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Combined potentiating action of phytochemical(s) from Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimetic effect using in vivo rat and in vitro NIH/3T3 cell culture system.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol. 2015 Mar;175(5):2542-63
Authors: Singh V, Singh SP, Singh M, Gupta AK, Kumar A
Abstract
The present investigation was undertaken to analyze the ethanolic extracts of leaves of Cinnamomum tamala and Aloe vera for their anti-diabetic and insulinomimitic effect by determining the levels of blood sugar, glycosylated hemoglobin, and serum lipid profile (total cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein (HDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL)) after daily administration of each alone and in combined at 250 mg/kg in alloxan (ALX)-induced diabetic rats. Treatment of diabetic rats with the extracts restored the elevated biochemical parameters significantly. The anti-diabetic effect further potentiated the insulin signaling pathway by co-administration of both extracts. The molecular mechanisms of modulating gene expression and cellular signaling through the insulin receptor were also evaluated on specific targets of the insulin signaling pathway, including insulin receptor substrate (IRS), phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K), AKT, and the glucose transporter (GLUT4) on NIH/3T3 cell line by western blotting, ELISA, semiquantitative RT-PCR, and real-time PCR. The active principle of both extracts revealed insulin mimicking effect as indicated by increased expression of pIRS1 and pAKT in time-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in PI3-K content between unchallenged and challenged groups. Enhanced expression of GLUT-4 transcript further suggested that the Cinnamomum and Aloe phytochemicals could serve as a good adjuvant in the present armamentarium of anti-diabetic drugs by either mimicking or improving insulin action. This study reveals that ethanolic extracts of C. tamala and A. vera have potent therapeutic efficacy and prospect for the development of phytomedicine for diabetes mellitus.–PMID: 25536877 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
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Aloe vera
 
Extract of A. vera reduces hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia in diabetic patients [202, 203]. Similar antidiabetic effects were observed in alloxan- and STZ-treated animal models [204–206]. Aloeresin A, an active compound of A. vera, inhibited -glucosidase activity [118]. A. vera and probably its active compounds exert their antidiabetic actions via inhibition of -glucosidase and intestinal glucose absorption. In addition, extract of A. vera resulted in a reduction of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance [207]. As a whole, A. vera and its active components may treat diabetes via suppression of -glucosidase activity (gut glucose absorption) and insulin resistance.
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. Cinnamon
 
Both common cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum and C. zeylanicum) and cassia (C. aromaticum) have long been used as flavoring agents and in drinks and medicines worldwide [135]. Cinnamon has traditionally been used for rheumatism, wounds, diarrhea, headaches, and colds [136]. Recently, extensive studies have been performed on the action of cinnamon on diabetes and metabolic syndrome [135]. Cinnamon was shown to reduce blood glucose via reduction of insulin resistance and increase of hepatic glycogenesis [135, 137]. Cinnamon phenolics were proposed to be the active compounds in modulation of insulin signaling [53, 138, 139]. Moreover, cinnamaldehyde had antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic effects on rodent models of diabetes [53]. This compound from cinnamon extract is thought of as a potential antidiabetic agent [139]. Unfortunately, the molecular target of cinnamon and cinnamaldehyde remains unclear.
 
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Other Support for Diabetes Removal
 
. Fenugreek
 
The seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) are used as a food supplement and also have a long history of medicinal use for labor induction, helping digestion and improving metabolism and health [34]. Animal studies have shown that extract of fenugreek seeds can lower blood glucose levels [140, 141]. Fenugreek is considered a promising agent for diabetes and its complications [34]. The glucose-lowering action of this plant involves reduction of insulin resistance [142]. Diosgenin, GII, galactomannan, trigoneosides, and 4-hydroxyisoleucine have been identified as the active antidiabetic compounds in fenugreek. However, little is known about the mechanisms of these compounds [55]. Among them, diosgenin was shown to reduce adipocyte differentiation and inflammation, implying its action in reduction of insulin resistance [54]. A clinical study indicated that fenugreek exerts hypoglycemic control via increasing insulin sensitivity
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Silymarin is a flavonoid mixture composed of silybin, silydianin, and silychristin, which are active components of the plant milk thistle (Silybum marianum) [146]. Aside from antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hepatoprotective activities, the modes of action through which silymarin and/or milk thistle exert antidiabetic activity are not well understood [66–74]. It has been reported that silymarin can rescue -cell function in alloxan-treated rats [68].
 
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Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid, was first isolated from Berberis vulgaris. This compound has multiple functions ranging from inflammation inhibition and cancer suppression to reduction of metabolic syndrome and other activities [93, 152–155]. With respect to T2D, this compound lowered hyperglycemia, increased insulin resistance, stimulated pancreatic -cell regeneration, and decreased lipid peroxidation in a mouse model of T2D [89–92]. Thus, it may be useful for treatment of T2D and other types of diabetes. A meta-analysis study suggests that berberine per se does not show glycemic control in T2D patients. Combination treatment of berberine with other OAAs showed better glycemic control than either treatment alone. Of note, berberine had a mild antidyslipidemic effect on patients
 
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Bitter melon, the fruit of the plant Momordica charantia is used in Ayurvedic medicine [156]. The biochemistry and bioactivities associated with the antidiabetic effect of the extracts of bitter melon and M. charantia as a whole have been extensively studied. One in vitro study showed that bitter melon could increase insulin secretion from cells. Moreover, immunostaining data indicated that the juice of the bitter melon increased cells in the pancreas of STZ-treated rats. Modes of action of bitter melon and M. charantia include insulin secretion, inhibition of glucose reabsorption in guts, preservation of islet cells and their functions, increase of peripheral glucose utilization, and suppression of gluconeogenic enzymes [38]. Of note, momorcharin and momordicin, isolated from M. charantia and its fruit, act to lower blood glucose likely because they possess insulin-like chemical structures [38].
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Chinese green tea has been used as a beverage and food supplement since antiquity in China. It is made of the leaves and leaf buds of the Camellia sinensis species. One of the claimed health benefits of this tea is reduction of T2D risk and amelioration of T2D. Chinese green tea and oolong tea can prevent and/or ameliorate type 2 diabetes in humans [188–190] and experimental mouse models [191, 192]. EGCG, a major flavonol in tea, was shown to have antidiabetic activities in rodents [104, 105]. EGCG appears to have multiple antidiabetic actions including islet protection, increasing insulin secretion, decreasing insulin tolerance, and decreasing gluconeogenesis and insulin-mimetic action [104–106]. The role of EGCG in islet protection was shown to protect against -cell death mediated by islet amyloid polypeptide (IAP) in vitro [193]. EGCG was reported to activate AMPK in adipocytes
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Coffee is one of the most commonly consumed drinks worldwide. Recently, several studies have demonstrated an association between coffee intake and improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity and a lower risk of T2D [224]. However, the active compound(s) and responsible target(s) are poorly understood. Accumulating data imply that constituents other than caffeine are active in glycemic control and/or insulin sensitivity. A study on people who consumed caffeinated and decaffeinated coffee showed no difference in the risk of T2D and insulin sensitivity in those drinking either type of coffee after 8 weeks of consumption [225]. However, caffeine improved the function of adipocytes and the liver [225]. Coffee is one of the major sources of dietary antioxidants. Roasting at high temperature can convert chlorogenic acid into quinides, which are known to reduce blood glucose levels in animal models [126]. In addition, coffee consumption might also mediate levels of GLP-1 [127]. Taken together, adequate coffee consumption is beneficial for T2D and its complications.
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Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots
March 24th, 2015 in Nanotechnology / Nanomaterials
Graphene quantum dots deposited on a sporating bacteria produces a graphene coated spore. Upon attachment of electrodes across the cell, a bio-electronic device is produced that is highly sensitive to humidity. Here, the spore reacts actively to humidity; and the reaction is translated to an electronic response from the interfaced graphene quantum dots. Graphene quantum dots deposited on a sporating bacteria produces a graphene coated spore. Upon attachment of electrodes across the cell, a bio-electronic device is produced that is highly sensitive to humidity. Here, the spore reacts actively to humidity; and the reaction is translated to an electronic response from the interfaced graphene quantum dots. Credit: Berry Research Laboratory at UIC- As nanotechnology makes possible a world of machines too tiny to see, researchers are finding ways to combine living organisms with nonliving machinery to solve a variety of problems- Like other first-generation bio-robots, the new nanobot engineered at the University of Illinois at Chicago is a far cry from Robocop. It’s a robotic germ.[F1]- UIC researchers created an electromechanical device—a humidity sensor—on a bacterial spore. They call it NERD, for Nano-Electro-Robotic Device. The report is online at Scientific Reports, a Nature open access journal.
“We’ve taken a spore from a bacteria, and put graphene quantum dots on its surface—and then attached two electrodes on either side of the spore,” said Vikas Berry, UIC associate professor of chemical engineering and principal investigator on the study.-“Then we change the humidity around the spore[F2],” he said.–When the humidity drops, the spore shrinks as water is pushed out. As it shrinks, the quantum dots come closer together, increasing their conductivity, as measured by the electrodes.–[F3]”We get a very clean response—a very sharp change the moment we change humidity,” Berry said. The response was 10 times faster, he said, than a sensor made with the most advanced man-made water-absorbing polymers.–There was also better sensitivity in extreme low-pressure, low-humidity situations.–“We can go all the way down to a vacuum and see a response,” said Berry, which is important in applications where humidity must be kept low, for example, to prevent corrosion or food spoilage[F4]. “It’s also important in space applications, where any change in humidity could signal a leak,” he said.-Currently available sensors increase in sensitivity as humidity rises, Berry said. NERD’s sensitivity is actually higher at low humidity.–“This is a fascinating device,” Berry said. “Here we have a biological entity[F5]. We’ve made the sensor on the surface of these spores, with the spore a very active complement to this device. The biological complement is actually working towards responding to stimuli and providing information.”
Provided by University of Illinois at Chicago–“Tiny bio-robot is a germ suited-up with graphene quantum dots.” March 24th, 2015. http://phys.org/news/2015-03-tiny-bio-robot-germ-suited-up-graphene.html
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Researchers use graphene quantum dots to detect humidity and pressure
May 8th, 2013 by Jennifer Tidball in Nanotechnology / Nanophysics –
Vikas Berry, William H. Honstead professor of chemical engineering, and his research team are using graphene quantum dots to improve electron tunneling-based sensing devices. The latest research from a Kansas State University chemical engineer may help improve humidity and pressure sensors, particularly those used in outer space.-Vikas Berry, William H. Honstead professor of chemical engineering, and his research team are using graphene quantum dots to improve sensing devices in a twofold project. The first part involves producing the graphene quantum dots, which are ultrasmall pieces of graphene. Graphene is a single-atom thick sheet of carbon atoms and has superior electrical, mechanical and optical properties.[F6] The second part of the project involves incorporating these quantum dots into electron-tunneling based sensing devices.-To create the graphene quantum dots, the researchers used nanoscale cutting of graphite to produce graphene nanoribbons. T.S. Sreeprasad, a postdoctoral researcher in Berry’s group, chemically cleaved these ribbons into 100 nanometers lateral dimensions.–The scientists assembled the quantum dots into a network on a hydroscopic microfiber that was attached to electrodes on its two sides. They placed the assembled quantum dots less than a nanometer apart so they were not completely connected. The assembling of dots is similar to a corn on the cob structure—the corn kernels are nanoscale quantum dots and the cob is the microfiber.–Several researchers—including four 2012 alumni in chemical engineering: Augustus Graham, Alfredo A. Rodriguez, Jonathan Colston and Evgeniy Shishkin—applied a potential across the fiber and controlled the distance between the quantum dots by adjusting the local humidity, which changes the current flowing through the dots.–“If you reduce the humidity around this device, the water held by this fiber is lost,” Berry said. “As a result, the fiber shrinks and the graphenic components residing atop come close to one another in nanometer scale. This increases the electron transport from one dot to the next. Just by reading the currents one can tell the humidity in the environment.”[F7]–Decreasing the distance between the graphene quantum dots by 0.35 nanometers increased the device’s conductivity by 43-fold, Berry said. Furthermore, because air contains water, reducing air pressure decreased its water content and caused the graphene quantum dots to get closer together, which increased conductivity. Quantum mechanics suggests that electrons have a finite probability to tunnel from an electrode to a nonconnected electrode, Berry said. This probability is inversely and exponentially proportional to the tunneling distance, or the gap between the electrodes.–The research has numerous applications, particularly in improving sensors for humidity, pressure or temperature.–“These devices are unique because, unlike most humidity sensors, these are more responsive in vacuum,” Berry said. “For example, these devices can be incorporated into space shuttles, where low humidity measurements are required. These sensors might also be able to detect trace amounts of water on Mars, which has 1/100th of the earth’s atmospheric pressure. This is because the device measures humidity at a much higher resolution in vacuum.”–While the heart of the device is the modulation of electron tunneling, the response of the device is through the polymer microfiber, Berry said. His team also is looking at changing the polymer to find other applications for this research.–“If you replace this polymer with a polymer that is responsive to other stimuli, you can make a different kind of sensor,” Berry said. “I envision this project to have a broad impact on sensing.”–The research is supported by Berry’s five-year, $400,000 National Science Foundation CAREER award. The research results appear in a recent issue of the journal Nano Letters in an article titled “Electron-tunneling modulation in percolating-network of graphene quantum dots[F8]: fabrication, phenomenological understanding, and humidity/pressure sensing applications.”–Berry’s research team also is studying molecular machines interfaced with graphene. In this work, the researchers are able to mechanically actuate the molecules, which undergo a change in the electric field around them and influence the carrier density of the interfaced graphene. This work will appear in an upcoming issue of the journal Small in an article titled “Covalent functionalization of dipole-modulating molecules on trilayer graphene: an avenue for graphene-interfaced molecular machines.”–The researchers have found that graphene responds sensitively to molecular motion. Phong Nguyen, a doctoral student in chemical engineering and lead author of the work, tethered actuating molecules on graphene and measured the device’s response.–“The next phase of science beyond nanotechnology will be molecular technology,” Berry said. “We are working on developing routes to incorporate molecular machines into devices.”–More information: Paper: pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/nl4003443—–Provided by Kansas State University—–“Researchers use graphene quantum dots to detect humidity and pressure.” May 8th, 2013. http://phys.org/news/2013-05-graphene-quantum-dots-humidity-pressure.html
 
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Heart Letter from a Heart Patient
 
Hi Tony,
 
I just wanted to share something with you. Recently I was diagnosed with A-Fib and the cardiologist, of course, wanted me to take a blood thinning drug to which I was opposed. The cardiologist was not happy because I requested an alternative method and he knew I stopped taking the statin my family dr prescribed and I did so based on a couple of things; one was the information you have provided along with other research and I was having bad side effects. Anyway, the cardiologist was extremely upset and would not talk to me because I stopped taking the statin (though my family dr said if you did not have the symptoms before taking them, had side effects while taking them and don’t have them now that you stopped then I won’t argue you had side effects – when I asked he said there are alternative methods )
 
After taking your advise along increasing my mineral intake (a-fib is an electrical issue which is electrolyte issue or mineral deficiency) and now my symptoms are now reduced to almost nothing and I believe will go away altogether. My family dr stated a-fib can be brought on by excessive stress and dehydration so I am being more mindful of my water intake.
 
Last week I had a follow up with the cardiologist and though I said my symptoms had diminished (he had no idea I did not take the drug they prescribed) and told him of the incredibly stressful job I have, he told me your heart should be able to handle stress and there is clearly something wrong with your heart and said ”we need to hit this hard there are several drugs you need to take (can’t remember the names of the drugs as I was in shock at what he was saying) and then due to your age, if those don’t work then we immediately need to do surgery (again can’t remember the name due to my shock) I looked at him and said “I have just turned in the monitor last week shouldn’t we wait a period of time to see what this(the drug) will do?” Again he did not know I wasn’t taking the drug but taurine, magnesium, and minerals along with working on my acid/alkaline levels, for absorption, and he responded again with “no there is clearly something wrong with your heart and we need to hit this hard right now with drugs.” I looked at him in disbelief!!
 
Perhaps it has taken a little longer to get the medical mindset you have talked about here in Indiana but I can say I will “NEVER” go back to this cardiologist! If I do I will go only to advise him he is not worth the paper his degree is printed on and that he is nothing more than a licensed drug dealer!!
 
Sorry to be lengthy here but I have now seen first hand what you have talked about on your video’s and wanted to tell you about it and to also say again “Thank you for all that your do and please, please, please keep up the good work!!” I have referred your site to more people then you can imagine and I have been successful in getting a lot (not all) of people to re-think what they eat and what their drs. tell them etc… and they are seeing for them selves the truth!
 
OH, OH,OH!! one more thing this cardiologist said to me “they now have this great devise a really small devise that can be injected into you through a syringe and it can be monitored for three years!!!!” Not only that but they can control things in their offices due to the monitor!!! Can you believe this!!?!?!? Talk about ANTI-CHRIST and the mark of the beast!!!!!!
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Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses
New research from the University of Southampton has found that copper can effectively help to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses, which are linked to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS).–Animal coronaviruses that ‘host jump’ to humans, such as SARS and MERS, result in severe infections with high mortality. The Southampton researchers found that a closely-related human coronavirus — 229E — can remain infectious on common surface materials for several days, but is rapidly destroyed on copper. –A newly-published paper in mBio — a journal of the American Society for Microbiology — reports that human coronavirus 229E, which produces a range of respiratory symptoms from the common cold to more lethal outcomes such as pneumonia, can survive on surface materials including ceramic tiles, glass, rubber and stainless steel for at least five days. While human-to-human transmission is important, infections can be contracted by touching surfaces contaminated by respiratory droplets from infected individuals, or hand touching, leading to a wider and more rapid spread–On copper, and a range of copper alloys — collectively termed ‘antimicrobial copper’ — the coronavirus was rapidly inactivated (within a few minutes, for simulated fingertip contamination). Exposure to copper destroyed the virus completely and irreversibly, leading the researchers to conclude that antimicrobial copper surfaces could be employed in communal areas and at any mass gatherings to help reduce the spread of respiratory viruses and protect public health.–Lead researcher Dr Sarah Warnes said: “Transmission of infectious diseases via contaminated surfaces is far more important than was originally thought, and this includes viruses that cause respiratory infections. This is especially important when the infectious dose is low and just a few virus particles can initiate an infection.–“Human coronavirus, which also has ancestral links with bat-like viruses responsible for SARS and MERS, was found to be permanently and rapidly deactivated upon contact with copper. What’s more, the viral genome and structure of the viral particles were destroyed, so nothing remained that could pass on an infection. With the lack of antiviral treatments, copper offers a measure that can help reduce the risk of these infections spreading.”–Speaking on the importance of the study, Professor Bill Keevil, co-author and Chair in Environmental Healthcare at the University of Southampton, said: “Respiratory viruses are responsible for more deaths, globally, than any other infectious agent. The evolution of new respiratory viruses, and the re-emergence of historic virulent strains, poses a significant threat to human health.–“The rapid inactivation and irreversible destruction of the virus observed on copper and copper alloy surfaces suggests that the incorporation of copper alloy surfaces — in conjunction with effective cleaning regimes and good clinical practice — could help control transmission of these viruses.”–Previous research by Professor Keevil and Dr Warnes has proved copper’s efficacy against norovirus, influenza and hospital superbugs, such as MRSA and Klebsiella, plus stopping the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes to other bacteria to create new superbugs.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of Southampton. Journal Reference-S. L. Warnes, Z. R. Little and C. W. Keevil. Human coronavirus 229E remains infectious on common touch surface materials. mBio, November 2015 DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01697-15 -Cite This Page-University of Southampton. “Using copper to prevent the spread of respiratory viruses.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 10 November 2015. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/11/151110102147.htm>.
 
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[F1]Interesting choices of words~ when you think of the nano size in billionths then it is essentially a germ and one with vaccines and other medicants or nutriceuticals can infect a host with~ and with the self assembling of these nano they could manifest a host of conditions
[F2]Environmental Control-spunds like some form of weather modification technology
[F3]How NanoParticles can destroy or damage cellular membranes by pushing out fluids in cells and increasing there conductivity- a circuit to amplify the flow of energy
[F4]Tech that is in the food chainthat is regulating food spoilage~ this is already under way the removal of salt as a natural preservative and introducing this tech into the food supply has repercussions~ with the consumption if these particles and a activator of current to make them conductive or a frequency the damage not only on a cellular level is going to happen but as well on a organ level~ a totally disruptive flow of communication with the spot burst from this tech
[F5]Here is a subjective thought~ where did the biological entity come from..was it an aborted fetus and the dna was used as a means of construct~ was it genetically engineered and created meaning a life form that is now being made in a lab…or was it created utilizing nanobiology which would make this an artificial life ~ thoughts to consider
[F6]Carbon is apparently the material of choice for communications and information and data
[F7]One of the ways to conduct the power is by causing moisture loss- as a result the carbon nanoparticles( graphene) get closer and as a result the power or transmission increases from nano to nano and the closer the more it is amplified ~ here at 0.35nano the output is 43 times
[F8]This is a fancy way of saying nanoparticles communication and charging each other like cells and networking