poonamjot Deol, the assistant project scientist who directed the project in the lab of Frances M. Sladek, a professor of cell biology and neuroscience.-The paper, “Soybean oil is more obesogenic and diabetogenic than coconut oil and fructose in mouse: potential role for the liver,” was published July 22 in the journal PLOS ONE.—In the U.S. the consumption of soybean oil has increased greatly in the last four decades [F3]due to a number of factors, including results from studies in the 1960s that found a positive correlation between saturated fatty acids and the risk of cardiovascular disease. As a result of these studies, nutritional guidelines were created that encouraged people to reduce their intake of saturated fats, commonly found in meat and dairy products, and increase their intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids found in plant oils, such as soybean oil.-Implementation of those new guidelines, as well as an increase in the cultivation of soybeans in the United States, has led to a remarkable increase in the consumption of soybean oil, which is found in processed foods, margarines, salad dressings and snack foods. Soybean oil now accounts for 60 percent of edible oil consumed in the United States. That increase in soybean oil consumption mirrors the rise in obesity rates in the United States in recent decades.-During the same time, fructose consumption in the United States significantly increased, from about 37 grams per day in 1977 to about 49 grams per day in 2004[F4].–The research outlined in the paper is believed to be the first side-by-side look at the impacts of saturated fat, unsaturated fat and fructose on obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which along with heart disease and hypertension, are referred to as the Metabolic Syndrome.–The study also includes extensive analysis of changes in gene expression and metabolite levels in the livers of mice fed these diets. The most striking results were those showing that soybean oil significantly affects the expression of many genes that metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds that enter the body, suggesting that a soybean oil-enriched diet could affect one’s response to drugs and environmental toxicants[F5], if humans show the same response as mice.–The UC Riverside researchers also did a study with corn oil, which induced more obesity than coconut oil but not quite as much as soybean oil.[F6] They are currently doing tests with lard and olive oil. They have not tested canola oil or palm oil.- The researchers cautioned that they didn’t study the impacts of the diets on cardiovascular diseases and note in the paper that the consumption of vegetable oils could be beneficial for cardiac health, even if it also induces obesity and diabetes.[F7]–They also noted that there are many different types of saturated and unsaturated fats. This is particularly true for the saturated fats in animal products that were associated with heart disease in the studies in the 1960s: they tend to have a longer chain length than the saturated fats in coconut oil.–The latest paper relates to previously released findings by scientists in Sladek’s lab and at the UC Davis West Coast Metabolomics Center, which compared regular soybean oil to a new genetically modified soybean oil.-That research, presented at a conference in March, found that the new genetically modified, high oleic soybean oil (Plenish), which has a lower amount of polyunsaturated fatty acid than traditional soybean oil, is healthier than regular soybean oil but just barely. Using mice, the researchers found that the Plenish oil also induces fatty liver although somewhat less obesity and diabetes. Importantly, it did not cause insulin resistance, a pre-diabetic condition. It should be noted that -both the regular soybean oil and Plenish are from soybeans that are genetically modified to be resistant to the herbicide RoundUp.–The researchers are now finalizing a manuscript about these findings that also incorporates tests done with olive oil.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of California – Riverside. The original item was written by Sean Nealon. Journal Reference-Poonamjot Deol, Jane R. Evans, Joseph Dhahbi, Karthikeyani Chellappa, Diana S. Han, Stephen Spindler, Frances M. Sladek. Soybean Oil Is More Obesogenic and Diabetogenic than Coconut Oil and Fructose in Mouse: Potential Role for the Liver. PLOS ONE, 2015; 10 (7): e0132672 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132672
 
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Panax ginseng hair re-growth
This research program on the novel functions of Panax ginseng C. A. Meyer focused on the effects of ginseng rhizome on hair re-growth in androgenetic alopecia. Extracts of red ginseng [F8]rhizome showed greater dose-dependent inhibitory effects against testosterone 5α-reductase (5αR[F9]) when compared with extracts of the main root. Ginsenoside Ro, the predominant ginsenoside in the rhizome, and ginsenoside Rg3, a unique ginsenoside in red ginseng, showed inhibitory activity against 5αR with IC50 values of 259.4 and 86.1 µm, respectively. The rhizome of P. japonicus, which contains larger amounts of ginsenoside Ro, also inhibited 5αR.–Topical administration of extracts of red ginseng rhizomes (2 mg/mouse) and ginsenoside Ro (0.2 mg/mouse) to shaved skin inhibited hair re-growth suppression after shaving in the testosterone-treated C57BL/6 mice.[F10] These results suggest that red ginseng rhizomes containing both oleanane- and dammarane-type ginsenosides are a promising raw material for cosmetic use. This is the first report that ginsenoside Ro enhances in vivo hair re-growth based on their inhibitory activity against 5αR in the androgenetic alopecia model.
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Breakthrough in knowledge of how nanoparticles grow
A team of researchers from the University of Leicester and France’s G2ELab-CNRS in Grenoble have for the first time observed the growth of free nanoparticles in helium gas in a process similar to the decaffeination of coffee, providing new insights into the structure of nanoparticles.–Nanoparticles have a very large surface area compared with their volume and are often able to react very quickly. This makes them useful as catalysts in chemical reactions and they are often used in sports equipment, clothing and sunscreens.–In a paper published by the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters and funded by the Royal Society, The Leverhulme Trust, the British Council and CONACYT, the teams from the University of Leicester’s Department of Physics and Astronomy and the CNRS in Grenoble measured how helium ions cluster with neutral helium atoms and grow into nanoparticles.–During the study they examined how helium ions drift through a cell filled with helium atoms. When the pressure of helium was increased the researchers observed a decrease in the mobility of the ions.–Dr Klaus von Haeften from the University of Leicester’s Department of Physics and Astronomy, who has received a Visiting Professorship from the University Joseph Fourier, said: “We concluded that the increased pressure forced more and more helium atoms to bind to the ions gradually, until the clusters grew to nanometre-sized particles. This process continued until the nanoparticles reached the maximum size possible which also depended on the temperature.–“Further increase of the pressure was found to reduce the size, which we interpreted as compression.[F11] These size changes could then be followed in great detail. For low and moderate pressures the size changed rather rapidly whereas in the high pressure region the changes were slow.”-By analysing how quickly the particle volume changed with pressure the researchers were able to investigate the structure of the nanoparticles.–Nelly Bonifaci from the G2ELab-CNRS said: “At low and moderate pressure the nanoparticles were much softer than solid helium and we concluded that they must be liquid. At high pressures they became progressively harder and eventually solid.”[F12]–Dr von Haeften added: “By choosing helium we were able to study a system of greatest possible purity and our results are therefore very precise. Similar processes occur in the decaffeination of coffee in high pressure carbon dioxide,[F13] in dry cleaning and in chemical manufacturing. In all these processes nanoparticles grow. By knowing their size we can much better understand these processes and improve them.”–This is the first time that researchers have been able to observe the growth of free nanoparticles in a large range of pressure in gaseous helium.–Frédéric Aitken from the G2ELab-CNRS added: “Our work is an important benchmark for the research on the formation and size of nanoparticles.”–The original article ‘Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression’ has appeared in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters and is available at-Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Leicester. -Journal Reference-Hejer Gharbi Tarchouna, Nelly Bonifaci, Frédéric Aitken, Luis Guillermo Mendoza Luna, Klaus von Haeften. Formation of Positively Charged Liquid Helium Clusters in Supercritical Helium and their Solidification upon Compression. The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters, 2015; 3036 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpclett.5b01159
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Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified
Newborn children born with a mutation in the Plasmalemma Vesicle Associated Protein (PLVAP) gene develop severe protein losing enteropathy, according to a case study1 published in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the basic science journal of the American Gastroenterological Association. Protein losing enteropathy is a condition of the GI tract that results in loss of protein from the body, and often leads to severe abdominal swelling, malnutrition and early death in affected infants[F14]–The investigators utilized next-generation DNA sequencing to analyze an infant who died from severe protein losing enteropathy. The patient’s symptoms largely resembled those of Plvap knockout mice at both ultrastructural and biochemical levels, strongly supporting a critical involvement of PLVAP in the development of protein losing enteropathy.-“These findings come at a critical time in medical research; the recent promise of gene therapy may make targeted correction of PLVAP mutations possible,” said Dr. Abdul Elkadri, lead study author from the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario. “In the meantime, we can use these findings to develop more rapid diagnostic strategies to screen infants for this genetic mutation and prevent severe complications at an early stage of the disease.”–Interestingly, in the case reported in Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, the defect caused by mutations in PLVAP were due to increased leakage from small blood vessels rather than active loss from the cells lining the intestines[F15]. This finding is different from most cases of enteropathy, including the Microvillus Inclusion Disease and Congenital Tufting Enteropathy, which affect young children. In these latter conditions, genetic abnormalities cause cellular abnormalities primarily affecting intestinal epithelial tissue structure and function.[F16]–“As we move into the era of precision medicine, studies uncovering genetic causes of GI and liver disorders are much needed to guide the effective identification and treatment of patients,” said James R. Goldenring, MD, PhD, AGAF, associate editor, Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology. “A combination of basic research and clinical investigation, as exemplified by this work, will help achieve improved patient outcomes.”–The study findings demonstrate two important concepts applicable to the broader medical community: first, mutations in single genes can lead to severe congenital abnormalities in newborn children, and second, mouse models are extremely useful in understanding congenital abnormalities in humans.–This novel monogenic lethal defect discovered by Dr. Elkadri and colleagues sheds fresh light on some new focus points, which must be explored by future studies.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Gastroenterological Association. Journal Reference-Abdul Elkadri, Cornelia Thoeni, Sophie J. Deharvengt, Ryan Murchie, Conghui Guo, James D. Stavropoulos, Christian R. Marshall, Paul Wales, Robert H.J. Bandsma, Ernest Cutz, Chaim M. Roifman, David Chitayat, Yaron Avitzur, Radu V. Stan, Aleixo M. Muise. Mutations in Plasmalemma Vesicle Associated Protein Result in Sieving Protein-Losing Enteropathy Characterized by Hypoproteinemia, Hypoalbuminemia, and Hypertriglyceridemia. CMGH Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 2015; 1 (4): 381 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcmgh.2015.05.001 –American Gastroenterological Association. “Genetic mutation causing lethal condition in infants identified.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 July 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/07/150722101804.htm>
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Rare form- Novel structures built from DNA emerge
Date-July 20, 2015
Source-Arizona State University
Summary-Scientists have worked for many years to refine the technique of DNA origami. His aim is to compose new sets of design rules, vastly expanding the range of nanoscale architectures generated by the method. In new research, a variety of innovative nanoforms are described, each displaying unprecedented design control.
 
 
The images show the scaffold-folding paths for A) star shape B) 2-D Penrose tiling C) 8-fold quasicrystalline 2-D pattern D) waving grid. E) circle array. F) fishnet pattern G) flower and bird design The completed nanostructures are seen in the accompanying atomic force microscopy images.
The Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University—-DNA, the molecular foundation of life, has new tricks up its sleeve. The four bases from which it is composed snap together like jigsaw pieces and can be artificially manipulated to construct endlessly varied forms in two and three dimensions. The technique, known as DNA origami, promises to bring futuristic microelectronics and biomedical innovations to market.–Hao Yan, a researcher at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute, has worked for many years to refine the technique. His aim is to compose new sets of design rules, vastly expanding the range of nanoscale architectures generated by the method. In new research, a variety of innovative nanoforms are described, each displaying unprecedented design control.–Yan is the Milton D. Glick Distinguished Chair of Chemistry and Biochemistry and directs Biodesign’s Center for Molecular Design and Biomimetics.–In the current study, complex nano-forms displaying arbitrary wireframe architectures have been created, using a new set of design rules. “Earlier design methods used strategies including parallel arrangement of DNA helices to approximate arbitrary shapes, but precise fine-tuning of DNA wireframe architectures that connect vertices in 3D space has required a new approach,” Yan says.–Yan has long been fascinated with Nature’s seemingly boundless capacity for design innovation. The new study describes wireframe structures of high complexity and programmability, fabricated through the precise control of branching and curvature, using novel organizational principles for the designs. (Wireframes are skeletal three-dimensional models represented purely through lines and vertices.)[F17]–The resulting nanoforms include symmetrical lattice arrays, quasicrystalline structures, curvilinear arrays, and a simple wire art sketch in the 100-nm scale, as well as 3D objects including a snub cube with 60 edges and 24 vertices and a reconfigurable Archimedean solid that can be controlled to make the unfolding and refolding transitions between 3D and 2D.[F18]–The research appears in the advanced online edition of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.–In previous investigations, the Yan group created subtle architectural forms at an astonishingly minute scale, some measuring only tens of nanometers across–roughly the diameter of a virus particle[F19]. These nano-objects include spheres, spirals, flasks, Möbius forms, and even an autonomous spider-like robot capable of following a prepared DNA track.[F20]–The technique of DNA origami capitalizes on the simple base-pairing properties of DNA, a molecule built from the four nucleotides Adenine (A), Thymine (T) Cytosine (C) and (Guanine). [F21]The rules of the game are simple: A’s always pair with T’s and C’s with G’s. Using this abbreviated vocabulary, the myriad body plans of all living organisms are constructed; though duplicating even Nature’s simpler designs has required great ingenuity.-The basic idea of DNA origami is to use a length of single-stranded DNA as a scaffold for the desired shape. Base-pairing of complementary nucleotides causes the form to fold and self-assemble. The process is guided by the addition of shorter “staple strands,” which act to help fold the scaffold and to hold the resulting structure together. Various imaging technologies are used to observe the tiny structures, including fluorescence-, electron- and atomic force microscopy.[F22]–Although DNA origami originally produced nanoarchitectures of purely aesthetic interest, refinements of the technique have opened the door to a range of exciting applications including molecular cages for the encapsulation of molecules, enzyme immobilization and catalysis, chemical and biological sensing tools, drug delivery mechanisms, and molecular computing devices.–The technique described in the new study takes this approach a step further, allowing researchers to overcome local symmetry restrictions, creating wireframe architectures with higher order arbitrariness and complexity. Here, each line segment and vertex is individually designed and controlled. The number of arms emanating from each vertex may be varied from 2 to 10 and the precise angles between adjacent arms can be modified.–In the current study, the method was first applied to symmetrical, regularly repeating polygonal designs, including hexagonal, square and triangular tiling geometries. Such common designs are known as tessellation patterns.—A clever strategy involving a series of bridges and loops was used to properly route the scaffold strand, allowing it to pass through the entire structure, touching all lines of the wireframe once and only once. Staple strands were then applied to complete the designs.–In subsequent stages, the researchers created more complex wireframe structures, without the local translational symmetry found in the tessellation patters. Three such patterns were made, including a star shape, a 5-fold Penrose tile and an 8-fold quasicrystalline pattern. (Quasicrystals are structures that are highly ordered but non-periodic. Such patterns can continuously fill available space, but are not translationally symmetric.) Loop structures inserted into staple strands and unpaired nucleotides at the vertex points of the scaffold strands were also used, allowing researchers to perform precision modifications to the angles of junction arms.–The new design rules were next tested with the assembly of increasingly complex nanostructures, involving vertices ranging from 2 to 10 arms, with many different angles and curvatures involved, including a complex pattern of birds and flowers. The accuracy of the design was subsequently confirmed by AFM imaging, proving that the method could successfully yield highly sophisticated wireframe DNA nanostructures.–The method was then adapted to produce a number of 3D structures as well, including a cuboctahedron, and another Archimedian solid known as a snub cube–a structure with 60 edges, 24 vertices and 38 faces, including 6 squares and 32 equilateral triangles[F23]. The authors stress that the new design innovations described can be used to compose and construct any imaginable wireframe nanostructure– a significant advancement for the burgeoning field.—On the horizon, nanoscale structures may one day be marshaled to hunt cancer cells in the body or act as robot assembly lines for the design of new drugs.[F24]-Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Arizona State University. The original item was written by Richard Harth. Journal Reference-Fei Zhang, Shuoxing Jiang, Siyu Wu, Yulin Li, Chengde Mao, Yan Liu & Hao Yan. Complex wireframe DNA origami nanostructures with multi-arm junction vertices. Nature Nanotechnology, 2015 DOI: 10.1038/nnano.2015.162
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DNA nanoforms- Miniature architectural forms — some no larger than viruses — constructed through DNA origami
Date:April 14, 2011
Source:Arizona State University
Summary:Miniature architectural forms — some no larger than viruses — have been constructed through a revolutionary technique known as DNA origami. Now, scientists have expanded the capability of this method to construct arbitrary, two and three-dimensional shapes, mimicking those commonly found in nature.
 
Figure 1 a and b display schematics for 2D nanoforms with accompanying AFM images of the resulting structures. 1-c-e represent 3D structures of hemisphere, sphere and ellipsoid, respectively, while figure 1f shows a nanoflask, (each of the structures visualized with TEM imaging).
Credit: Image courtesy of Arizona State University
Miniature architectural forms — some no larger than viruses — have been constructed through a revolutionary technique known as DNA origami. Now, Hao Yan, Yan Liu and their colleagues at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute have expanded the capability of this method to construct arbitrary, two and three-dimensional shapes, mimicking those commonly found in nature.[F25]–Such diminutive forms may ultimately find their way into a wide array of devices, from ultra-tiny computing components to nanomedical sentries used to target and destroy aberrant cells or deliver therapeutics at the cellular or even molecular level.[F26]–In the April 15 issue of Science, the Yan group describes an approach that capitalizes on (and extends) the architectural potential of DNA. [F27]The new method is an important step in the direction of building nanoscale structures with complex curvature — a feat that has eluded conventional DNA origami methods. “We are interested in developing a strategy to reproduce nature’s complex shapes,” said Yan.–The technique of DNA origami was introduced in 2006 by computer scientist Paul W.K. Rothemund of Caltech. It relies on the self-assembling properties of DNA’s four complementary base pairs, which fasten together the strands of the molecule’s famous double-helix. When these nucleotides, labeled A, T, C, and G, interact, they join to one another according to a simple formula — A always pairs with T and C with G.[F28]–Nanodesigners like Yan treat the DNA molecule as a versatile construction material — one they hope to borrow from nature and adapt for new purposes.–In traditional DNA origami, a two-dimensional shape is first conceptualized and drawn. This polygonal outline is then filled in using short segments of double-stranded DNA, arranged in parallel. These segments may be likened to pixels[F29] — digital elements used to create words and images displayed on a computer screen.–Indeed, Rothemund and others were able to use pixel-like segments of DNA to compose a variety of elegant 2-dimensional shapes, (stars, rhomboids, snowflake forms, smiley faces, simple words and even maps), as well as some rudimentary 3-dimensional structures[F30]. Each of these relies on the simple rules of self-assembly guiding nucleotide base paring.-Once the desired shape has been framed by a length of single-stranded DNA, short DNA “staple strands” integrate the structure and act as the glue to hold the desired shape together. The nucleotide sequence of the scaffold strand is composed in such a way that it runs through every helix in the design, like a serpentine thread knitting together a patchwork of fabric[F31]. Further reinforcement is provided by the staple strands, which are also pre-designed to attach to desired regions of the finished structure, through base pairing.–“To make curved objects requires moving beyond the approximation of curvature by rectangular pixels. People in the field are interested in this problem. For example, William Shih’s group at Harvard Medical School recently used targeted insertion and deletion of base pairs in selected segments within a 3D building block to induce the desired curvature. Nevertheless, it remains a daunting task to engineer subtle curvatures on a 3D surface, ” stated Yan.–“Our goal is to develop design principles that will allow researchers to model arbitrary 3D shapes with control over the degree of surface curvature. In an escape from a rigid lattice model, our versatile strategy begins by defining the desired surface features of a target object with the scaffold[F32], followed by manipulation of DNA conformation and shaping of crossover networks to achieve the design,” Liu said.–To achive this idea, Yan’s graduate student Dongran Han began by making simple 2-dimensional concentric ring structures, each ring formed from a DNA double helix. The concentric rings are bound together by means of strategically placed crossover points. These are regions where one of the strands in a given double helix switches to an adjacent ring, bridging the gap between concentric helices. Such crossovers help maintain the structure of concentric rings, preventing the DNA from extending.[F33]–Varying the number of nucleotides between crossover points and the placement of crossovers allows the designer to combine sharp and rounded elements in a single 2D form, as may be seen in figure 1 a & b, (with accompanying images produced by atomic force microscopy, revealing the actual structures that formed through self-assembly). A variety of such 2D designs, including an opened 9-layer ring and a three-pointed star, were produced.–The network of crossover points can also be designed in such a way as to produce combinations of in-plane and out-of-plane curvature, allowing for the design of curved 3D nanostructures. While this method shows considerable versatility, the range of curvature is still limited for standard B form DNA, which will not tolerate large deviations from its preferred configuration — 10.5 base pairs/turn. However, as Jeanette Nangreave, one of the paper’s co-authors explains, “Hao recognized that if you could slightly over twist or under twist these helices, you could produce different bending angles.”–Combining the method of concentric helices with such non-B-form DNA (with 9-12 base pairs/turn), enabled the group to produce sophisticated forms, including spheres, hemispheres, ellipsoid shells and finally — as a tour de force of nanodesign — a round-bottomed nanoflask, which appears unmistakably in a series of startling transmission electron microscopy images (see figure 1, c-f ).
“This is a good example of teamwork in which each member brings their unique skills to the project to make things happen.” The other authors include Suchetan Pal and Zhengtao Deng, who also made significant contributions in imaging the structures.–Yan hopes to further expand the range of nanoforms possible through the new technique. Eventually, this will require longer lengths of single-stranded DNA able to provide necessary scaffolding for larger, more elaborate structures. He credits his brilliant student (and the paper’s first author) Dongran Han with a remarkable ability to conceptualize 2- and 3D nanoforms and to navigate the often-perplexing details of their design. Ultimately however, more sophisticated nanoarchitectures will require computer-aided design programs — an area the team is actively pursuing.–The successful construction of closed, 3D nanoforms like the sphere has opened the door to many exciting possibilities for the technology, particularly in the biomedical realm. Nanospheres could be introduced into living cells for example, releasing their contents under the influence of endonucleases or other digestive components. Another strategy might use such spheres as nanoreactors — sites where chemicals or functional groups could be brought together to accelerate reactions or carry out other chemical manipulations.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Arizona State University. -Journal Reference-Dongran Han, Suchetan Pal, Jeanette Nangreave, Zhengtao Deng, Yan Liu and Hao Yan. DNA Origami with Complex Curvatures in Three-Dimensional Space. Science, 15 April 2011: 342-346 DOI: 10.1126/science.1202998 –Arizona State University. “DNA nanoforms: Miniature architectural forms — some no larger than viruses — constructed through DNA origami.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 14 April 2011. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/04/110414141352.htm>.
 
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Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step
Date:February 23, 2015
Source:McGill University
Summary:Researchers have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block — a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be used in applications such as optical and electronic devices or smart drug-delivery systems.
 
In the new method for building nanotubes, blocks tagged with a fluorescent dye are incorporated step by step, enabling researchers to monitor formation of the structures as they are constructed.–Researchers at McGill University have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block — a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be used in applications such as optical and electronic devices or smart drug-delivery systems.-Many researchers, including the McGill team, have previously constructed nanotubes using a method that relies on spontaneous assembly of DNA in solution. The new technique, reported today in Nature Chemistry, promises to yield fewer structural flaws than the spontaneous-assembly method. The building-block approach also makes it possible to better control the size and patterns of the DNA structures, the scientists report.–“Just like a Tetris game, where we manipulate the game pieces with the aim of creating a horizontal line of several blocks, we can now build long nanotubes block by block,” said Amani Hariri, a PhD student in McGill’s Department of Chemistry and lead author of the study. “By using a fluorescence microscope we can further visualize the formation of the tubes at each stage of assembly, as each block is tagged with a fluorescent compound that serves as a beacon. We can then count the number of blocks incorporated in each tube as it is constructed.”–This new technique was made possible by the development in recent years of single-molecule microscopy, which enables scientists to peer into the nano-world by turning the fluorescence of individual molecules on and off. (That groundbreaking work won three U.S.- and German-based scientists the 2014 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.)-Hariri’s research is jointly supervised by chemistry professors Gonzalo Cosa and Hanadi Sleiman, who co-authored the new study. Cosa’s research group specializes in single-molecule fluorescence techniques, while Sleiman’s uses DNA chemistry to design new materials for drug delivery and diagnostic tools.–The custom-built assembly technique developed through this collaboration “gives us the ability to monitor the nanotubes as we’re building them, and see their structure, robustness and morphology,” Cosa said.–“We wanted to control the nanotubes’ lengths and features one-by-one,” said Sleiman, who holds the Canada Research Chair in DNA Nanoscience. The resulting “designer nanotubes,” she adds, promise to be far cheaper to produce on a large scale than those created with so-called DNA origami, another innovative technique for using DNA as a nanoscale construction material.–Funding for the research was provided by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, NanoQuébec, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the Fonds de recherché du Québec — Nature et technologies.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by McGill University. Journal Reference-Amani A. Hariri, Graham D. Hamblin, Yasser Gidi, Hanadi F. Sleiman, Gonzalo Cosa. Stepwise growth of surface-grafted DNA nanotubes visualized at the single-molecule level. Nature Chemistry, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.2184 –
McGill University. “Building tailor-made DNA nanotubes step by step.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 23 February 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/02/150223154828.htm>.
 
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World’s largest DNA origami created
Date:September 11, 2014
Source:North Carolina State University
Summary:Researchers have created the world’s largest DNA origami, which are nanoscale constructions with applications ranging from biomedical research to nanoelectronics. DNA origami are self-assembling biochemical structures that are made up of two types of DNA.
 
 
Scaffolded DNA origami utilizes numerous chemically synthesized, short DNA strands (staple strands) to direct the folding of a larger, biologically derived strand of DNA (scaffold strand). Molecular recognition (base pairing, i.e., A binds to T and G binds to C) directs the DNA to self-assemble into a specific structure as programed by the staple strand sequences. Unique staple strands produce a molecular pegboard with single-digit nanometer site-specificity precision. The atomic force microscopy image (right) demonstrates the final origami structure.—Researchers from North Carolina State University, Duke University and the University of Copenhagen have created the world’s largest DNA origami, which are nanoscale constructions with applications ranging from biomedical research to nanoelectronics.–“These origami can be customized for use in everything from studying cell behavior to creating templates for the nanofabrication of electronic components,” says Dr. Thom LaBean, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at NC State and senior author of a paper describing the work.-DNA origami are self-assembling biochemical structures that are made up of two types of DNA[F34]. To make DNA origami, researchers begin with a biologically derived strand of DNA called the scaffold strand. The researchers then design customized synthetic strands of DNA, called staple strands. Each staple strand is made up of a specific sequence of bases (adenine, cytosine, thymine and guanine — the building blocks of DNA), which is designed to pair with specific subsequences on the scaffold strand.–The staple strands are introduced into a solution containing the scaffold strand, and the solution is then heated and cooled. During this process, each staple strand attaches to specific sections of the scaffold strand, pulling those sections together and folding the scaffold strand into a specific shape.[F35]
The standard for DNA origami has long been limited to a scaffold strand that is made up of 7,249 bases, creating structures that measure roughly 70 nanometers (nm) by 90 nm, though the shapes may vary.-However, the research team led by LaBean has now created DNA origami consisting of 51,466 bases, measuring approximately 200 nm by 300 nm.–“We had to do two things to make this viable,” says Dr. Alexandria Marchi, lead author of the paper and a postdoctoral researcher at Duke. “First we had to develop a custom scaffold strand that contained 51 kilobases. We did that with the help of molecular biologist Stanley Brown at the University of Copenhagen.–“Second, in order to make this economically feasible, we had to find a cost-effective way of synthesizing staple strands — because we went from needing 220 staple strands to needing more than 1,600,” Marchi says.–The researchers did this by using what is essentially a converted inkjet printer to synthesize DNA directly onto a plastic chip.–“The technique we used not only creates large DNA origami, but has a fairly uniform output,” LaBean says. “More than 90 percent of the origami are self-assembling properly.”-The research was supported by the National Science Foundation under grants CDI-0835794, OISE-1246799, and EPMD-1231888, and by the University of Copenhagen.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by North Carolina State University. Journal Reference-Alexandria N. Marchi, Ishtiaq Saaem, Briana N. Vogen, Stanley Brown, Thomas H. LaBean. Toward Larger DNA Origami. Nano Letters, 2014; 140908131837007 DOI: 10.1021/nl502626s -North Carolina State University. “World’s largest DNA origami created.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 September 2014. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/09/140911094719.htm>.
 
TOP B
[F1]Breaking down the Liver and pancreas
[F2]SHOWS SOY AND FRUCTOSE ARE CAUSING A MULTITUDE OF HEALTH ISSUE
[F3]Would correlate when a lot of “health Concerns” were starting to manifest from reproductive damage to the damage of the pancreas and other ill health which can be related to this toxin that was introduced into the food chain
[F4]This what is called the dynamic duo—on there own they are lethal together they are more annihilating
[F5]Interesting enough the soy with glyphosates will spread aluminum through the body-so this comes as no surprise how this is also altering genetics to be more accessible to being poisoned and or re-written
[F6]And both sources are GMO and have a glyphosate or atrazine sprayed on them ~ so there is more then just a connection
[F7]This is basically where they screw the reader or the uninformed~ anything that is going to cause a disruption in the pancreas-digestive system and liver is not going to have any positive impact to the heart ~ it would be the contrary –if the other organs are being subjected to destruction ot debilitation then this would further strain the heart-but as per usual you will get this kind of stupidity thrown into a study which then makes it ‘s credibility less~ simple deduction with tell you the heart is not going to benefit nor is the brain or other organs or cells and infact this would also cause genetic damage
[F8]Chinese or Korean or Japanese Ginseng
[F9]Blocks the T conversion that maybe the cause of hair fall out
[F10]May want to boil this up strain it and then apply to scalp
[F11]Theory on my part –am wondering if a sweat lodge or a high heat with a binding agent to allow them to bind as in a ligand to flush them out
[F12]Solidifying NANO
[F13]Sugar—this would correlate to HNA since the HNA uses a different set of sugars and is a more programmable DNA –the sugars would be what would cause this to grow –since the sugars are a polymer and with this would act as a catalyst to “harden the nano”
[F14]Now we have to think what would cause this-Genes do not normally go awry unless there is a cause or a factor—now we know that hesian flies who eat GMO corn have an explosive effect on there digestive system to literally cause ther eintestines to come undone
[F15]Now again the thought would be what would cause this-glyphosates-atrazine-grains and soy and rice that would have been GE or nanoparticles that would perforate the lining or stress the colon-flushing out the healthy bacteria—this is all tied to genetics and nano as well-and possibly ( speculating here ) XNA
[F16]Genetic Abnormalities—I love how this is again caused by the body and not by something that would effect the genetic code –such as nano-or GE-or XNA
[F17]This would reflect the nano poisoning and the nano ribbons and fibres that twine and self replicate like a life form-or self assemble to become a base or foundation for other materials to be utilized in it’s construct
[F18]Pay attention to these shapes and sizes these are what you will see patterning themselves inside or externally on the skin areas and underneath the skin when drawing this out the patterns will be there as well and bound to some form of polymerized material whether it be the collagen or a sugar that may not be normally there( XNA)
[F19]This then would be easily mis interpretated or mis diagnosed if you did not know this existed you would assume it would be pathological not technical
[F20]This what You will se manifest in some form or other
[F21]Building blocks of the DNA ( we are talking here XNA definitely)
[F22]How it is designed
[F23]Shapes and connections of shapes
[F24]Or be used to take out whatever and or who ever they want to it would appear to be a pestilence when in reality it would be a nanoconstruct self assembling and manipulating to become pathological and the medical field would then say they have no cure-due to the fact they would be wrongly diagnosing the cause—they would see an affect but not see the cause and as per usual they would treat the cause-total failure is all you could expect
[F25]Would be difficult to determine if you did not know what you are looking for
[F26]Or act as a delivery method to create a condition of nano/bio poisoning
[F27]This would be XNA a programmable DNA that could literally copy or follow a command in it’s construct
[F28]In XNA the difference is the sugars the pairings of the DNA strands and the different sugars allows this to be able to happen
[F29]Pixels are a concentration of dots that are micron sized to be layered or in a construct to form whatever shape now take the nano this is a billionth in size
[F30]These are some of the structures reported with those who have been afflicted with the nano poisoning of morgellons
[F31]This is something you see when you draw these out with a solution or pressure and you will see the shapes with a wire or ribbon like material depending at what stage you see they are in the self assembling
[F32]Polymer materials that could be protein fat or sugar-forming either a crystal or threads which then would allow this to be utilized as a ligan to form the construct and the shape and to be able to utilize the raw material—this simulates how bacterial-viruses –fungas and mold and algae grow as well
[F33]Basically an interlocking
[F34]Interesting-when you think about it all that would be needed is another DNA( XNA) incorporated to human DNA and you would wind up getting new constructs forming within and without the body—the other concept here is this as well what enzymes would trigger this and what enzymes would break it down- the XNA has an enzyme base that the human body does not have but it does have a sugar molecule that could be disrupted so a nano delivery would have to be utilized
[F35]Hot and cold will effect the construction