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    Many essential biological chemicals are chelates. Chelates play important roles in oxygen transport and in photosynthesis. Furthermore, many biological catalysts (enzymes) are chelates. In addition to their significance in living organisms, chelates are also economically important, both as products in themselves and as agents in the production of other chemicals.
    A chelate is a chemical compound composed of a metal ion and a chelating agent. A chelating agent is a substance whose molecules can form several bonds to a single metal ion. In other words, a chelating agent is a multidentate ligand. An example of a simple chelating agent is ethylenediamine.
    A single molecule of ethylenediamine can form two bonds to a transition-metal ion such as nickel(II), Ni2+. The bonds form between the metal ion and the nitrogen atoms of ethylenediamine. The nickel(II) ion can form six such bonds, so a maximum of three ethylenediamine molecules can be attached to one Ni2+ ion.
    chelate with one
    ethylenediamine ligand
    chelate with two
    ethylenediamine ligands
    chelate with three
    ethylenediamine ligands
    In the two structures on the left, the bonding capacity of the Ni2+ ion is completed by water molecules. Each water molecule forms only one bond to Ni2+, so water is not a chelating agent. Because the chelating agent is attached to the metal ion by several bonds, chelates tend to be more stable than complexes formed with monodentate ligands such as water.
    Porphine is a chelating agent similar to ethylenediamine in that it forms bonds to a metal ion through nitrogen atoms. Each of the four nitrogen atoms in the center of the molecule can form a bond to a metal ion. Porphine is the simplest of a group of chelating agents called porphyrins. Porphyrins have a structure derived from porphine by replacing some of the hydrogen atoms around the outside with other groups of atoms.
    One important porphyrin chelate is heme, the central component of hemoglobin, which carries oxygen through the blood from the lungs to the tissues. Heme contains a porphyrin chelating agent bonded to an iron(II) ion. Iron, like nickel, can form six bonds. Four of these bonds tie it to the porphyrin. One of iron’s two remaining bonds holds an oxygen molecule as it is transported through the blood. Chlorophyll is another porphyrin chelate. In chlorophyll, the metal at the center of the chelate is a magnesium ion. Chlorophyll, which is responsible for the green color of plant leaves, absorbs the light energy that is converted to chemical energy in the process of photosynthesis.
    Another biologically significant chelate is vitamin B-12. It is the only vitamin that contains a metal, a cobalt(II) ion bonded to a porphyrin-like chelating agent. As far as is known, it is required in the diet of all higher animals. It is not synthesized by either higher plants or animals, but only by certain bacteria and molds. These are the sources of the B-12 found in animal products. Because vitamin B-12 is not found in higher plants, vegetarians must take care to include in their diets foods or supplements that contain the vitamin.
    A chelating agent of particular economic significance is ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA).
    ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)
    EDTA is a versatile chelating agent. It can form four or six bonds with a metal ion, and it forms chelates with both transition-metal ions and main-group ions. EDTA is frequently used in soaps and detergents, because it forms a complexes with calcium and magnesium ions. These ions are in hard water and interfere with the cleaning action of soaps and detergents. The EDTA binds to them, sequestering them and preventing their interference. In the calcium complex, [Ca(EDTA)]2–, EDTA is a tetradentate ligand, and chelation involves the two nitrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms in separate carboxyl (-COO–) groups. EDTA is also used extensively as a stabilizing agent in the food industry. Food spoilage is often promoted by naturally-occurring enzymes that contain transition-metal ions. These enzymes catalyze the chemical reactions that occur during spoilage. EDTA deactivates these enzymes by removing the metal ions from them and forming stable chelates with them. It promotes color retention in dried bananas, beans, chick peas, canned clams, pecan pie filling, frozen potatoes, and canned shrimp. It improves flavor retention in canned carbonated beverages, salad dressings, mayonnaise, margarine, and sauces. It inhibits rancidity in salad dressings, mayonnaise, sauces, and sandwich spreads. EDTA salts are used in foods at levels ranging from 33 to 800 ppm.
    In other applications, EDTA dissolves the CaCO3 scale deposited from hard water without the use of corrosive acid. EDTA is used in the separation of the rare earth elements from each other. The rare earth elements have very similar chemical properties, but the stability of their EDTA complexes varies slightly. This slight variation allows EDTA to effectively separate rare-earth ions. EDTA is used as an anticoagulant for stored blood in blood banks; it prevents coagulation by sequestering the calcium ions required for clotting. As an antidote for lead poisoning, calcium disodium EDTA exchanges its chelated calcium for lead, and the resulting lead chelate is rapidly excreted in the urine. The calcium salt of EDTA, administered intravenously, is also used in the treatment of acute cadmium and iron poisoning.
    Dimercaprol (2,3-dimercapto-1-propanol) is an effective chelating agent for heavy metals such as arsenic, mercury, antimony, and gold. These heavy metals form particularly strong bonds to the sulfur atoms in dimercaprol.
    Dimercaprol was originally employed to treat the toxic effects of an arsenic-containing mustard gas called Lewisite [dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine], which was used in World War I. The chelated metal cannot enter living cells and is rapidly excreted from the body. Since dimercaprol is water insoluble, it is dissolved in an oil base (often peanut oil) and injected intramuscularly.–Chelator Di mercaprol ( British antiLewisite ; BAL ) Used in acute arsenic poisoning acute mercury poisoning lead poisoning (in addition to EDTA)
    (DMSA) mercury poisoning
    Di mercapto -propane sulfonate severe acute arsenic poisoning
    (DMPS) severe acute mercury poisoning Mainly in: copper toxicity Occasionally adjunctive therapy in– DMPS (2,3-di mercapto propane sulfonic acid),
    Penicillamine gold toxicity arsenic poisoning lead poisoning rheumatoid arthritis
    Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (calcium disodium lead poisoning versante) (CaNa2-EDTA) acute iron poisoning Deferoxamine and Deferasirox iron overload EDTA (ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid)
    Deferoxamine and Deferasirox iron overload 2 ­1 – Medically diagnosed heavy metal poisoning Some common chelating agents are
    TTFD (thiamine tetra hydro furfuryl disulfide),
    Phosphonates are also well-known chelating agents- divalent (Cu2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Pb2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, Co2+, Ni2+) and trivalent (Cr3+, Fe3+, Al3+) metals ion
    These elements bind to heavy metals in the body and prevent them from binding to other agents. They are then excreted from the body. The chelating process also removes vital nutrients such as vitamins C and E, therefore these must be supplemented
    [F1]Appears thata sugar molecule of some kind would attract the nano to them
    [F2]INTERESTING where they are and would mean access throughout the bodu
    [F3]Pay attention here this would require for the blood to be put on and then a device applied ~ what is required to cause the nano to become inert is to put them in a field and then to have the field shut down and then a saline acid solution to further assist in the removal of the nano that has become inert
    [F1]Sometimes people feel like something is crawling inside of there skins~ with a quantum dot or a nanoprobe or nano components you can see how a technology like this could simulate a “crawling or movement” within the skin by utilizing the nanocrystal technology utilizing either the fluids to be removed or reduced to create a stronger electrical field ( one report indicates a 0.35nm space can produce 43 X’s more power due to the increased conductivity as a result of the quantum effect of the range between the cluster of nano crystals~ this would create the energy as well as the environments to replicate the movement effect
    [F2]Some will actually see thin when they pull out of there skin with an amplified lens a bilayering of nanocrystaline ( basically a cellulose) that will appear to have some kind of attachment to it ~ would indicate the rachet effect they are referring to
    [F3]Again this would work in a bio environment and would as well “crawl or move “ throughout the body
    [F4]Air intake could be a real way to get these “bilayer nanobots” into a human being or any form of life on the planet`~ this tech could be ingested especially if it is used in the food supply to monitoer the condensation and moisture of soil and plant and on nanoscale this would very easily wind up in the blood or other areas where fluids in the body would be in high concentration such as muscle~ cells ~ organs ~ tear ducts
    [F5]With the barium and aluminum and titanium dioxide and nano silver they are spraying this would allow this tech to cluster and attach itself with other nanoparticles and could possible change due to the entanglement effect~ and the quantum effect on this due to the mix and volume could potentially cause skin lesions or mutations that could lead to tumours or cancers
    [F6]More like the opposite~ causing mutations~ accelerated aging~ and permanent skin damage
    [F1]They cluster and take up a lot of space in a small aera so anything you take with it becomes part of it’s matrix and can then be transported more readily because of the concentrations and condensing
    [F2]Grapheme is 200 times stronger then diamond
    [F1]This would apply to different fields or even pulsers that would eminate or put out some kind of energy that could affect nano particles
    [F2]In physics, a quantum (plural: quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity involved in an interaction—Quantization- An assumption that energy can only be absorbed or released in tiny, differential, discrete packets he called “bundles” or “energy elements”,
    [F3]NANO integrating with different sizes shapes and charges would create this complexity due to the size and concentration especially if concentrated in a location or area
    [F4]Meaning if you are using some kind of field that could actually affect something on a thermodynamic level ~ you could affect the interactivity or cause a reaction
    [F5]Ambient temperature is a term which refers to the temperature in a room, or the temperature which surrounds an object
    [F6]Lets call it spyware on biology or even a means to tag someone with this and by applying a magnetic pulse one then could activate the materials to locate or isolate a location of someone
    [F7]Clustering and Aggagating into a concentrated environment which when activated could induce a change in the environment temperate zone causing a differentiating signal respose