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Analysis of the accuracy and readability of herbal supplement information on Wikipedia.
J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014 Jul-Aug;54(4):406-14
Authors: Phillips J, Lam C, Palmisano L
OBJECTIVE: To determine the completeness and readability of information found in Wikipedia for leading dietary supplements and assess the accuracy of this information with regard to safety (including use during pregnancy/lactation), contraindications, drug interactions, therapeutic uses, and dosing.
DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of Wikipedia articles.
INTERVENTIONS: The contents of Wikipedia articles for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were retrieved on July 24, 2012, and evaluated for organization, content, accuracy (as compared with information in two leading dietary supplement references) and readability.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Accuracy of Wikipedia articles.
RESULTS: No consistency was noted in how much information was included in each Wikipedia article, how the information was organized, what major categories were used, and where safety and therapeutic information was located in the article. All articles in Wikipedia contained information on therapeutic uses and adverse effects but several lacked information on drug interactions, pregnancy, and contraindications. Wikipedia articles had 26%-75% of therapeutic uses and 76%-100% of adverse effects listed in the Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database and/or Natural Standard[F1]. Overall, articles were written at a 13.5-grade level, and all were at a ninth-grade level or above.
CONCLUSION: Articles in Wikipedia in mid-2012 for the 19 top-selling herbal supplements were frequently incomplete, of variable quality, and sometimes inconsistent with reputable sources of information on these products. Safety information was particularly inconsistent among the articles. Patients and health professionals should not rely solely on Wikipedia for information on these herbal supplements when treatment decisions are being made.–PMID: 25063262 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
NON-thermal radio – microwave frequency (RF) radiation
Your readers need to know three undisputable facts: 1) world-class
scientists globally say that the “greatest single threat to human health in our entire history – ever – is NON-thermal radio / microwave frequency (RF) radiation,” which is emitted by all of today’s wireless devices – even baby monitors! 2) ONLY industry and those who benefit directly from the sale of wireless products say they are safe! 3) Not one single product has had to undergo independent realistic pre-market ‘safety’ tests to ensure it is safe to be used by, on and around people on a continuous basis 24/7/365 in perpetuity!–On any issue other than wireless technology, Parksville’s Mayor LeFebvre would be safe in taking direction from Island Health Authority. But in B.C. (and the world) today, we have the makings of a ‘Perfect Storm’: Not one of BC’s five Health Authorities has any education, qualifications or expertise in NON-thermal microwave radiation – which INDUSTRY adopted from militaries some 40 years ago! Shockingly, nor does BC’s provincial Health Officer (PHO), Dr. Perry Kendall – even though he has been PHO for 16 years! Yet it is he who is tasked with keeping our Health Authorities current in their knowledge of known threats to human health!—-Due to his own ignorance of NON-thermal microwave radiation, Dr. Kendall is obliged to accept whatever Health Canada (HC) says is ‘safe’. He then must echo, promote and defend HC’s position, which he shares with Health
Authorities throughout BC. To this day his position is: if a wireless device
complies with Safety Code 6 (SC6) it must be safe! He doesn’t seem to
* even the revised 2015 version of SC6 remains one of the highest
(i.e., most dangerous) in the world!
* SC6, like those of the USA, were written by INDUSTRY and adopted
wholesale by governments without question! In anticipation of the coming
health crisis, they even wrote into the Canadian and American regulatory
codes a proviso that does not allow anyone to sue them on health grounds!
* in 2014, 53 scientists from 18 countries openly condemned Safety
Code 6 and urged Health Canada to intervene to help avoid an emerging health
* in 2014, 22 Canadian doctors openly condemned Safety Code 6 and
called on Health Canada to protect Canadians from radio frequency radiation (the kind emitted by cell towers and all wireless devices)?
* in 2015, at least 206 distinguished scientists from 40 countries
voluntarily signed the “International Scientists Appeal,” urging the United
Nations, all UN-member countries and the WHO to protect humans and wildlife
from the dangers of wireless radiation!
* major insurance companies will not insure wireless products or
companies against lawsuits alleging adverse health effects attributed to
radio / microwave frequency radiation. http://www.bioinitiative.org
In closing, Parksville is extraordinarily fortunate to have an informed
councilor like Leanne Salter who is not afraid to stand up and speak the
truth about the very real but suppressed dangers of any/all wireless
technology. Non-industry scientists and informed people around the globe
know she is right!
James G. (“Jerry”) Flynn, Captain (Retired)
5181 Gainsberg Road
Bowser, B.C., V0R 1G0
Medical Uses of Copper in Antiquity
Copper Applications in Health & Environment
The first recorded medical use of copper is found in the Smith Papyrus, one of the oldest books known. The Papyrus is an Egyptian medical text, written between 2600 and 2200 B.C., which records the use of copper to sterilize chest wounds and to sterilize drinking water. Other early reports of copper’s medicinal uses are found in the Ebers Papyrus, written around 1500 B.C. The Ebers Papyrus documents medicine practiced in ancient Egypt and in other cultures that flourished many centuries earlier. Copper compounds were recommended for headaches, “trembling of the limbs” (perhaps referring to epilepsy or St. Vitus’ Dance), burn wounds, itching and certain growths in the neck, some of which were probably boils. Forms of copper used for the treatment of disease ranged from metallic copper splinters and shavings to various naturally occurring copper salts and oxides. A “green pigment” is spoken of which was probably the mineral, malachite, a form of copper carbonate. It could also have been chrysocolla, a copper silicate, or even copper chloride, which forms on copper exposed to seawater. In the first century A.D., Dioscorides, in his book De Materia Medica, described a method of making another green pigment known as verdigris by exposing metallic copper to the vapors of boiling vinegar. In this process, blue-green copper acetate forms on the copper surface. Verdigris and blue vitriol (copper sulfate) were used, among other things, in remedies for eye ailments such as bloodshot eyes, inflamed or “bleary” eyes, “fat in the eyes” (trachoma?), and cataracts.
In the Hippocratic Collection (named for, although not entirely written by, the Greek physician Hippocrates, 460 to 380 B.C.), copper is recommended for the treatment of leg ulcers associated with varicose veins. To prevent infection of fresh wounds, the Greeks sprinkled a dry powder composed of copper oxide and copper sulfate on the wound. Another antiseptic wound treatment at the time was a boiled mixture of honey and red copper oxide. The Greeks had easy access to copper since the metal was readily available on the island of Kypros (Cyprus) from which the Latin name for copper, cuprum, is derived.
By the time the Roman physician Aulus Cornelius Celsus began practicing medicine, during the reign of Tiberius (14 to 37 A.D.), copper and its derivatives had been firmly established as an important drug in the medical practitioner’s pharmacopoeia. In Celsus’ series, De Medicina, books one through six list many purposes for which copper was used together with the preparation and the form of copper most effective for each ailment. For the treatment of venereal disease, for example, Celsus prescribed a remedy consisting of pepper, myrrh, saffron, cooked antimony sulfide, and copper oxide. These were first pounded together in dry wine and when dry, once again pounded together in raisin wine and heated until dry. For a non-healing chronic ulcer, treatment consisted of copper oxide and other ingredients including enough rose oil to give a soft consistency.
Pliny (23 to 79 A.D.) described a number of remedies involving copper. Black copper oxide was given with honey to remove intestinal worms. Diluted and injected as drops into nostrils, it cleared the head and, when taken with honey or honey water, it purged the stomach. It was given for “eye roughness,” “eye pain and mistiness,” and ulceration of the mouth. It was blown into the ears to relieve ear problems.
In the New World the Aztecs also used copper for medical purposes. Don Francisco de Mendoza commissioned two learned Aztec Indian physicians to record the pharmacological treatments known by the Aztecs at the time of the Conquest. For the treatment of “Faucium Calor” (literally, heat of the throat, or, sore throat) they prescribed gargling with a mixture of ingredients containing copper.
Copper was also employed in ancient India and Persia to treat lung diseases. The tenth century book, Liber Fundamentorum Pharmacologiae describes the use of copper compounds for medicinal purposes in ancient Persia. Powdered malachite was sprinkled on boils, copper acetate as well as and copper oxide were used for diseases of the eye and for the elimination of “yellow bile.” Nomadic Mongolian tribes treated and healed ulcers of venereal origin with orally administered copper sulfate.
Turning to more modern times, the first observation of copper’s role in the immune system was published in 1867 when it was reported that, during the cholera epidemics in Paris of 1832, 1849 and 1852, copper workers were immune to the disease. More recently copper’s role in the immune system has been supported by observations that individuals suffering from Menke’s disease (an inherited disease in which there is defective copper absorption and metabolism) generally die of immune system-related phenomena and other infections. Further, animals deficient in copper have been shown to have increased susceptibility to bacterial pathogens such as Salmonella and Listeria. Evidence such as this has led researchers to suggest strongly that copper compounds not only cure disease but also aid in the prevention of disease.
In 1885, the French physician, Luton, reported on using copper acetate in his practice to treat arthritic patients. For external application he made a salve of hog’s lard and 30% neutral copper acetate. For internal treatment, he used pills containing 10 mg. of copper acetate. In 1895, Kobert published his review of the pharmacological actions of copper compounds. Copper arsenate had been used to treat acute and chronic diarrhea as well as dysentery and cholera. A variety of inorganic copper preparations were found to be effective in treating chronic adenitis, eczema, impetigo, scorphulosis, tubercular infections, lupus, syphilis, anemias, chorea and facial neuralgia. An organic complex of copper developed by Bayer was shown to have curative powers in the treatment of tuberculosis. Copper treatment for tuberculosis continued until the 1940s, and various physicians reported on their success in using copper preparations in intravenous injections.
In 1939, the German physician, Werner Hangarter, noticed that Finnish copper miners were unaffected by arthritis as long as they worked in the mining industry. This was particularly striking since rheumatism was a widespread disease in Finland, and workers in other industries and other towns had more rheumatic diseases than did the copper miners. This observation led Finnish medical researchers plus the Germans, Hangarter and Lübke, to begin their now classic clinical trials using an aqueous mixture of copper chloride and sodium salicylate. They successfully treated patients suffering from rheumatic fever, rheumatoid arthritis, neck and back problems, as well as sciatica.
Until recently, just as in Pliny’s time, the medical profession used copper sulfate as a means to clinically induce vomiting. This is based on the fact that one of the body’s natural physiological responses to prevent copper intoxication is vomiting. A Manual of Pharmacology and its Applications to Therapeutics and Toxicology, published by W. B. Saunders Company in 1957 recommends the use of 0.5 gram of copper sulfate, dissolved in a glass of water, in a single dose, or three doses of 0.25 gram fifteen minutes apart, for this purpose.
Since 1934, it has been known that individuals suffering from such diseases as scarlet fever, diphtheria, tuberculosis, arthritis, malignant tumors and lymphogranulomas exhibit an elevation of copper in their blood plasma. Since then, the list of maladies bringing about such elevation has been extended to fever, wounds, ulcers, pain, seizures, cancers, carcinogenesis, diabetes, cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and irradiation and tissue stresses, including restricted blood flow. This suggests that this redistribution of copper in the body has a general role in responding to physiological, disease, or injury stress. On the other hand, the elevation of copper in the affected organ has led some to postulate that it was this excess of copper that caused the disease. Nonetheless, this elevation of copper in diseased states is suggested to account for the natural synthesis of copper-dependent regulatory proteins and enzymes in the body required for biochemical responses to stress. It may be that these natural copper complexes expedite the relief of stress and the repair of tissues. Thus, it appears that in addition to the anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of inorganic copper compounds as recognized by the ancients, metallo-organic complexes of copper have medicinal capabilities that are fundamental to the healing process itself.
Copper is known to be an essential element in human metabolism. However, copper does not exist in the body in measurable amounts in ionic form. All measurable amounts of copper in the body exist in tissues as complexes with the organic compounds of proteins and enzymes. Therefore, it has been concluded that copper becomes and remains intimately involved in body processes. Some copper complexes serve to store copper, others to transport it, and yet others play important roles in key cellular and metabolic processes. Studies into the roles that these copper complexes play and the mechanisms of these roles have further confirmed that copper enters into the prevention and control of a number of disease states in the body. As will be discussed below, the key to the effective use of copper-based pharmaceuticals is not the use of inorganic compounds of copper, as used by the ancients, but rather the use of metallo-organic complexes or chelates of copper. The process of chelating metals allows them to be smuggled in the transport process across the intestinal wall and thereby enter into the mainstream of nutrient flow and usage in the body[F2].
The first modern research on the subject of copper medicinal substances was by Professor John R. J. Sorenson, of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, who, in 1966, demonstrated that copper complexes have therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of inflammatory diseases using doses that are nontoxic. Since then, copper metallo-organic complexes have been used to successfully treat patients with arthritic and other chronic degenerative diseases. More than 140 copper complexes of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents (aspirin and ibuprofen, for example) have been shown to be more active than their parent compounds. Copper aspirinate has been shown not only to be more effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis than aspirin alone, but it has been shown to prevent or even cure the ulceration of the stomach often associated with aspirin therapy. Based on these experiences, the work of Professor Sorenson and other researchers around the world has progressed into the medicinal benefits of organic complexes of copper in a number of disease states. This work, thus far mainly based on animal research, has opened a whole new vista both into the understanding of copper’s many-fold role in the body and in the practicality of using supplementary copper in the treatment of wound healing and inflammation-related disease states. Some of these potential indications are:
Ulcer and Wound-Healing Activities of Copper Complexes
It has been demonstrated that copper complexes such as copper aspirinate and copper tryptophanate, markedly increase healing rate of ulcers and wounds. For example, copper complexes heal gastric ulcers five days sooner than other reagents. Further, it has been shown that, whereas non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as ibuprofen and enefenamic acid suppress wound healing, copper complexes of these drugs promote normal wound healing while at the same time retaining anti-inflammatory activity.
Anticonvulsant Activities of Copper Complexes
The brain contains more copper than any other organ of the body except the liver, where copper is stored for use elsewhere. This fact suggests that copper plays a role in brain functions. With reports of seizures in animals and humans following the protracted consumption of copper-deficient diets, it was reasoned that copper has a role to play in the prevention of seizures[F3]. It was subsequently discovered that organic compounds that are not themselves anti-convulsants exhibit anticonvulsant activity when complexed with copper. Further, it was found that copper complexes of all anti-epileptic drugs are more effective and less toxic than their parent drugs.
Anticancer Activities of Copper Complexes
As early as 1912, patients in Germany were treated for facial epithelioma with a mixture of copper chloride and lecithin. Success of such treatment suggested that copper compounds have anticancer activity. Work at the University of Liverpool in 1913 demonstrated that subcutaneous and intravenous injections of a copper salt or colloidal copper softened and degenerated carcinomas transplanted into mice. In 1930, work in France indicated that injections of colloidal copper mobilized and expelled tumor tissue. Recent work with mice in the USA has shown that, indeed, treatment of solid tumors with non-toxic doses of various organic complexes of copper markedly decreased tumor growth and metastasis and thus increased survival rate. These copper complexes did not kill cancer cells but caused them to revert to normal cells[F4].
Anticarcinogenic Activity of Copper Complexes
Based on work in the treatment of cancers using copper complexes, researchers have found that these same complexes may prevent or retard the development of cancers in mice under conditions where cancers are expected to be induced.
Radiation Protection and Radiation Recovery of Copper Complexes
Ionizing radiation, such as that used in the treatment of cancer, has been shown to induce massive systemic inflammation. Ideally, such radiation-induced injury might be prevented or ameliorated by chemical repair mechanisms in the body. Thus, pharmacological approaches to the repair of radiation-damaged tissue are needed. As early as 1984, copper metallo-organic complexes have been shown to have radiation protection and radiation recovery activities[F5]. They are capable of causing rapid recovery of immunocompetence and recovery from radiation induced tissue changes. The mechanism of this activity appears to be tied to the ability of certain copper complexes to deactivate the superoxide, or “free,” radicals liberated by ionizing radiation. In addition, since radiation has the capability of breaking the bonds of natural copper enzymes in the body, supplementing these with non-toxic doses of pharmaceutical copper complexes restores the lost tissue-repair capability. Since these complexes may also have anticarcinogenic activity, it is suggested that there would be merit in using copper complexes in the treatment of cancer and in particular, treating patients undergoing ionizing radiation therapy for their cancer, accidental exposure to radiation, and astronauts undertaking space travel.
Heart Disease and Copper Complexes
Numerous studies have drawn attention to the relationship between copper deficiency and heart disease. First observed in rats in 1936, this effect has now been traced to both a deficiency in copper and an imbalance in the copper-to-zinc ratio in the body. Work by Dr. L.M. Klevay at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition Research Center in 1973 has led to the postulation that copper has a direct effect on the control of cholesterol[F6]. In continuing work published in 1975, he theorized that a metabolic imbalance between zinc and copper – with more emphasis on copper deficiency than zinc excess – is a major contributing factor to the etiology of coronary heart disease. Subsequent work by other investigators has shown that copper complexes also can have a valuable role in the minimization of damage to the aorta and heart muscle as oxygenated blood reperfuses into tissues following myocardial infarction[F7]. This action is based on the anti-inflammatory action of copper complexes. These and other studies suggest the use of copper dietary supplements as a means of preventing and controlling such diseases as atherosclerosis (a form of arteriosclerosis), coronary heart disease, aortic aneurysms and myocardial infarction. It has been speculated that the reason that the heart attack rate in France is lower than in the rest of Europe is because of the French practice of drinking red wine. Red wine has a higher copper content than white wine because it is prepared with the skin of the grape intact. The copper originates in the wine from the copper fungicides used on the grapes in the field–Based on an abundance of historical data such as the foregoing, many researchers anticipate that copper will become an increasingly important component of tomorrow’s medical treatments.
top1. The historical part of this paper is based on H.H.A. Dollwet and J.R.J. Sorenson, Historic uses of copper compounds in medicine, Trace Elements in Medicine, Vol. 2, No. 2, 1985, pp 80 – 87.
The evidence presented here is based on trials done in the UK primarily in the University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences by Professor Bill Keevil and in The University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust by Professor Tom Elliott.
Presented at Materials Science and Technology Conference, September 25-28, 2005, Pittsburgh, PA
Copper for the 21st Century Symposium
Copper Alloys for Human Infectious Disease Control
H.T. Michels1; S.A. Wilks2; J.O. Noyce2; and C.W. Keevil2
1Copper Development Association Inc., USA
2University of Southampton, School of Biological Sciences, Environmental Healthcare Unit, UK
Several bacteria, known to be human pathogens, die when placed on copper alloy surfaces. The concentration of live bacteria drops from several orders of magnitude to zero on copper alloys in a few hours. In marked contrast, no reduction is seen in the concentration of live organisms on stainless steel during the six-hour test period. The copper alloys tested include high coppers, brasses, bronzes, copper -nickels and copper-nickel-zincs. The bacteria tested include E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, both food-borne pathogens associated with several large-scale food recalls, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a serious hospital-acquired infection. The study results suggest the selection of copper alloys for surfaces exposed to human touch or food contact. Using copper alloys in this manner can materially assist in reducing the transmission of potentially infectious organisms.
The focus of the present study is on the inhibitory effects of the surfaces of a range of commercial wrought copper-base alloys, on bacteria, with stainless steel as an experimental control. The tested organisms include E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, which are food-borne pathogens associated with several large-scale food recalls, and Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a serious hospital-acquired, or nosocomial infection. According to the March 28, 2001 issue of the New York Times, 76 million illnesses associated with contaminated food were reported annually in the United States, which resulted in 325,000 hospitalizations and 5000 deaths. Although most E. coli strains are harmless to humans, the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that the cost to society associated with infectious strains of E. coli is $5 billion annually. The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) reported in 1999 that L. monocytogenes accounts for the highest hospitalization rate (90%) and the second highest fatality rate (20%) of all food-borne human pathogens. On average, there are 2,500 cases of L. monocytogenes reported each year and they result in 500 fatalities. According to a July 2004 report by the Infectious Disease Society of America, two million people are infected each year while in the hospital, and 70% of those infections are resistant to at least one drug. This resulted in 90,000 deaths and a cost to society of $5 billion annually. -According to the CDC, the growth rate of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection is increasing.
Copper for preventing Microbial Environmental contamination
AL Casey,1 PA Lambert,2 L Miruszenko,1 TSJ Elliott.1
1 University Hospital Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK
2 Aston University, Birmingham, UK
Trial run by Dr Tom Elliott, Deputy Medical Director and Consultant Microbiologist, at University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust.
Transmission of infection involves various vehicles, including contaminated surfaces which have stimulated interest in antimicrobial materials. Copper has antimicrobial activity and its application in the clinical setting has been explored. Activity of copper against a wide range of hospital pathogens was also determined.
In vitro activity – Microorganisms were applied to copper and stainless steel and viability determined over 3 hours at room temperature following their recovery into a universal neutralising solution. Viability on the metal was also determined by direct observation using epifluorescence microscopy of propidium iodide/SYTO 9 stained cells. Clinical assessment – A pilot study assessed the number of microorganisms on copper containing toilet seats, grab rails, tap handles, light switches and door push plates on a busy medical ward. The copper-containing items harboured fewer microorganisms than standard items on a control ward (p=0.01). The study design was adjusted to sample copper-containing and control items on the same ward. A copper-containing: toilet seat, set of tap handles and a ward entrance door push plate were sampled and compared against equivalent standard items.
In vitro activity – The viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Enterococcus spp. and Candida albicans was progressively reduced by at least 3 log 10 cycles over 3 hours on copper but not stainless steel surfaces. Clinical assessment – All copper-containing items harboured significantly fewer microorganisms (90%-100%) than their control equivalents.
Copper surfaces exhibit a pronounced antimicrobial action upon a range of pathogens, reducing viability over 3 hours contact at room temperature. Antimicrobial activity was also evident over a period of several months in the clinical setting. Copper surfaces may therefore, be a valuable tool in preventing nosocomial infection.
Uses of Copper Compounds– Other Copper Compounds
Basic copper acetate (verdigris) was at one time made in France by interleaving copper metal sheets with fermented grape skins and dregs left after wine manufacture. After some time when the copper sheets had become coated with verdigris they were removed, exposed to the air for a few days and then replaced. This process was repeated until the whole sheet had become corroded. The resulting product was known as blue verdigris and was used as a fungicide at 1 kg basic copper acetate in 500 litres water.
Present manufacture is based on the action of acetic acid on copper metal, copper oxide or copper carbonate. They can also be prepared by treating a copper sulphate solution with lead acetate. Copper acetates are used as an intermediate in the manufacture of Paris green (cupric aceto-arsenite); as a catalyst in a number of organic reactions including rubber aging; as a chemical in textile dyeing; and as a pigment for ceramics. Copper acetates have also been used for impregnating kraft paper to produce an anti-tarnish wrapping paper for high grade silver ware.
Can be produced either electrolytically from copper or by the action of alkaline reducing agents on copper sulphate solutions. Formulated proprietary brands of cuprous oxide are extensively employed as fungicides and seed dressings. Another important application is in anti-fouling paints. Other uses include the colouring of porcelain and glass.
Cupric Oxide (black copper oxide)
Can be produced either by adding caustic soda to hot copper sulphate solutions or by treating copper scale with nitric acid and heating to redness. Cupric oxide is used in the ceramic industry for imparting blue, green or red tints in glasses, glazes and enamels. It is occasionally employed for incorporation in mineral supplements for insuring against an insufficiency of copper in the diet of animals. Among its other uses is the preparation of cuprammonium hydroxide solutions for the rayon industry.
Obtained either by dissolving cupric oxide in hydrochloric acid or by the action of chlorine on copper. Its principal use is in the petroleum industry for sweetening (catalytic oxidation of the mercaptans) and as an ingredient of catalysts for other chemical processes. It is also used as a mordant in calico printing and dyeing.
Is a basic copper chloride and is usually manufactured either by the action of hydrochloric acid on copper metal or by the air oxidation of cuprous chloride suspensions. It has a number of applications, by far the most important being as an agricultural fungicide for which purpose it is extensively employed in formulated form as dusts, wettable powders and pastes.
Prepared either by heating a solution of cupric chloride with copper turnings or by the action of a reducing agent, such as sulphur dioxide, on a mixture of common salt and copper sulphate solution. The petroleum industry uses cuprous chloride in their “oil sweetening” process. Ammoniacal solutions of cuprous chloride are employed for the absorption of any carbon monoxide which may be present in a gas as an impurity.
Produced either by dissolving copper carbonate in nitric acid or direct from copper and nitric acid. It has a number of small uses, such as in ceramics, in dyeing as a mordant, in fireworks and in photography.
Manufactured from sodium cyanide and copper sulphate. It is mainly used for copper electroplating.
Usually made by the interactlon of the corresponding soap with copper sulphate solution. Small quantities of these, such as copper stearate, copper oleate and copper abietate (from resins), are employed mainly for rot-proofing textiles, ropes, etc. They are also used in paints as they are soluble in oils, white spirits, etc.
Usually manufactured either from copper sulphate and naphthenic acid in combination with an alkali or by heating naphthenic acid and copper oxide. It is widely used as an oil-based wood preservative and as a rot-proofing agent.
Anhydrous and Monohydrated Copper Sulphate
Obtained by heating copper sulphate pentahydrate when four molecules water of crystallization are removed the product becomes copper sulphate monohydrate which is green in colour. At a higher temperature all the water of crystallization is removed and anhydrous copper sulphate is the white powder which results. They can also be obtained by crystallization from copper sulphate pentahydrate in boiling sulphuric acid. The main applications are in the production of proprietary wood preservatives and agricultural fungicides as well as for the production of a number of copper compounds. Sometimes they are utilised to detect the presence of moisture.
Even a little is too much- One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease
We hate to ruin Thanksgiving, but a new report appearing in the Nov. 2015 issue of The FASEB Journal suggests that for some people, overindulgence at the dinner table or at snack time is enough to trigger signs of metabolic disease[F8]. Specifically, in some people just one high-calorie shake was enough to make people with metabolic disease worse, while in others, relatively short periods of overeating trigger the beginnings of metabolic disease. This information could be particularly useful for health care providers, nutritionists, and others who counsel people on disease prevention and eating habits.–“Acute effects of diet are mostly small, but may have large consequences in the long run,” said Suzan Wopereis, Ph.D., a researcher involved in the work from TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology Group in Zeist, The Netherlands. “Our novel approach allows detection of small but relevant effects, thereby contributing to the urgently needed switch from disease-care to health-care, aiming for a life-long optimal health and disease prevention.–To make this discovery, Wopereis and colleagues used two groups of male volunteers. The first group included 10 healthy male volunteers. The second group included nine volunteers with metabolic syndrome and who had a combination of two or more risk factors for heart disease, such as unhealthy cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high blood lipids, and abdominal fat. Both groups had blood samples taken, before and after consuming a high-fat milk-shake. In these blood samples, the researchers measured 61 biomarkers, such as cholesterol and blood sugar. They found that biochemical processes related to sugar metabolism, fat metabolism and inflammation were abnormal in subjects with metabolic syndrome. The 10 healthy male volunteers were also given a snack diet consisting of an additional 1300 kcal per day, in the form of sweets and savory products such as candy bars, tarts, peanuts and crisps for four weeks. The response of the same 61 biomarkers to the challenge test was evaluated. Signaling molecules such as hormones regulating the control of sugar and fat metabolism and inflammation were changed, resembling the very subtle start of negative health effects similar to that affecting those with metabolic disease.—“Eating junk food is one of those situations where our brains say ‘yes’ and our bodies say ‘no[F9],'” said Gerald Weissmann, M.D., Editor-in-Chief of The FASEB Journal. “Unfortunately for us, this report shows that we need to use our brains and listen to our bodies. Even one unhealthy snack has negative consequences that extend far beyond any pleasure it brings.”–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. –Journal Reference-A. F. M. Kardinaal, M. J. van Erk, A. E. Dutman, J. H. M. Stroeve, E. van de Steeg, S. Bijlsma, T. Kooistra, B. van Ommen, S. Wopereis. Quantifying phenotypic flexibility as the response to a high-fat challenge test in different states of metabolic health. The FASEB Journal, 2015; 29 (11): 4600 DOI: 10.1096/fj.14-269852 -Cite This Page-Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology. “Even a little is too much: One junk food snack triggers signals of metabolic disease: Biomarkers that quantify health can help inform prevention strategies for metabolic disease.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151102152735.htm>.
Crocetinic acid in saffron may inhibit the pancreatic cancer cell growth
For several years now, researchers in the University of Kansas Medical Center’s Department of Cancer Biology have been examining the effects of crocetin on pancreatic cancer, a deadly disease which responds poorly to current chemotherapy and radiation treatments. Crocetin is derived from saffron, a popular spice and food colorant and a key ingredient in many traditional Indian medicines.-In a study just published in the journal Oncotarget, a team of researchers led by KU Cancer Center Cancer Prevention & Survivorship Program member, Animesh Dhar, Ph.D., an associate professor of cancer biology at KU Medical Center, found that crocetinic acid, a purified compound from crocetin, showed the inhibition of growth in human pancreatic cancer cells grown either in a dish or as tumors under the skin of mice.-Dhar said after 21 days, there was a significant reduction in tumor growth in the group of mice who received the crocetinic acid.–“The mice who were given the crocetinic acid demonstrated a 75 percent reduction in their tumor growth, while the mice in the control group, which didn’t receive the crocetinic acid, actually saw a 250 percent increase in tumor growth,” Dhar said.–Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest types of cancer. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths in the United States. More than 43,000 people are diagnosed with pancreatic cancer each year and about the same number die each year from the disease. Only about 3 percent of people with pancreatic cancer live more than five years after diagnosis.[F10]–In the KU Medical Center trial, the crocetinic acid also targeted and inhibited pancreatic cancer stem cells — the deadly population of cells that usually resist conventional chemotherapy.–“Unless these stem cells are destroyed, the cancer will return,” said Shrikant Anant, Ph.D., a professor of molecular and integrative physiology at KU Medical Center and associate director of cancer prevention and control at The University of Kansas Cancer Center and a co-author on the study. “If we can determine that crocetinic acid is successful in inhibiting or destroying the stem cells, it will be a major step forward in the treatment of pancreatic cancer.”Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Kansas Cancer Center-Journal Reference-Parthasarathy Rangarajan, Dharmalingam Subramaniam, Santanu Paul, Deep Kwatra, Kanagaraj Palaniyandi, Shamima Islam, Sitaram Harihar, Satish Ramalinagam, William Gutheil, Sandeep Putty, Rohan Pradhan, Subhash Padhye, Danny R. Welch, Shrikant Anant, Animesh Dhar. Crocetinic acid inhibits hedgehog signaling to inhibit pancreatic cancer stem cells. Oncotarget, 2015; 6 (29): 27661 DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.4871
University of Kansas Cancer Center. “Crocetinic acid in saffron may inhibit the pancreatic cancer cell growth.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151102143743.htm>.
Lipids Support Protein Machinery
In the membranes of mitochondria — the power stations of the cell — are many different embedded proteins. These proteins perform key functions for the mitochondria. A team led by the biochemist Dr. Thomas Becker from the University of Freiburg discovered that lipids [F1]– the fatlike substances that form the basic building blocks of biological membranes — help a protein machinery to integrate proteins into the outer membrane of mitochondria. The researchers published their findings in the current issue of the Journal of Biological Chemistry.–Mitochondria perform vital functions for the cell. They produce the energy for cell metabolism, for example. Mitochondrial dysfunctions can cause severe neurological diseases. Certain proteins of the outer membrane that form a so-called beta-barrel structure are essential for the development of the mitochondria. These proteins enable the transport of proteins and metabolic intermediates, or so-called metabolites. Ribosomes within the cytosol — the cell fluid — produce these beta-barrel proteins. The protein translocases, which are two protein machineries in the outer membrane of the mitochondria, integrate the barrel structures into the membrane. The translocase of the outer membrane, in short TOM complex, transports the proteins from the cytosol into the mitochondria. The so-called SAM complex then integrates the proteins into the membrane. While TOM and SAM are well researched by scientists, the role of lipids is still only poorly understood.[F2]–In mitochondria, the main building block of the membranes are the so-called phospholipids, of which phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant one[F3]. Becker’s team discovered a previously unknown role of PC in the development of beta-barrel proteins. The scientists found out that the function of the SAM complex depends on the concentration of PC in the membrane. In collaboration with the research group of Professor Dr. Günther Daum from the Graz University of Technology in Austria, the team from the University of Freiburg analysed the mitochondria of baker’s yeast mutants, which had a significantly lower concentration of PC. Max-Hinderk Schuler from Becker’s research group at the Institute for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of the University of Freiburg demonstrated that, in the mutated baker’s yeast, the integration of the beta-barrel proteins into the outer membrane is impaired. This can be explained by the fact that the function and stability of the SAM complex in these mutants is disturbed. In contrast, the activity of the TOM complex is not inhibited. This means that beta-barrel proteins can pass the TOM complex unimpeded, while their integration into the outer membrane does not occur at full speed when the concentration of PC is reduced. This work shows that protein machinery and lipids are closely connected in protein transport and that the integration of the beta-barrel proteins in the target membrane depends on the composition of the membrane.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. -Journal Reference-Max-Hinderk Schuler, Francesca Di Bartolomeo, Lena Böttinger, Susanne E. Horvath, Lena-Sophie Wenz, Günther Daum, Thomas Becker. Phosphatidylcholine Affects the Role of the Sorting and Assembly Machinery in the Biogenesis of Mitochondrial β-Barrel Proteins. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2015; 290 (44): 26523 DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.687921 -Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg. “Lipids Support Protein Machinery.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151104131123.htm>.