- June 16, 2021 at 18:41 #1733
The dramatic story of a biologist’s revolutionary discoveries–including a curative treatment for cancer, AIDS, and other degenerative diseases–and his persecution by the medical establishment. Christopher Bird attended the entire trial of Gaston Naessens.June 16, 2021 at 18:41 #1734
The article below is an extract from the chapter Cosmiculture in the book Secrets of the Soil by Christopher Bird & Peter Tompkins. Secrets of the Soil has introduced hundreds of thousand farmers worldwide to primal mysteries of the soil. Please Enjoy.
Luckily our Indian heritage is slow to die. In the highland woods of Georgia, within sight of the Great Smoky Mountains, mystic haunt of the Cherokee, it lives on by the Tallulah River into whose turbulent waters the daughter of the chief once threw herself from a thousand-foot cliff to join her young white lover, sacrificed by her understandably segregationist father. A few miles upstream from the lover’s leap, the grandaughter of another Tallulah Cherokee, Sarah Hieronymus, has been tapping cosmic waves. In a labaratory on the shores of Lakemont, not far from the Cherokee reservation, she is carrying on the work of her late husband, T. Galen Hieronymus, running the Advanced Sciences Research and Development Corporation, a nonprofit organization presently devoted to the spread of “Cosmiculture”-the channeling of cosmic energy into the ground for the benefit of plants.
This Steinerian ideal is a accomplished with what Galen called cosmic pipes, ten-foot- plastic polyvinyl-chloride tubes, three inches in diameter, which was raised, like an Egyptian dged column, to a height of eight fee, their bases inserted thirty inches into the ground. Atop each pipe is a copper electrode designed to absorb the mysterious solar energy Galen called eloptic, a combination that obeys “some electrical laws but not all of them, and some optical laws, but not all of them,” and passes it down a wire coiled around a quartz crystal to an underground amplifier, there to be broadcast through the soil for a mile or so in all directions.
“We don’t make them any higher,” Galen told us in the summer of 1987, a few months before he died, “because the potential increases as you go up: it gets too strong above six or seven feet. All around us is a great sea of energy, cosmic energy, solar energy, lunar energy, planetary energy, and the energy of the earth itself. But, unlike the chemicals sold in commerce, this energy is free, and it isn’t toxic; it’s highly beneficial. All we have to do is tap it: and that’s what we’ve done. When I saw that chemical fertilizers and paten medicines designed for livestock were making paupers of the farmers of this nation, I got out my early experiments in eloptic energy and adapted tem to tap this sea of free energy, and so we devised the cosmic pipe.”
For many years an engineer in charge of heavy power distribution in Kansas, Galen liked to quote astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell to the effect that there are no unnatural or supernatural phenomena, only very large gaps in our knowledge of what is natural. For the last fifty years Galen has been pioneering in the exploration of what he calls “subltle energies,” energies outside the electromagnetic spectrum, as little understood by orthodox science as are electricity or gravity–the world of energies so lucidly described in the Vedas, in theosophy, and in anthroposophy.
As early as the 1930s, Galen showed that solar energy could be conducted over wires, and more difficult-he succeeded in obtaining a U.S. patent for an instrument that did it. Shortly after World War II he developed radionic instruments on the basis of the sophisticated work of Dr. Albert Abrams, a natural genius who did his pioneering in San Francisco. Ever resilient, Galen then discovered his eloptic energy. “We need a new kind of dictionary,” he said, “to describe these energies, which are allied to, but are different from those in the electromagnetic spectrum. It’s a subtle cosmic energy. It does not attenuate with distance. We conduct it over wires.”
With his radionic instrument Galen mysteriously rid the fields of many a Pennsylvania farmer outside Harrisburg of Japanese beetles and of European corn borers, remotely affecting the fields with a photograph placed in his “black box” many miles away. So successful was this method that a U.S. general helped form a company to exploit the invention. But the Pentagon, quickly realizing that the same system might be beamed on soldiers in the field, did the chemical companies a service by remotely tuning Hieronymus out of the business as effectively as he had tuned out the bugs on the farmer’s fields.”June 16, 2021 at 18:41 #1735
These documents were found in the research archives of Christoper Bird
Another Form of Energy is Discovered that has Infinite Possibilities
A Description of Recent Researches of T. G. Hieronymous
T. G. Hieronymous
( 1956 )
“Complete theories do not fall from heaven”… Freud.
This well exemplified the attitude of many people — that if an idea is not completely developed and the theory so foolproof as to be beyond question, then they want no part in it.
Following Benjamin Franklin’s discovery of electricity, a scoffer caustically asked, “Of what use is that kind of knowledge?”
To which Franklin kindly replied, “Of what use is a child? He may grow into a man.”
We are very much in the same position as Franklin. We have discovered a new force or rather we have uncovered a force that has been here since the beginning of time but only a few have recognized it.
The BIG question is, “What shall we do with it?”
At the moment, we are doing two things: continuing research and acquainting interested people with the idea in order to get their cooperation. That is the reason for this paper. This is the first time the subject has been discussed publicly before an audience.
Eloptic Radiation Theory
There is an all-pervading media that is capable of being set into activity by certain forces. This media might be the same as that which is described by electronic and electrical engineers and physicists as the ether in action at higher harmonics than so far explored, or it may be a finer media. Since it acts as if it were different, let’s call it the FINE MEDIA for descriptive purposes at the moment.
Our material world is made up of combinations of a few units, some of which are called electrons, protons, and neutrons. These units act as if they were precipitations out of the Fine Media, because these units may be disintegrated or put back into their original state in the Fine Media. There is much in today’s scientific literature that points the way to these conclusions in addition to our own research results. The Fine Media can take on or manifest several different qualities, such as frequency and cohesive force.
Just as the ether can be caused to vibrate at different bands of frequencies to manifest as electricity, radio, heat, light, ultraviolet, etc., so can the Fine Media be caused to manifest in many ways.
When the Fine Media is properly influenced, it can be caused to coalesce to the point where material units such as electrons, protons, and neutrons are formed. When these units are desired to be grouped together, a still further manifestation of the Fine Media takes the form of the cohesive force necessary to form the nits into elements such as helium, iron, gold, and uranium. A still further manifestation of the cohesive force is necessary to form elements into compound or complex groups.
When such units are formed into elements or compounds, there is a stress field, or aura, around or radiating from such elements and complex groups. This field or aura has a frequency that is characteristic for each nuclear and molecular combination.
For example, chromium having in its nucleus 24 protons and 30 neutrons will have a slightly lower frequency than will iron with 26 protons and 28 neutrons, even though both nuclei contain the same total number of 54 units each.
This phenomenon is the basis of the idea covered by patents and its use as an analyzing medium, the subject matter of this paper.
It takes a certain amount of energy to cause the Fine Media to coalesce so that the units, protons and neutrons, will be formed and a lesser amount of energy to combine the units into the group of particles called the element, e.g., hydrogen, silver or mercury, and still a lesser amount of energy to form the molecules of the various compounds.
Such an element or compound can be disintegrated back into its components or units or even completely back into the Fine Media from whence it came. The atomic bomb action obeys this principle.
To disintegrate an element and change it back to its units takes energy, the amount depending upon the way the energy is applied. Assume a very heavy weight suspended by a long chain. To cause this weight to oscillate over, e.g., one foot with one blow from a hammer might require a hammer of very large proportion and a giant to wield it.
On the other hand, if a small boy gave the weight a push, then waited a bit and gave another push and another, all timed properly, the weight would begin to swing andintime would be swinging through the arc of one foot.
When a single blow in the form of a fast-moving particle, such as a neutron or alpha particle, accelerated in a cyclotron, is the “hammer”, and the nucleus of an element is to be broken up, the “hammer” must strike a tremendous blow (millions of electron volts) to crack the nucleus.
On the other hand, if a small amount of energy is fed into the nucleus at its proper frequency, the nucleus will easily, slowly, quietly fall apart into its units, just by neutralizing the effect of the cohesive force or binding energy as it is sometimes called. Thus a little energy of proper frequency steadily applied may do more than an enormous amount of energy applied in the brute force manner.
One of the most used but least controlled and understood methods of setting the Fine Media into oscillation is by the Mental-Emotional output from a human being. Just as the crystal in a radio power oscillator sets the frequency, and the energy applied to the plate circuit determines the power output, so does the Mind act to set the frequency and the Emotional Body to furnish the power.
Every time we generate an emotion we start a wave motion in the Fine Media. Such a wave motion can travel infinite distances, and it continues to oscillate until some counteracting wave motion is set up to neutralize the original or until the original wave motion is absorbed by someone or something that is in the proper frequency relation to it.
Just as a radio receiver that is tuned to the exact same frequency as a transmitter acts as if it were connected via some invisible medium to the transmitter by responding exactly as the transmitter is activated, so does a specimen of certain things act as if there were a connection between it and the parent body form which it was taken by responding exactly to all activities of the parent body.
At this point, the scoffer usually says, “That’s all bunk!” Suppose we digress a moment and see to whom he directs his verdict of “bunk”.
Almost 20 years ago, Dr Robert Millikan, former president of the California Institute of Technology and Nobel Prize winner in physics for his work in weighing the electron, was speaking before a joint meeting of all the technical societies of Kansas City, MO. He showed a large number of slides, the last of which was a smooth curve with “f” along the left margin and “e” across the bottom. He said, “Some day we will find that each of the elements of material matter vibrates at a frequency, each different from the other.”
The writer was thrilled beyond words because some of the material in this paper had at that time already been discovered.
Years laterm Dr I.I. Rabi of Columbia University won the AAAS prize for his work on nuclear resonance. Quoting from Science News Letter for January 6, 1940, on this work, we read, “Atoms can act like little radio transmitters broadcasting on ultra short waves.”
The Associated Press release of December 30, 1939, went further and said about Dr Rabi’s findings, “Man himself as well as all kinds of supposedly inert matter constantly emit rays. The existence of such rays coming from man and all living things, and probably from the inanimate, has been suspected by a few scientists for many years. Today brought experimental proof. The discovery shows that every atom and every molecule in nature is a continuous radio frequency broadcasting station. Those who believe in telepathy, second sight and clairvoyance, have in today the first real proof of the existence of invisible rays which really travel from one person to another.”
Another Associated Press release next day states, “Scientists who have studied Dr Rabi’s report said it furnishes for the first time a logical explanation of such things as telepathy, heretofore a quasi-scientific phenomenon, and the ‘feeling’ that someone else is approaching in a dark room. It may also prove to be the source of attraction or repulsion between individuals since all the atoms of the body are continually broadcasting weak but detectable radio signals.”
David Sarnoff, president of RCA, speaking before the 7th International Congress on Rheumatic Diseases in New York (June 1, 1949), said, “Men do not understand how their thoughts and emotions are born, and by what power they grow to fruition. Is this force electricity? When we understand each other, is it because we are attuned to each other electrically or electronically? If so, we should learn the electrical characteristics of the human body.”
On March 7, 1951, the Miami Herald (FL) printed a UP release from Copenhagen, Denmark, Agricultural expert Herluf Hansen said, “Any mental disturbance is immediately reflected in the pig sty. Keep your temper, talk friendly to your pigs, and caress them. The financial result will be excellent.”
The same paper on march 16, 1950, carries this, “If beautiful blondes run away at your approach, if dogs growl at you without explanation, cheer up, maybe it’s not your face after all. Might be your body vibrations.”
This is the theory put forward today b y Austrian psychologist Dr Hubert Rochracker, who says, “The human body sends out minute vibrations that, for good or ill, affect all our daily lives.”
Norman Hillier of New York, speaking at a convention of the National hair Dressers and Cosmetologists Association in Des Moines, IA, said, “A quarrel with her husband will have repercussions in milady’s hair in five minutes.” It reduces the life of a permanent.
The United Press (July 7, 1949) under a Paris dateline quotes two Frenchmen, Jules Clate and Andre Coatrieux, “Every metal and every person, living or dead, sends out short waves of different length. Personal wavelengths are as individual as fingerprints. Eventually we hope to develop it for diagnosing disease.”
You are all acquainted with the work of Dr J.B. Rhine of Duke University I extrasensory perception and his study of the mind and the way it can control things. Every doctor has recognized the effect of the emotions upon the physical body. Expression such as “that man gives me a pain” and “this business makes me sick” may be literally true, according to Dr Edward Weiss of Temple University Medical School. “The body has some sort of ‘organ language’ for the outlet of tense emotions, which mimic almost any disease”, said Dr Weiss.
The work of Dr Felix Bloch and his group at Stanford University and by Dr E. M. Purcell and his group at Harvard, the two groups working independently but simultaneously in 1945, confirmed the work of Dr Rabi and carried it further.
Anyone who is interested will find that hardly a week goes by without some press article or technical reference that ties in and touches on some phase of this phenomena.
A form of energy hitherto unknown has been discovered, and a basic patent has been issued covering its use.
The name ELOPTIC has been coined and assigned to the energy. The word is taken from the first two letters of electricity and the word optic, because the energy has some, but not all, of the characteristics of both those forms of energy.
Eloptic energy radiates from or is in some manner given off from, or forms a force field around, everything in our material world under normal conditions at ordinary room temperature and without any treatment of any kind. Each element and combination of elements that make up our material world gives off this energy; however, the energy from each element differs in frequency from the radiation coming from every other element. Thus, we have a means of determining the contents of an unknown material by analyzing the radiations from it without in any way destroying or disturbing the object or material in question, or having to excite it in any manner.
Eloptic energy obeys certain laws just as does electricity, heat and light, and we have uncovered man, but not all, of these laws and have learned much about the utilization of eloptic energy.
Just as electricity in its infancy had few uses because little was known about conductors, insulators, and the laws governing the action of the force, so is the use of eloptic energy today limited only by available technology.
We have barely scratched the surface of the possibilities; however, there are quite a few uses that have been developed and much is already known about the behavior of eloptic energy.
We have identified the radiations from over one-third of the elements of material matter; the ones easily obtained in relatively pure form such as beryllium, carbon, magnesium, aluminum, iron, copper, zinc, silver, tin, tantalum, platinum, gold, lead, bismuth, etc. Carnotite ore has been analyzed for radium and uranium. Many ore samples have been analyzed to determine the various elements contained in them, and the findings have been verified by more extensive chemical, spectrographic or other analytical methods.
Combinations of two or more elements give off a characteristic frequency of radiation by which the combination may be identified. For example, hydrocarbons such as benzene and toluene have been analyzed and the findings verified by spectrographic and chemical analysis.
Each of the tissues of the body give off a characteristic frequency of radiation by which it can be identified and the virility or vitality of the tissue may be determined by noting the intensity of the radiation.
Each disease entity gives off a characteristic emanation by which its presence in the body and something of its virility may be determined.
Eloptic energy can be conducted along light rays, focused with lenses, refracted with a prism and its effect implanted upon photographic film.
An aerial photograph film taken at several hundred thousand feet elevation can be used to determine what was in the objects photographed on the ground, such as people and metals in buildings, cars, etc.
The apparatus can be set for any elements such as iron, a stylus placed on the spot on the film to be analyzed, the energy implanted on the film can be picked up by the stylus, conducted through the instrument, and if there is the eloptic energy of iron on the film it is evident that there was iron on the ground, radiating the characteristic iron frequency even though not visible to the eye.
Plants can be analyzed to determine whether the root, stem, or fruit contains the elements necessary for proper nutrition, such as iron, copper, manganese and other trace elements. The plant or fruit can also be analyzed to determine whether it contains arsenic or other poisons from sprays.
Foods, poisons, drugs, etc., can be checked to determine their effect upon the body or any particular tissue of the body. Those foods or drugs to which a person is allergic and those which are compatible can be quickly identified.
Just as a photograph can hold the emanation of the object photographed, so can a specimen, an article of clothing, a drop of blood, urine or perspiration carry the emanations of the person from whence it came.
Such a specimen will carry all the emanations from all parts of the body of the person from whom the blood was taken. Its emanation and those taken directly from the body of the person will be the same. Thus, many of the characteristics of the person from whom the bloodor clothing came can be determined.
Thus far, only the analytical phase of the utilization of eloptic energy has been discussed, and that only in a very limited way; but it should be evident that eloptic energy has desirable applications in the fields of: (1) Laboratory chemical analysis, (2) Mining, (3) Prospecting, (4) Medicine, (5) Nutrition, (6) Animal husbandry, (7) Horticulture, (8) Military intelligence, (9) Criminology, and (10) General betterment of humanity.
Naturally, as time goes on and research is continued, many additional uses for eloptic energy will be discovered. We already know that eloptic energy can be generated or picked up from a natural source, filtered, amplified and directed into a tissue of the human body, a plant or animal to produce certain desired effects.
When the eloptic energy from an unknown material is caused to refract through a proper prism, it behaves in the same manner as energy from the visible portion of the spectrum, except that the angles of refraction are much more acute.
It must not be inferred that eloptic radiations and visible light and ultraviolet radiations are the same or related because they all may be refracted through the same prism or that the frequencies are related. Eloptic radiations will behave similarly to the radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum in some respects and entirely different in other respects, showing that they are probably not the same energy at all.
For this reason I prefer to call it the Finer Media.
A 31.5° glass prism with an index of refraction of 1.505 was used in one experiment (see circular coordinate chart). Eloptic energy from a number of elements was caused to enter the prism at an angle of incidence of 5.5° .
Using the face of the prism as “0”, carbon (element # 6) refracted at an angle of 18.25° to the face of the prism, and bismuth (element # 83) at 48.25°. Later, hydrogen gas was found to refract at 16.45°, a range of 31.8° for 83° of the elements of the material world.
Another arrangement employing a 24° prism with an angle of incidence of 17° showed hydrogen approximately 7° from the face of the prism, and bismuth at 62.3°, or a range of 5.3° for the same 83 elements.
A 19 black plexiglass prism of 1.847 index of refraction with an angle of incidence of 19 allowed bismuth to refract through at approximately 65.7° and carbon at 12.15°. All of the angles were measured with a protractor in a somewhat crude way because of the construction of the apparatus, but they are very close to being correct.
If a 90° arc is drawn with the center at the point of eloptic energy emergence at the face of the prism, between a line projected out in the direction along the face of the prism, it will be found that all of the radiations are refracted out in this quadrant (see Prism Refractor sketch). If the arc of the quadrant is divided into 1600 parts with “0” on the line extending along the face of the prism and 1600 on the line perpendicular to the face of the prism, then it will be found that with a certain apparatus arrangement, one of the isotopes of beryllium (Atomic # 4) refracts through at approximately 186 on the scale and that bismuth (Atomic # 83) refracts through at 1097 on the scale, and all of the other elements and their various isotopes refract through in their proper relationship, the one having the lowest nuclear weight indicating a higher frequency and a more acute angle of refraction, and the one with a heavier nuclear weight indicating a lower frequency and emerging at a less acute angle. The tests show that eloptic energy obeys some of the laws of refraction just as does the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Radiation from the Nuclei of Elements
A series of experiments has been carried out that points rather conclusively to the assumption that the radiation that comes from the various pure elements is from the entire nucleus and not from the planetary electrons or from either the neutrons or the protons alone.
The best obtainable pure specimens of the elements Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, Iron and Nickel were used. Tests were run on Radiation Analyzer # 508. Energy peaks from these elements were measured and the prism dial settings for each peak were noted. A study of the number of energy peaks for the various elements indicated that the number coincided in most case with the number of isotopes of the respective elements.
One important item was that one of the peaks for chromium and one for titanium were very close together; that is, they refracted through the prism at near the same angle. The same for another peak of chromium and one for iron, and another for an iron peak and a nickel peak.
The number of protons in each of the isotopes was multiplied by their individual mass weight of 1.00758 and the number of neutrons were multiplied by their individual mass weight of 1.00894 and the two products added to get a factor representing the differnce in two isotopes of the same nuclear particles but with a different number of neutrons and protons in each nuclei.
Thus, titanium with 22 protons and 28 neutrons has a factor of 50.41708, while chromium with 24 protons and 26 neutrons has a factor of 50.41436, a difference of 0.00272, chromium being the lighter, in nuclear weight.
Titanium = ( 22 x 1.00758 ) + ( 28 x 1.00894 ) = 50.41708
Chromium = (24 x 1.00758 ) + ( 26 x 1.00894 ) = 50.41436
Difference = 0.00272
These factors and the prism dial settings were used to produce the curve shown (Nuclear Weight Factor vs Prism Angle). One outstanding fact noted was that the lighter the factor value, the lower the dial setting or higher the frequency of the emanating energy. Another was the smoothness of the curve. Nearly all points are in proper relationship. Irregularities are probably due to slight variations from a true flat of the prism surface.
While plotting this curve, it was noted that in a few cases, there were apparently too many energy peaks for some of the elements. Further study revealed that there were radioactive isotopes of the so-called man-made variety that would fit into these spots. It had already been noted that known radioactive elements gave a much more violent radiation than the so-called stable variety. Tests were then made on the various isotopes to determine the distance that the radiation, or rather, the force field, seemed to extend out from the specimen. Vanadium showed that the three isotopes radiated 18.5″, 5.5″, and 15.5″ respectively, indicating that apparently the middle one was the stable one and the other two were radioactive. The same thing was done for Iron and the distances were 16.5″, 8.5″, 17″, 13″ and 10″ respectively. This looked like there might be a discrepancy as there should not be a radioactive isotope at the point of higher degree of radiation. A reference to the percentage of material usually found in the various isotopes showed that the isotope that radiated 17″ was the one that runs about 90.2% prevalence. It could be that some of the iron of this weight was radioactive or there might have been some contamination from manganese which has a radioactive isotope of the same weight.
After this same procedure had been followed for all the places where there might be a question, and everything seemed to fall into proper place, it was decided to try it on elements at the heavy end of the list. Bismuth showed four isotopes in a row with radiation distances as follows: 13″ for the stable and lightest isotope, and 24.5″, 22″, and 26″, respectively, for the radioactive isotopes. Then a gold link bracelet of very old gold, an heirloom made before the days of so much alloying, was used. The lightest was the stable isotope with a radiation distance of 6″, with two others of 12.75″ and 14.5″ for the two radioactive isotope
The field of exploration into molecular combinations is too vast to be covered in this paper. In fact, not enough work has been done to warrant such detail.
The chief chemist of the analytical laboratory of a large corporation learned, through a mutual friend, about some of our work while the patent application was being processed in Washington and were not too anxious to divulge much information, but after several letters we agreed to help him. One of his letters said, “We have recently expanded into a new field of research and some of the problems encountered are giving us a great deal of trouble. Your apparatus may be the answer.”
We allowed him to bring his specimens to our laboratory and we spent two days with him, most of the time in getting equipment ready for the tests. Finally, we analyzed the contents of four bottles marked A1, A2, A3, A4. We had no idea beforehand what was in them.
We poured a small quantity of liquid from bottle A1 into a pyrex beaker, placed it in the instrument, and proceeded to “tune in” to all the “broadcasts” that came from the beaker and its contents. Then we did the same for the liquid in bottles A2, A3, and A4. As soon as we had listed the five energy peaks from the empty beaker, six from A1, nine from A2, four from A3and nine from A4, and had charted them with relation to each other, the chemist said, “Now I know my trouble. A1 is a solvent that works fine, A2 is supposed to be the same. Our tests and those of the oil company who sells it to us say it is the same as A1, but it will not work right and is causing us much trouble. It is quite obvious that A2 has been contaminated by A4, which is toluene. A3 is benzene.”
The three contaminants marked (*) were in both solvent A2 and toluene. The empty beaker contained oxygen and boron, silicon and calcium, per Corning Glass Company and a separate spectrographic analysis.
He took a copy of our test data back with him, and in about a month he wrote, “We have finished our chemical and spectrographic analyses on the production solvent samples we tested in your laboratory, and I have gone over the data obtained in your laboratory. Toluene has nine characteristic groupings within the molecule, five of these are unique to toluene and four are also found in the benzene molecule. The data from your laboratory is consistent with these facts.”
Progress to Date
Think of electricity today and then try to picture Ben Franklin with his first “condenser” charged by electricity from a cloud via a kite string. Perhaps some of you remember seeing in museums some of the early day electrical apparatus and how peculiar it appeared. Remember the first crystal detector wireless set you ever saw, and then look at a modern radio installation.
We are just now learning which materials are conductors and which are insulators of eloptic energy. Our present apparatus is very crude compared with what we expect it to be in a few years with the help of physicists who really want to develop this idea.
Our present method of detection depends upon the sense of touch of the operator and that requires training, just as a chemist, a radio operator, a good cook, an artist, all require training. Some day we will have learned more about eloptic energy so we can get it to ring a bell, light a light, or actuate a meter. Until then, we will be dependent upon present methods.
We have been able to impose eloptic energy upon an electric current and amplify it, but since it is not electricity it alone will not operate electrical devices.
So far we have found nothing that does not lend itself to being analyzed as to its elemental content with the exception of the air around us and those materials of which the apparatus is composed, unless there is a fair quantity available.
Despite some of the limitations and apparent crudity of the apparatus and techniques sofar developed, it can do things in the laboratory in a few minutes that are absolutely impossible or may take long periods of time by chemical analysis. It can quickly point the way for chemical analysis to follow in order to eliminate many of the time-taking tests when an unknown is to be analyzed. It is especially valuable where there is only a small quantity of the material available. A drop of unknown liquid will work better than a gallon. The material to be analyzed is on no way changed or destroyed during the analysis. Only the emanation normally radiating from it are utilized.
We are not chemical engineers, physicists or mathematicians, but we have spent over a quarter of a century observing and experimenting, blindly most of the time, to uncover a force or energy or phenomena, about which there had, until recently, been nothing written that we might follow.
When the US Patent Office issues a basic patent with half a dozen method claims covering the use for analysis of an energy that was not mentioned in any acceptable standard text, it should be quite evident that this is not a wild dream of a disordered mind.
The Effect of Magnetism on Eloptic Radiation
A major problem in prospecting for minerals with the Eloptic Energy Analyzer proved to be precise location. Experiment had demonstrated that the energy from buried metal, etc., spreads around it on a very large irregular pattern, varying in shape and size from day to day and even from hour to hour. It had also been observed on a small scale that this energy can be influenced by magnetism. Therefore it was decided to explore the possibility of using magnets in the field to eliminate or concentrate the diffused energy.
For this purpose, several ounces of sterling silver were buried about 30 inches deep in a level, open field. The Analyzer was placed nearby and its input was connected to a long insulated copper wire. On the end of this was fastened a test probe.
To determine how far the energy extended from the buried silver, the probe was driven into the ground successively at various distances along several radii, and readings were taken on the Analyzer. In this way the field of radiation was found, at that time, to form an irregular “pool”, extending not less than 50 feet from the silver and mostly very much farther.
Now two magnets were made, hollow core solenoids drawing about 10amperes at twelve volts. These were paced on end about 20 feet due east of the silver, and iron rods (5/8″ by 4 ft) were driven through them and about two feet into the ground.
At first three batteries (18 volts) were connected, and about an hour was allowed for the energy field to adjust itself. Then tests were run as before with the Analyzer, and it was found that the field had shrunk considerably. Following this, two more batteries were attached and additional tests were made. The energy field was now found to have shrunk still farther, and to possess a more simplified outline showing certain definite characteristics. Toward the East it terminated near the magnets, and to the Northwest it exhibited a pronounced bulge of about 15 or 16 ft radius.
At this point the two magnets and batteries were moved to within 12 ft of the silver and two more batteries were added, making 7 in all (42 volts). Measurements with the Analyzer now showed that the energy pool had completely disappeared as such. There remained only two well defined bands or streams of energy about a foot wide. One of these extended along a straight line connecting the silver and the magnets, and the other thrust out about 8 ft toward the Northeast, then turned and proceeded directly to the magnets. Further tests with the Analyzer showed that the energy drawn to the magnets appeared to dissipate itself above them and over the batteries in a kind of plume.
This experiment demonstrates that this energy is definitely subject to magnetic attraction. It also shows that the energy exhibits a strong tendency to flow toward the Northwest.
US Patent # 2,482,773
Detection of Emanations from Materials & Measurement of the Volumes Thereof
(Cl. 250-63) Sept. 27, 1940
Thomas G. Hieronymous
This invention relates to the art of detecting the presence of and measuring the intensity or quantity of any of the known electrochemical series of elements of material matter, or the combination of two or more such elements, whether in solid, fluid or gaseous forms at ordinary room temperatures and without special treatment or requiring any change in the material under observation.
The primary aim of this invention is the provision of a method and apparatus for detecting the presence of any element or combination of elements that may be in the substances under observation and to determine the intensity or quantity thereof.
This invention has for a still further object to provide a method and means for detecting the presence of and analyzing and measuring the quantity or intensity of elements or combinations of elements in the substance under observation through the capture and analysis of radiations emanating from the said elements, whether the said radiations be of electrical or optical characteristics, or both.
A yet further aim of this invention is to provide an instrument having a reaction device, the surface whereof is affected by the introduction of radiations thereto, in such a manner that the surface of the device will have its ability to resist movement of articles over its face changed when energy flows through the apparatus, of which the reaction device is a part.
A further aim of the invention is to provide an atomic radiation analyzer, having as one of its important elements, a reaction device, the surface whereof is affected to increase adhesion or friction as the operator of the analyzer strokes the surface of the device and manipulates the instrument to direct radiation thereto.
It ahs been discovered that there are radiations emanating from or released from each of the known elements constituting material matter. These radiations occur at ordinary room temperatures, i.e., 40° F to 90° F and they have electrical and optical characteristics and frequencies which are disposed in the zone from the violet ray portion of the visible spectrum up into the ultraviolet portion, which zone has as yet not been fully explored. Since it has been found that these radiations from the elements or their effect may be carried over electrical conductors, it is the object of this invention to provide apparatus having suitable conductors and parts so that analyzing of substances may be accomplished. The radiation or the effect of such radiations from known elements or combinations of two or more elements of material matter may not only be carried over electrical conductors and handled in a manner similar to an ordinary electrical currnet, but they may be affected by electrical capacity inductance and resistance. The radiations may also be refracted, focused, diffracted or otherwise manipulated in the same manner as the radiations of the visible spectrum. Accordingly, therefore, this invention has for one of its aims to provide an instrument for handling the radiations, identifying their presence, analyzing them and measuring their intensity — all to the end that the presence of one or more of the known elements may be concluded from the character of the radiation as determined by the behavior of the analyzing device and the values read from the appropriate scales forming a part of the instrument.
Other objects of the invention will appear during the course of the following specifications, referring to the accompanying drawing, wherein:
Prior to referring specifically to the parts of the apparatus diagrammatically illustrated in the drawing, clarification of the theory upon which the invention is predicated will be made by explaining experiments heretofore conducted and capable of proving the phenomenal theories hereinafter disclosed as having a bearing upon the practicability and utility of both the electrical and optical apparatus.
Radiations from each of the known elements of matter produce some form of energy, probably electrons which can be made to flow along electrical conductors. The flow from each of the elements having characteristics different from the others. Conversely, the flow of electrons along a conductor produces a radiation having characteristics of the radiation from each respective element.
Such of the known elements as are required to feed growing plants have been transmitted to the plants through metallic conductors as the plants were entirely isolated from the elements upon which they were fed. More precisely, seeds were planted in boxes in a darkened basement room. One of the boxes of plants of plants containing some of the seeds was used as a control and no apparatus for transmitting element radiations thereto provided. The remaining boxes of plants had electrodes or plates of conducting material mounted or otherwise disposed adjacent thereto, and each box of plants was separately attached to a conductor extending to a plant outside the building where electrodes or plates were attached to a conductor extending to a point outside the building where electrodes or plates were attached to the conductors and allowed to remain exposed to the light. Such of the known elements as required to impart normal characteristics to the plants were apparently fed thereto by having the radiations of the elements from the light conducted to the plants through the wires and associated electrodes. The treated plants were relatively healthy but the control plants assumed the characteristics of growing vegetation which has been deprived of the elements in natural light. Particularly was the control plant devoid of chlorophyll while the remaining plants were green.
Apparatus for laboratory or commercial use and for detecting the presence of any of the known elements, preferably relies upon the element of touch, and therefore the skill of the operator. The instrument diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 1 comprises a unit 10 including a coil 12 disposed to pick up radiation from substance 14, wherein the known elements are disposed and that are to be detected. The temperature of substance 14 may be within the range of from 40° to 90° F, but such temperature is not critical. This range has been found satisfactory in actual practice.
Coil 12 may be a spirally wound flat body approximately 2 inches in diameter and formed of magnet insulated wire of any conventional size. As an alternative, this coil 12 may be a single layer, cylindrical coil, wound on an insulating material substantially 1 inch in diameter. The examples given for this coil 12 are not critical and so long as the coil is in the field of radiation of substance 14, the purpose of unit 10 will be fulfilled.
Instead of employing coil 12, wire 20 may be directly connected to substance 14 or wire 20 may be terminated in an electrode and the latter disposed with relation to substance 14 as to pick up the radiations therefrom, as does coil 12 in the illustrated embodiment. In this case, wire 18 may be grounded or connected separately to substance 14 or terminated in another electrode which may also be placed near substance 14. The proximity of substance 14 to coil 12 or the electrodes as the case may be, is such as to be within the field of radiation of the emanations from substance 14.
Apparatus 16 is a manually manipulatable analyzer tuneable to the specific radiation desired. It consists of two principal parts, the first being the two standard type of variable condensers, 22 and 24, and the second being the ray refracting device made up of electrode 32 — passageway 36, prism 28, and electrode 38, all as shown in Figure 2. Apparatus 16 is joined to unit 10 by conductors 18 and 20 across which is disposed a conventional variable condenser 22 and with which is employed a condenser of similar type 24, located in conductor 26, as illustrated. Variable condensers 22 and 24 may be of standard radio broadcast type and they are provided with graduated scales in conventional manner.
Prism 28 is of any suitable ray defracting substance as glass, quartz or analogous materials. In practice a prism 28 having two polished faces disposed at angles from 30 to 60 degrees has proved satisfactory. An electrode 32 is joined to coil 12 by conductor 20 and conductor 34. Stationary electrode 32 may be of any electrical conducting material such as aluminum, brass, copper or substances having analogous electrical properties. The distance of electrode 32 from prism 28 is not critical so long as the radiations or emanations reach prism 28 through a confined path of travel in the nature of a thin band or line. In practice, this distance was from one-half to two inches. A passageway 36 formed between a pair of optically opaque insulating elements directs the radiations to a desired area on one face of prism 28.
The angle of incidence of this path of travel to the face of the prism 28 was of the order of 5.5 degrees for best results and for obtaining the wisest useful segment along scale 31.
An electrode 38 shiftable along scale 31 is joined to unit 40 by conductor 42. Electrode 38 is of the same specifications as to materials and distance from prism 28 as electrode 32 but is suitably mounted for movement adjacent to scale 31 where its position may readily be indicated by a pointer 78 moveable therewith and extending outwardly therefrom toward scale 31 in alignment with the path of travel of the thin ray of energy indicated by the line 76. The axis of rotation of electrode 38 is substantially on a median line extending longitudinally across the face of prism 28 proximal to electrode 38. Electrodes 32 and 38 work best when they are relatively thin and of the order of a few mils thickness.
As illustrated in Figure 2, scale 31 is calibrated with indicia 44, and these indicia are on chart 46 along one edge thereof. The indicia on chart 46 have been given a corresponding reference numeral to those on scale 31 for clarifying the description hereinafter set down. Indicia 48 on chart 46 designate the atomic weight of elements of matter and continue up to include all known elements of the electrochemical series when the full size chart is employed.
Unit 40 is a variable resistor. It may be either a continuous variable type or it may consist of a series of non-inductive resistance units 50, 52, 54 and 56, each adjusted by a switch having movable points 62, 64, 66 and 68 respectively.
In practice, unit 50 will have ten times the resistance of unit 52, which in turn is ten times the size of unit 54, etc. (The values may range from fractions of 1 ohm up to several megohms). Unit 50, e.g., might be 1 megohm in steps of 100,000 ohms each; unit 52 would then be 100,000 in steps of 10,000 ohms each; unit 54 then would be 10,000 ohms total in steps of 1,000 ohms each, and so on until the smallest unit would have steps low enough to give the desired exactness to the measured volume or intensity of the radiations.
Unit 40 is joined to unit 70 by means of an untuned radio frequency type transformer 58 through the medium of conductors 42 and 60. Unit 40 may be joined to unit 78 by resistance coupling or other conventional coupling of the type frequently used in standard broadcast radio receivers and which is analogous to transformer 58.
Unit 70 may be a conventional three stage tuned radio frequency broadcast band type of amplifier with the usual variable resistances omitted or it may be of the resistance coupled or impedance coupled type often used in radio broadcast type amplifiers. Said amplifier intensifies the value of the radiations reaching it so that the effect upon detector 72 is clearly discernable. Under some conditions, the reactions from unit 40 may be put directly into detector 72 without interposing unit 70 but amplification of the radiations is desirable.
Detector 72 is a device that will indicate a change from its normal state when the radiations from the analyzer 16 are caused to influence it.
Detector 72 is preferably an electrical conductor coated with a material having such characteristics that under the influence of energy flowing through the conducting portion, the coating will change its surface tension or viscosity, or in some manner give evidence of the presence of the energy flowing through the conducting portion by producing a greater drag or resistance to the movement of any part of the body of the operator thereover, such as the hand or fingers. It has been found practical to use a metal plate covered with a sheet of plastic or coated with lacquer, which plate is of an area convenient for stroking with the tips of the fingers or the palm of the hand. It may also be a sheet or plastic with a coil similar to coil 12 disposed adjacent thereto and connected to the coupling transformer 14.
Figure 4 illustrates another form of that part of unit 16, sowing Figure 2, so far as the element separator or filter portion thereof is concerned. This separation or filtering is accomplished in the embodiment illustrated in Figure 1 and Figure 2 by prism 28. In Figure 4 a lens 100 has the electrode 32 disposed adjacent thereto and movable electrode 38 is shiftable toward and from lens 100.
Scale indicia 44 are disposed in a line parallel to the path of travel of electrode 38 and the element or elements involved will be determined by the location or the scale of pointer 78 at the instant a reaction is obtained at detector 72.
Chart 46 is of course produced as a part of the complete apparatus when such apparatus is manufactured and after prism 28 (or lens 100, as the case may be) is installed as a unit of the material detector. A small quantity of each of the known chemical elements is placed adjacent to coil 12 and with full knowledge of the element, the angle of radiation formed by line 76 and, the face of the prism 28, is determined and the degree numeral on scale 31, which identifies the angle of radiation, is placed on chart 46 as one of the indicia 44 (degree readings from scale 31) and indicia 48 (the atomic weight of the known elements) then when the apparatus is in practical use, any material or substance may be located adjacent to coil 12 and its components definitely determined by positioning electrode 38 on a line of radiation 76 where the degree number on the face of the scale 31 is quickly read and used by referring to chart 46. When the degree indicia 44 is so located, the line on chart 46 extending therefrom is followed until it reaches the diagonal line 45 on chart 46 whereupon the operator then follows the intersecting line to the lower edge of the chart where the value of the atomic weight 48 is read. These atomic weights are well known and are used in conventional texts and scientific works.
In practice, for example, let it be assumed that substance 14 contains calcium but it is not known that such is the case. The angle at which the unknown ray or radiation leaves prism 28 will teach its name form as the operator moves the fingers over the surface of detector 72, electrode 38 is shifted slowly and pointer 78 moves along scale 31 until a greater degree of adhesion or resistance to motion at the surface of the detector 72 is set up. This occurs when the energy or radiation flows from unit 16 through units 40 and 70 into detector 72. When electrode 38 is at a position where it is intercepting a radiation from prism 28, or lense 100, the resistance to stroke at detector 72 will be of highest order.
As soon as electrode 38 has been positioned as described, variable condenser 22 is adjusted while the operator continues to stroke detector 72 to a position where the greatest drag at detector 72 is again manifested. Next, variable condenser 24 is similarly manipulated to obtain a setting where the drag at detector 72 again reaches a maximum. Electrode 38 is then readjusted for a final position. The employment of condensers 22 and 24 insure a more accurate setting of pointer 78 by virtue of their additional filtering action.
In the illustration, electrode 38 has intercepted the path of radiation with pointer 78 at the numeral 30 on scale 31 and reference to chart 46 will teach the operator that the element having atomic weight 79.2 is that from which the radiation along dotted line 76 is traveling. If atomic weight 79.2 is calcium then that element in substance 14 has been located.
The manner of using lense 100 is substantially the same as described in connection with the use of prism 28. The focal point of paths of radiation of the elements will cause detector 72 to react and establish a drag to the operator’s touch, whereupon the scale 31 may be read and its reading translated by reference to chart 46.
What actually happens at detector 72 to increase or decrease it drag to the touch of the operator, is not known but the apparatus functions as above set forth when constructed as specified, and therefore, a positively acting analyzer for atomic radiations is produced even though the principle upon which it is based is not fully known.
Radiation from hydrogen passes through prism 26 at the sharpest angle or at the lowest degree measured from the face of prism 28. Radiations from other elements and their isotopes pass through prism 28 at greater angles but in the same order as their atomic weights — the heavier the element or its isotope, the wider the angle.
A substance composed of two or more of the known elements may be analyzed as herein set down to determine its component constituents. The substance itself which consists of two or more known elements may be identified because the emanations therefrom will produce a composite frequency peculiar to that combination of elements. All combinations may be charted in precisely the same manner as herein described for all the individual known elements in the electrochemical series.
Unit 40 is used to measure the intensity of the radiations from a given element or substance by adjusting the several switches comprising unit 40 until the maximum amount of resistance has been introduced into the circuit without interrupting the reactions manifested at detector 72. The switches are calibrated in conventional resistance values and a chart must be prepared that will relate the value indicating by switch setting of unit 40 the quantitative units of measurement.
It is realized that apparatus for detecting materials and measuring the volumes thereof, having physical characteristics different from those illustrated and described, might be made without departing from the spirit of the invention or scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is: [Claims not included here
“Conducting Chlorophyll Energy over Wires”
by Dr. T. Galen Hieronymous
About 1930, I decided to try an experiment of conducting Chlorophyll Energy over wires. I had been conducting Eloptic Energy over long distance via wire.
A wood platform was installed on the south side of the house about six feet above the ground in order to get the desired potential of energy which increases with distance above the ground.
Having some wooden cigar boxes available, I cut boxes apart and cut pieces and made eight boxes that were 2″ X 2″ X 4″ although any size boxes will work.
Aluminum foil was placed on the bottom of seven boxes inside so as to be in contact with the soil.
Similar pieces of foil were placed on the underside of the lid of each box.
Wires were connected to each piece of foil, the wires from the lids were extended to the sun plates, the wires from the bottom foils were connected to the water pipe and thus grounded.June 16, 2021 at 18:42 #1736
Articles by Shabari Bird
1. How did you become interested in agrohomeopathy and how have you developed your knowledge of agrohomeopathic methods?
I was first introduced to homeopathy when I was 20. I was living in Paris and my hostess took me to a homeopathic pharmacy. I met Dr. Pierre Dassonville who treated me for the flu with Gelsemium. In 1973 I read Secret Life of Plants co-authored by my late husband Christopher Bird and Peter Tompkins. In 1974 After reading about Dr. Edward Bach, a London homeopath who developed what is now known as Bach Flower Remedies I ordered a Bach Flower Remedy kit.. I studied Homeopathic Medicine at the National Center for Homeopathy (NCH) Professional Course, Millersville College, PA, 1976, 1977, 1978;
I continued my education through seminars in Classical Homeopathy with Professor George Vithoulkas, New York, NY in 1982 and with Bill Gray.
I apprenticed in Classical Homeopathy with Alan Sutherland, MD and Christopher Easter in Maryland. In 1979 I organized the first homeopathic class in Georgia with George Guess, MD. Harris Livermore Coulter, author of Divided Legacy, History of Homeopathy and Medicine was personal friend of Shabari and my late husband Christopher Bird.
According to the doctrine of sympathetic resemblances all growing things reveal through their structure, form, color and aroma their particular usefulness. Good farming begins with observation and through this most farmers can discover the best energetic treatment of their ailing soils and plants.
Shabari and Richard Monet Georgia Organics 2015
2. Can you explain agro homeopathy and its benefits?
My husband Hugh Lovel and our company Quantum Agriculture work with small and very large scale farms many are certified organic. We encourage every possible natural means to increase soil fertility and to deal with inconvenient pests and insects.
Through Biodynamics, we use various herbal remedies which have been dynamized through rhythm. Homeopathic remedies are prepared in a similar fashion.
My first experiments with homeopathic treatment for plants was with Bach Rescue Remedy for the treatment of transplant shock. It work magnificently. Like homeopathy, biodynamic agriculture (BD) uses substances in infinitesimal quantities, but these are sprayed on soil and plants or put in compost heaps a very important contribution of Agro-homeopathy is that it neither attacks nor affects the environment, but instead, lends to the re-establishment of the ecological equilibrium.
The homeopathic potentising of the biodynamic preparations dates back to the work of Doctors Eugen and Lily Kolisko, during the 1920’s…. It is clear from Rudolf Steiner‘s encouragement of the Kolisko’s work, his other suggestions in ‘Agriculture’, and his effort in Anthroposophical medicine, that he was very much in favour of using homeopathic methods in all spheres of life…. The work done by the Koliskos, establishing the effective potencies using seed baths on wheat seedlings (followed by measuring the root and first and second leaf lengths) was redone in 1991.
Immediately I grasped the possibility of homeopathic treatment of soil and plant fungus imbalances, growth enhancement, enhancing fruit flowering and ripening, and treatment of
3. How can agro homeopathic methods deter pests and keep soil fertile?
Experiments with homeopathically applied herbicides and other artificially synthesized substances have proven these substances function as growth promoters when diluted in a classic homeopathic fashion.
Agro-homeopathic preparations can be made from synthesized substances, plants, minerals, poisons, animal residues but they do not cause anything residual or produce damage to the environment. ….
Biodynamic “Peppering” is a process in which an offending pest, insect, weed seed, fungus, etc is burned in a small wood fire, ashes gathered and diluted rhymatly and then applied to gardens and farms. Our Quantum Ag farmers have about an 80 % success rate using this method.
I also use a variety of common homeopathic remedies for most of my garden needs.
4. How affordable is agro homeopathy?
To use an Australianism: Cheap as Chips; most affordable of all methods. Most remedies available in local health food shop. And non-toxic.
5. What are your favourite remedies or methods?
Ferrum phosphoricum Ferr-p. Injury from disease; injury from fire; mechanical injury; injury from storm; rotting fruit; capillary paralysis; pseudomonas; black spot; bacterial stripe. Ferrum sulphuricum Ferr-s. Weevils; absent petals; malformed petals; shrivelled flowers; absent fruit; diminished fruit; rotting fruit; brown rot with caterpillars; brown rot with maggots; unhealthy flowers; immature ovaries; absent ovaries; immature stamen; black mould; grey mold;
Helix tosta Helx. Snails and slugs
Hepar sulphuris calcarea Abies. Beetles; caterpillars; cabbage moth; flies; cabbage flies; cabbage fly; carrot fly; white fly
Hyssopus officinalis Hyss. Injury by insect; shrivelled with pest activity; late blight with bacterium; pseudomonas; rot; bacterial rot; beetles; flea beetle; bugs; caterpillars; cabbage moth; crickets; flies; moths; cabbage moth; sawfly; thrips; wasps; weevils;
Juglans nigra Juglans. epidermis: dry, foamy, slimy, patchy, wet; diminished fruits; orange discolouration; red discolouration; yellow discolouration; excessive leaves; deficient respiration; increased water requirement; decreased water requirement
Kali oxalicum Kali. Injury by insect; shrivelled by pests; caterpillars; cluster caterpillar; procession moth; spitfire; webworm; flies; hawk moth; rust mite; moths; diamondback moth; grapevine moth; potato moth; procession moth; sawfly; sawfly larvae; hard scales; soft scales
Kali bichromicum Kali-b. Boron deficiency; boron excess;
Kali carbonicum Kali-carb. Drooping flowers; absent petals; discoloured petals; malformed petals; shrivelled flowers; diminished fruit; shrivelled with pest activity; immature ovaries; shrivelled ovaries; no pollination; defective pollination; impaired pollination; immature stamen; shrivelled stamen;
Kali iodatum Kali-i. Mites;
Magnesia carbonica Mag-c. Damping off; windrowing;
Magnesia muriatica Mag-m. Injury by pests; shrivelled with pest activity; aphids; Magnesia phosphorica
Mag-ph Salination damage – fertiliser run-off, natural salts; salination; mites
Magnesia sulphurica Mag-sulph. Salination damage – bores, fertiliser run-off, natural salts; salination; blotch; damping off; mildew; powdery mildew; downy mildew;
Magnesium metallicum Mag-m
Calcium deficiency; manganese deficiency; Phosphorus deficiency;calcium excess; manganese excess; phosphorus excess;
Calcium deficiency; Iron deficiency; Phosphorus deficiency; calcium excess; iron excess; phosphorus excess; potassium excess
Manganum aceticum Mang-ac. Mouldy epidermis
Mentha piperta Menth. Insect damage; shrivelled with pest activity; ants; aphids; beetles; caterpillars; moths
Shabari Bird teahcing Radionics treatment of farms at Georgia Organics
In 1973, I was diagnosed with stage 4 non-Hodgkin’s
Lymphoma. I left Sloan-Kettering Hospital in shock. I was
twenty-four years old and an up and rising woman
My heart longed for nature and I decided to
move to my parent’s summer cabin in the Blueridge Mountains
of North Georgia. I had wisely decided to fight back this death sentence.
I chose the Gerson regime and fasted on carrot and
other vegetable juices for nearly a year.
During this time I started my first ever garden. As I planted
the veggies and flowers I dug up huge, sometimes four feet
I had been befriended by some local elders who were teaching me about plants and herbs. Unwisely I decided to put this mystery root in my juicer with carrots.
Within thirty minutes I was hallucinating and then came vomiting and frothy diarrhea. This went on for almost eight hours. My neighbors came and sat on the bed and
helped the best they could. Since they knew I had cancer, they had assumed I was dying. During that time, I assumed I was dying, in fact I felt so badly, I would have preferred death.
Well, death did not come. In fact two weeks later, I was in better health than for the previous two years and all my lymphatic swellings and tenderness in my spleen had
completely disappeared. My neighbors commented that I looked and acted like a new and different person.
What was this powerful and magic root? Poke (Ink Plant) root with the genus name of Phytolacca. This plant has become my ally for the forty years since then. I have spent time
every year since then studying it, how to use it, how to heal with it, how to harvest it and how to grow it.
My old time Cherokee Medicine teacher had told me about using Poke for Bone Spurs. In the past five years over thirty people I know have successfully dissolved Bone Spurs in the neck, spine and
feet using three dried Pokeberries a day for one month. Twenty people I know are currently using one dried Pokeberry a day effectively controlling pain of arthritis and
Rheumatism. Two women I know have dissolved breast tumors with three Pokeberries and Poke Root Poultices daily for three months.
Poke Root is also known by the names Pigeon Berry, Cancer Root, Red Ink Plant, Shang-lu, Congora, Coakum, Inkberry, Scoke, and Red Weed. Poke Root
is an American perennial shrub which grows in damp woodlands, hedges, and waste places, especially in the South. The parts of this plant used medicinally are the
roots and the berries. The genus name Phytolacca is from the Greek “phyton”, meaning “plant”, and the French word “lac” in reference to the plant’s ability to
yield a “reddish dye”. The name Poke is derived from an Indian word “pocan”, a name for any plant that yields a red dye, and from “pak”, meaning “blood”. A dye
from the fermented berries has been used as ink and paint, and for basket coloring. In fact, the United States Constitution
was written in Pokeberry ink.
Early Tribal healers and the 19th-century American Eclectic Physicians who popularized Native botanicals
knew Poke as a powerful lymphatic system stimulant and medicine for arthritis and various skin diseases.
Today, herbalists use Poke cautiously for similar conditions and scientific researchers are investigating its
antiviral, anticancer, antifungal, anti-rheumatic, and immune stimulant properties.
The Eclectic Physicians, a group of botanically inclined practitioners working in the 19th and early
20th centuries, left an extensive literature on the clinical use of Native American plants including
Phytolacca was known to the Eclectics as a powerful remedy in cases of mastitis, breast cysts, testicular and
breast cancers as well as other types of cancers. It was rightfully considered to be a potent medicine that was
cautiously used to help correct serious health problems. Today, practitioners use homeopathic preparations of
Phytolacca, or small doses of the tincture, dried Pokeberries or extract made from the root or berries.
Modern practitioners use Poke in cases of acute or chronic infection as an immune stimulant and lymphatic
system alterative, as an effective anti-inflammatory in rheumatoid arthritis and similar conditions, and as part
of a treatment for breast conditions including mastitis, cysts, and cancers. It is also employed for “ringworm”
and other fungal conditions of the skin. The berries of Poke are very interesting in that they contain good medicine and fewer toxins than other parts
of the plant – with the exception of their seeds. Some Appalachian old-timers will swallow one to three dried berries whole, not crunching up the seeds, as a tonic for
“rheumatism.” They say that the seeds won’t hurt you if you don’t break them open. Research in Italy has shown that the enzymes in the berries effectively neutralize the
toxins in the seeds. I always recommend that the dried berries be swallowed whole and never chewed.
The only well-documented report of a fatality from
Poke that I have yet found – after my 35 years of research – is
a case of a child dying after the ingestion of “grape juice”
made from large amounts of crushed berries – ones with
the seeds broken open.
The truth is that Poke, when properly
used, is both safe and effective. It can also be a serious
poison when ingested improperly, but is far less poisonous
than some other plants and many pharmaceutical drugs.
A study published in 1995 by Krenzelok and Provost in
the Journal of Natural Toxins analyzed information from
American Poison Information Centers over a recent tenyear
period. They found that Poke was the seventh most
frequently ingested poisonous plant, but that 65.3 % of
these exposures resulted in “no effect,” 5.8 % in a “minor
effect,” and 0.4 % in a “moderate effect”; there were no
Scientists continue to search for new uses for this
potent herb. In Africa, the plant is being investigated for its ability
to control Bilharzia, a parasitic disease contracted by bathing
in water containing certain snails. In Argentina, the
methanolic extract of the berries of Phytolacca tetramera,
an Argentinean species showed antifungal activity against
opportunistic pathogenic fungi.
Poke antiviral proteins are of great interest for their
broad, potent antiviral (including Human Immunodeficiency
Virus) and antifungal properties (P. Wang et al.
1998). Pokeweed is a powerful immune stimulants, promoting
T- and B-lymphocyte proliferation and increased immunoglobulin
Saponins found in P. americana and P. dodecandra are
lethal to the molluscan intermediate host of schistosomiasis
(J. M. Pezzuto et al. 1984).
A study was carried out to ascertain anti-carcinogenic
effects of poke root on breast cancer cells. Poke
roots were freeze-dried and powdered. The powdered
materials were extracted three times with methanol/
water mixture and/or water. The extracts were administered
at concentrations of 0 to 1 mg/mL into human
breast (ATCC ZR-75-30) cell cultures maintained in
RPMI medium supplemented with 10% FBS and
cultured in the presence of a serial dilution of crude
extracts for 24, 48, and 72 h.
The anti-proliferative activity of crude extracts from
poke root on cancer cells was measured using MTT
assay. Methanol/water extracts of poke root significantly
reduced breast cancer cells’ proliferation and growth
at concentration of 0.6 mg/mL and above. The water
extract of poke root showed less inhibitory effect on
breast cancer cell growth. There is a need for detailed
investigation of the mechanism of modulation of poke
root extracts and based on that, a possible therapeutic
agent can be visualized and is now being used in various Chemotherapy applications.
Poke weed Phytolacca Americana
New research has revealed that a possible cure for Childhood Leukemia called [B43-PAP] is found in the common Pokeweed. Anti-B43-pokeweed antiviral
protein, B43-PAP, PAP is a pokeweed toxin. The B43 carries the weapon – the PAP – to the leukemia cells. In
one study 15 out of 18 children who had participated had attained remission.
The following is part of a report from Parker
The two parts of this drug are the B43 antibody [or
anti-CD19] and the pokeweed antiviral protein [PAP]
immunotoxin, a natural product in the pokeweed plant.
B43 is designed to recognize specific B-cell leukemia cells
just as natural antibodies attack and recognize germs.
When the antibody finds a leukemia cell, it attaches
and B43 delivers the other part of the drug, PAP. Inside
the cell, PAP is released by the antibody and inactivates
the ribosomes that make the proteins the cell needs to
survive. With the cell unable to produce proteins, the
specific leukemia cell is killed. More than 100 patients
have been treated with B43-PAP and shown only minimal
Pokeweed antiviral protein shuts down the ribosomal
“energy generators” in cells infected by HIV. Phytolacca
mitogens stimulate the production of B and T cells by the
immune system. They also, however, increase sensitivity to
the lectins of foods. The triterpene saponins in pokeroot
have been shown to counteract swelling and edema caused
by acute allergic response.
Pokeroot is safe for poultices and external use. Poke leaf
is edible when boiled twice. Consumption of raw poke
leaves and root can cause gastroenteritis with intense
vomiting and frothy diarrhea.
Usually used as a tincture in a dosage of one drop per
day. Three dried pokeberries for one month swallowed
whole without chewing followed by one dried berry daily
for up to one year is safe. Do not overdose. Most often
found in topical applications like creams, ointments,
and oils. Pokeroot is for treatment, not prevention.
Some take pokeroot tinctures for up to 2 weeks at a time to overcome
the symptoms of colds, flu, sore throat, mastitis, or
tonsillitis. Use 5 drops of tincture in 3/4 cup (60 ml) of
warm water to soak a 5” x 5” cloth to treat skin inflamed
by eczema or psoriasis up to 3 times a day for up to 2
weeks. Ten drops of equal parts of the juice of ripe poke
berries and alcohol may be given every thirty minutes in
membranous and spasmodic croup with great success.
Use of pokeroot to treat lymphedema, testicular
Inflammation, or ovarian pain, or as an alterative for
Cancer should be medically supervised.
Precautions: When ingested, the roots, leaves, and
fruits may poison animals, including Homo sapiens.
Symptoms of poke poisoning include sweating, burning
of the mouth and throat, severe gastritis, vomiting, bloody
diarrhea, blurred vision, elevated white-blood-cell counts,
and unconsciousness. If consumption is greater than 1/2
ounce of the berries or root or 10 berries in an infant, coma
and death by respiratory paralysis could occur. Safety has
not been established for pregnant women, nursing mothers,
or children under the age of 6. Do not use pokeroot if
you have liver or kidney disease. “Accidental exposure to
juices from Phytolacca Americana via ingestion, breaks in
the skin, and the conjunctiva has brought about hematological
changes in numerous people, including researchers
studying this species” (G. K. Rogers 1985).
Pokeweed is most easily grown in a temperate climate
such as that of eastern North America. The top dies down
in winter. The young, asparagus-like shoots are formed
in spring and can be grown from lifted roots dug in the
winter. Pokeweed blooms in the warm weather from July
to September. There is little cultivation of pokeweed in the
United States. It grows wild rather extensively and mine is
gathered from the wild. Pokeweed grows in rich pastures,
waste places, gardens, open places in woodlands, and along
fence rows. It grows on deep, rich, gravelly soils, limestone,
and sandy hammock soils in Florida. It is a perennial herb,
reproducing by seeds or from a very large taproot.
You can’t buy Poke extracts in the store, as the FDA
considers them too toxic for casual use by the general
public, but you can learn how to use this medicine under
the guidance of an experienced herbalist or naturopathic
1. Barbieri L, Aron GM, Irvin JD, Stirpe F. Purification and partial
characterization of another form of the antiviral protein from
the seeds of Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed). Biochem J.
2. Girbes T, Ferreras JM, Arias FJ, Stirpe F. Description, distribution,
activity and phylogenetic relationship of ribosome inactivating
proteins in plants, fungi and bacteria. Mini Rev Med Chem.
3. Bolognesi A, Tazzari PL, Olivieri F, Polito L, Falini B, Stirpe F.
Induction of apoptosis by ribosome-inactivating proteins and
related immunotoxins. Int J Cancer. 1996;68(3):349-55.
4. Bonness MS, Ready MP, Irvin JD, Mabry TJ. Pokeweed antiviral
protein inactivates pokeweed ribosomes; implications for the
antiviral mechanism. Plant J. 1994;5(2):173-83.
5. Terenzi A, Bolognesi A, Pasqualucci L, Flenghi L, Pileri S, Stein H,
Kadin M, Bigerna B, Polito L, Tazzari PL, Martelli MF,
Stirpe F, Falini B. Anti-CD30 (BER=H2) immunotoxins containing
the type-1 ribosome-inactivating proteins momordin and PAP-S
(pokeweed antiviral protein from seeds) display powerful antitumour
activity against CD30+ tumour cells in vitro and in SCID
mice. Br J Haematol. 1996;92(4):872-9.
6. Bolognesi A, Polito L. Immunotoxins and other conjugates: preclinical
studies. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2004; 4:563-83.
7. Wiley RG, Lappi DA. Targeted toxins in pain. Adv Drug Deliv
8. Armesto, J. J., G. P. Cheplick, and M. J. McDonnell. 1983. Observations
of the reproductive biology of Phytolacca americana (Phytolaccaceae).
Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 110: 380-383. Caulkins, D.
B. and R. Wyatt. 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca
americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States
9. Investigation of anti-carcinogenic activity of Poke root (Phytolacca
Americana) GOKTEPE, B. Milford, and M. Ahmedna. North Carolina A&T
State Univ.,June 16, 2021 at 18:42 #1737
What Has Become of the Rife Microscope?
Written by Christopher Bird
Did Royal Raymond Rife find a bacterial agent associated with cancer?
Did this inventor discover a means of electromagnetically curing cancer?
Has one clique of scientists been able to suppress truth for half a century?
This article, like an embryo or any living thing, is still growing. A continuation of this growth may depend upon the assistance of NAJ readers, their colleagues and their friends.
Originally I intended to write a short note on what was known about the Rife microscope. Precious little is in print on the subject.
One day, while waiting for some material to come up from the cellar-stacks of the National Library of Medicine in Bethesda, Maryland, considerably frustrated by the lack of leads and data concerning the demise of the Rife microscope, I wandered by the Subject Card Catalogue and casually flipped at random to a card in the middle of a drawer labeled “Microscopes.”
The card was filed under ” Allied Industries,” as if that firm were the author. The company’s address was stated to be 4246 Pepper Drive, San Diego, California. The title referenced was “History of the Development of a Successful Treatment for Cancer and Other Virus, Bacteria and Fungi.”
At the bottom of the card was a single line: “Written by Dr. R.R. Rife.”
Entirely by accident I had stumbled upon what looked to be only one of a series of reports written by Royal Raymond Rife. Fourteen pages long, it was numbered Dev-1042. It was approved and signed by J.F. Crane, Manager; Don Tully, Development Associate; and Verne Thompson, Chief Electrical Engineer.
Are any of these gentlemen alive today?
Was Allied Industries a research corporation established by Rife?
How many other reports did it publish and where are they?
The report so riveted my attention that I was compelled to explore some of the history of microbiology and its connection to cancer and other disease. The present article, much longer than originally planned, is thus the result of a fortuitous finding — perhaps an example of what Jung has called “synchronicity” — and the consequent preliminary exploration.
Much more needs to be done to tell the story of Rife and his microscope, a fascinating episode in the history of science.
The Microscope of Microscopes
In February 1944 the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia published an article, “The New Microscopes,” in its prestigious journal devoted to applied science. Founded in 1824 by “philosopher-mechanics,” the institute, which recently made studies in its physics laboratory on the way to move the Liberty Bell to its new Bicentennial Year location, is a smaller analog of the huge world-famous Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. which reprinted the same article in its own journal shortly after its first appearance.
Authored by R.E. Seidel, M.D., a Philadelphia physician and his research assistant, M. Elizabeth Winter, the essay opened with a six-page discussion of the electron microscope, which had only recently been put on the market by the Radio Corporation of America.
This microscope is today standard equipment in modern laboratories.
The article closed with a ten-page treatment of a “Universal Microscope,” the brainchild of a San Diego autodidact, Royal Raymond Rife, who developed it with the financial assistance of the roller-bearing and axle magnate Henry H. Timken, for whose family Rife at one time served as handyman and chauffeur.
Rife’s scope, the largest model of which consisted of 5,682 parts and required a large bench to accommodate it, overcame the greatest disadvantage of the electron microscope, its inability — because tiny living organisms put in it are vacuum and subject to protoplasmic changes induced by a virtual hail-storm of electrons — to reveal specimens in their natural living state.
With his invention Rife was able to look at living organisms. What he saw convinced him that germs could be not the cause, but the result of disease; that, depending on its state, the body could convert a harmless bacterium into a lethal pathogen; that such pathogens could be instantly killed, each by a specific frequency of light; and that cells, regarded as the irreducible building-blocks of living matter, are actually composed of smaller cells, themselves made up of even smaller cells, this process continuing with higher and higher magnification in a sixteen-step, stage-by-stage journey into the micro-beyond.
Though with the aid of Rife’s device, thousands of still pictures and hundreds of feet of movie film were made to reveal these facts, all of this material and the Rife microscopes seem to have disappeared without a trace.
Or have they?
Calls to the U.S. Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Medical Museum, which has hundreds of different microscopes in its historical collection, to the National Library of Medicine’s Historical Division, to the Smithsonian Institution and the Franklin Institute, both repositories for outstanding scientific inventions, and to a dozen establishments dealing daily in microscopy elicited from curators, medical pathologists, physicians and other scientific specialists only the complaint that none of them had ever heard of Royal Raymond Rife and his microscope.
What has become of the Rife microscope?
The question is not rhetorical. For if even half of the possibilities described for this astounding discovery are true, a massive effort to hunt it down and reactivate its potential might not only save billions of dollars in biological and medical research but open a fascinating new vista onto the natural of life.
From the start, Rife’s main goal was to find cures for diseases, especially the most intractable of all diseases, cancer. Because he had a hunch that some as yet undiscovered micro-organism would prove to play a crucial role in the onset of this malignancy, he tried unsuccessfully to find one by observing all types of malignant tissue with a variety of standard research microscopes.
In the 1920’s it became obvious to Rife that a better means of scrutinizing the micro-world than had been developed was indispensable. During that decade he designed and built five microscopes with a range from 5,000 to 50,000 diameters at a time when the best laboratory microscopes in use could achieve not more than 2,000 diameters of magnification.
At the Rife Research Laboratory on Point Loma, California, he worked at magnifications of 17,000 and higher, to reveal a host of cells and micro-organisms never before seen and to photograph them. The work required a saint’s patience. It could take the best part of a day to bring a single target specimen into focus.
The Rife microscope has several arresting features. Its entire optical system of fourteen lenses and prisms, as well as an illuminating unit, were made of crystal quartz which is transparent to ultraviolet radiation. In the scope, light was bent and polarized in such a way that a specimen could be illuminated by extremely narrow parts of the whole spectrum, one part at a time, and even by a single frequency of light.
Rife maintained that he could thus select specific frequency, or frequencies, of light which coordinated and resonated which a specimen’s chemical constituents so that a given specimen would emit its own light of a characteristic and unique color. Specimens could be easily identified, thus solving one of microscopy’s greatest bugaboos. It was control of illumination which turned the trick.
Another feature was the microscope’s extraordinary resolution, its ability to reveal the most minute of component parts of any specimen so that each may be seen distinctly and separately from the others. Imagine two extremely thin parallel lines. When they can be clearly distinguished you are still within the microscope’s range of resolution. If the parallel lines blur together, high magnification will only enlarge the distortion and limit of resolution has been attained. With a resolving power of 31,000 diameters — as against 2,000 to 2,500 for the laboratory microscopes in common use in that day — Rife’s device could focus clearly on five lines of a standardized grid whereas an ordinary microscope could do no better than examine fifty lines, and that with considerable aberration.
This is somewhat equivalent to one aerial camera’s being able to spot individual houses in city blocks from a very great height while another is able only fuzzily to distinguish the single city blocks themselves.
Beginning in the 1920’s and continuing over seven years, Rife and his colleagues worked on more than 20,000 laboratory cultures of cancer obtained from the Paradise Valley Sanitarium in National City, California, in what appeared at first to be a fruitless effort to isolate micro-organisms which he felt should somehow be associated with the disease.
Up to then bacteria had clearly been proved to be linked with a wide variety of ills including tuberculosis, leprosy, cholera, gonorrhea, syphilis, thyroid, bubonic plague, pneumonia and others. But no one had found them in association with cancer.
In contrast to the much smaller viruses, bacteria were widely considered to be unicellular, monomorphic — meaning one shape and one shape only — forms. A quarter of a million of them can occupy a space no larger than the period at the end of this sentence. They come in various shapes. Cocci are round, bacilli rod-like, to offer but two examples.
There are various forms for each shape. Of the round-shaped ones, monococci appear singly, diplococci come in pairs, staphylococci in clusters resembling a bunch of grapes, streptococci, which under certain conditions can produce a painful sore throat in chains.
While outside a host, or body, bacteria are hard to raise, or culture. Each type has been studied as a pure culture only by isolating it upon a specific nutrient, called media.
Bacteria also have specific maximum, minimum, and optimum temperatures at which they will live and multiply. Some, like polar bears, are addicted to arctic temperatures and even live in ice. Others prefer water so hot it would kill most animals. A great many enjoy the temperature of the human body. Millions of them are living, harmlessly, inside you right now.
But they are not always harmless. They can acquire virulence, or the power to cause disease under some conditions but not others, although even today no one knows exactly why.
This mystery, in the 1920’s, was closely connected to a debate in microbiology so hot as to seem almost like a war. On one side were those who affirmed — as do many textbooks today — that bacteria were eternally monomorphic. They could not assume other or smaller forms, as small, say, as a virus.
Originally, virus — the word means “poison” in Latin — was the name generally applied to any microscopic agent injurious to living cells. Now it is much more narrowly defined as “one of a unique group of very small infectious agents that grow only in cells of animals (including humans), plants and also bacteria.”
Because they were so small, viruses would pass through filters which did not allow the passage of bacteria, said to be monomorphic, just as a net of small enough mesh will allow minnows to pass through it but bring the fish that are preying upon them up short.
It is this filter-passing ability of viruses which is widely held today — along with their inability to grow on artificial media — to be one of the main criteria separating them from bacteria.
For several decades, however, another school of microbiologists maintained that, far from holding everlastingly to one shape, bacteria were pleomorphic, or form-changing. They could be caused, under the right conditions of culture, to metamorphize into forms small enough to pass through filters just like viruses.
Because of their sharp disagreement on the filtrability of bacteria, the two camps came to be called “filtrationist” and “non-filtrationist.”
One of the earliest of the filtrationists was a Swedish physician and explorer, Ernst Bernhard Almquist, for whom islands off the north Siberian coast are named. Almquist made hundreds of observations of plemorphic bacteria in his laboratory as did researchers in Italy, Russia, France, Germany and the United States. In 1922, after two decades of work, Almquist came to the conclusion that “nobody can pretend to know the complete life cycle and all the varieties of even a single bacterial species. It would be an assumption to think so.”
Way back in 1914, the American bacteriologist, Dr. Edward C. Rosenow, had the gall to assert that bacteria were not unalterable and that various strains, or what one might call sub-sub-species of them, could, when suitably treated, become any of the other strains. It was Rosenow’s contention, too, that he found a form of the streptococcus bacterium which caused poliomyelitis, commonly know as infantile paralysis.
What Rife’s opinions were about this heated controversy are not known. He followed the standard bacteriological practice of the day, first implanting small patches of cancer tissues on various nutritive media including a special “K” medium developed by another filtrationist, Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall, at the Northwestern University School of Medicine in Chicago, Illinois. The medium which bore the first letter of Kendall’s name, seemed to have the faculty of transforming bacteria into transitional forms alleged for them by the filtrationist school.
No matter how often he changed menus for his sought-after cancer microbe, no matter how he altered the temperature of incubation, Rife seemed unable to coax it to appear in his cultures.
It was apparently only when, as a result of his continuing physical experimentation with the effects of light frequencies, he discovered that many microbes respond to the effects of light from noble gases, such as neon, xenon and argon, by changing their growth patterns that Rife hit upon a solution to the problem that was nagging him.
He placed a sealed test-tube containing cancer tissue into a closed loop filled with argon gas. After creating a vacuum within the loop, he charged the gas with electricity, just as one does when one throws the switch to light up the neon lamps in modern offices, though in Rife’s case the charge was 5000 volts. While he still could not reveal any microbes, he noted a certain cloudiness in nutritive medium which, through chemical analysis, he ascribed to ionization caused by the electronic bombardment.
Readers may well wonder why he adopted so strange and novel a process. The question is just as unanswerable as if put about Rife’s next step: in order, he said, to counter the ionization, he placed the tube into a two-inch water vacuum and heated it for twenty-four hours at near body temperature.
Under his microscope, at 20,000X, the tube now teemed with animated forms measuring only 1/20 by 1/15 of a micron — much smaller than any known bacteria. They refracted a purplish-red color in the specific light beam.
He called this form Bacillus X and, later, because it was so much smaller than other bacilli, and perhaps because of the filtrability controversy, BX virus. This problem of nomenclature can be resolved herein by referring to Rife’s organism as a BX for, or simply BX.
Rife writes ” this method of ionization and oxidation brought the chemical refraction of BX out of the ultraviolet and into the visible band of the spectrum. Owing to the fact that the test-tube specimens had gone through so many trials, we again started from scratch and repeated this method 104 consecutive times with identical results.”
Because he could culture his BX form, so small it would pass through any filter, he seemed to have discovered a filtrable form of a bacterium. But just finding bacteria, even in filtrable form, in a human tumor does not necessarily imply that they are its cause. To make sure, it is held they must be reinjected into animals and seen to cause the same or nearly similar disease, after which they must then be reisolated and shown to resemble the original organism. These were the postulates propounded by the German pioneer bacteriologist, Robert Koch, who proved that tuberculosis was apparently caused by the tubercule bacillus.
Following this accepted procedure, Rife inoculated the new BX forms into over 400 rats in all of which there subsequently appeared “tumors with all the true pathology of neoplastic tissue.” Some of the tumors became so large they exceeded the total weight of the individual rats in which they were developing. When the tumors were surgically removed, the BX form was recovered from them in all cases. Koch’s postulates were fulfilled.
More Startling Discoveries
By continued microscopical study and repeated photography to stop their motion, Rife and his co-workers next came to the baffling conclusion that the BX, far from remaining always what he had seen as the purplish-red bodies a fraction of a micron in dimension, could change into not just fairly similar forms as Rosenow had previously discovered, but into completely different forms simply by altering the medium on which they were living only very slightly.
“Slightly” in Rife’s case meant an alteration in the nutrient environment of only two parts per million by volume. Those who would consider this unlikely may recall that in homeopathic medicine doses of remedies are given in dilutions of this weakness and beyond. Even though they have nothing chemically analyzable in them, they are effective.
One such alteration caused the BX to become what Rife called a Bacillus Y, or BY. It was still the same purplish-red color as the BX by so enlarged that it would not pass through a filter.
With the second change of the medium, the BY enlarged still further into a monococcoid or single disk form which, when properly stained, could be viewed under a standard research microscope. Rife claimed that these forms could be found in the blood of over 90% of cancer victims.
By removing this form from the fluid medium it inhabited and depositing it onto a hard base of asparagus or tomato agar, Rife then saw it miraculously develop into a fungus, making it kin to a yeast, mold or mushroom.
Any of these succeeding forms, Rife stated, could be changed back within thirty-six hours into a BX form capable of producing cancer tumors in experimental animals from which, in turn, the same BX form could again be recovered.
The transformation did not stop with the fungus which, if allowed to stand dormantly as a stock culture for a year and then replanted onto the asparagus medium, would then change into bacillus coli, millions of which live in the human intestine. This common bacillus could pass, in Rife’s words, “any known laboratory method of analysis.”
Because he had found that micro-organisms had the ability to luminate when stimulated by given frequencies of light it occurred to Rife that they might also be devitalized by beaming radiations of specific frequencies upon them. One source has it that the harmonics of these frequencies ranged from ten meters to twenty thousand meters.
To this end, he had been developing concurrently with his microscopic equipment a special frequency emitter which he continued to improve, up to at least 1953, as steady advances in electronics continued. The killing waves were projected through a tube filled with helium gas and said to be efficient in destroying micro–organisms at a distance of as much as one thousand feet.
With this device he noted that while the proper mortal oscillatory rate was reached, many lethal organisms such as those of tuberculosis, typhoid, leprosy, hoof-and-mouth disease and others appeared to disintegrate or “blow up” in the field of his microscope. This “death ray” principle was also effective when applied to cultured BX.
The obvious next step was to determine whether similar radiation would affect the BX, not in culture, but in the bodies of cancer-afflicted animals. It apparently did so, for Rife states he got rid of BX in over 400 experimental rats and other animals in his lab. If it worked on animal cancers, wondered Rife, why not on human cancers?
The answer was so resoundingly yes that, in our day when billions are being spent each year to find a cure for cancer, it is prudent to quote Rife’s report word for word: “The first clinical work on cancer was completed under the supervision of Milbank Johnson, M.D., which was set up under a special medical Research Committee of the University of Southern California. Sixteen cases were treated at the clinic for many types of malignancy. After three months, fourteen of these so-called hopeless cases were signed off as clinically cured by a staff of five medical doctors and Alvin G. Foord, M.D., pathologist for the group. The treatments consisted of three minutes duration using the frequency instrument which was set on the mortal oscillatory rate for BX, or cancer, at three-day intervals. It was found that the elapsed time between treatments attains better results than cases treated daily.”
The News Leaks Out
News of Rife’s work began to leak out to the world of medicine at the end of the 1920’s. One of the first to learn of it was Arthur W. Yale, M.D., who lived in San Diego, not far from Rife’s laboratory. He acquired a frequency emitter and began to treat cancerous patients.
In 1940, reporting to his fellow physicians on some of his decade-long results, he wrote that because the whole of Rife’s extraordinary findings constituted an “entirely new theory of the origin and cause of cancer, and the treatment and results have been so unique and unbelievable,” he was making his findings available in the hope that “after further research we may eliminate the second largest cause of deaths in the United States.”
Yale had had limited success in treating cancerous tumors with X-rays and with the use of what he called “static wave current” for some three decades. When he began to use Rife’s device, he sometimes employed it alone, sometimes together, with the two methods with which he was familiar. Both methods brought startlingly successful results. Yale was careful to note that, when he added the use of the Rife ray to his other radiation, cancerous masses “have disappeared in about one-tenth the time and so far with no reoccurrences.”
Dr. Arthur Isaac Kendall, whose “K” medium Rife had used in his experimentation, was also determined to check whether viable bacteria in the filterable state could be unequivocally seen by Rife’s microscope. Kendall had been working with cultures of typhoid bacillus and, under a standard microscope, had been able to detect a swarm of active granules that could be seen only as tiny motile points. Because nothing of their individual structure could be ascertained, Kendall could not diagnose them with certainty to be filterable forms of the bacillus.
In order to make certain, he went to California in late November of 1931 and examined his cultures under a Rife microscope at 5,000 diameters in the Pathological Laboratory of the Pasadena Hospital. The facilities were afforded through the offices of the same Drs. Johnson and Foord who has worked with Rife on the BX.
When Rife finally got them in focus, the tiny granules were seen to be bright, highly motile, turquoise-blue bodies which, to quote the report he co-authored with Kendall, “contrasted strikingly both in color and their active motion with the non-colored debris of the medium.” The same observations were repeated eight separate times, the complete absence of similar bodies in uninoculated control media being noted.
To further confirm their findings, Rife and Kendall next examined eighteen-hour-old specially cultured and inoculated colonies of the same bacillus because they had determined that it was precisely at this stage of growth that they became filterable. Now they could see three transitional forms of the same organism: one, the normal bacillus itself, almost devoid of color; two, the same bacillus but with a prominent turquoise-blue granule at one end of it; and three, the same turquoise-blue granules moving about independently.
This was somewhat equivalent to being able to observe a caterpillar, its cocoon and the butterfly which emerges from the cocoon, all simultaneously.
When they transplanted the filter-passing granules into a broth medium, they were seen under the Rife microscope to revert back to their original bacillus, or rod-like, form.
At this juncture, the American bellwether journal, Science, got wind of Kendall’s work and, in a news story devoted to it, referred to the new “super-microscope” invented by Royal Raymond Rife. The same month, December 1931, the Rife-Kendall account was published in California and Western Medicine, the official mouthpiece of the state medical associations of California, Nevada, and Utah. This magazine also commented editorially that the Kendall-Rife article was to be particularly recommended to its readers because of its “calling the attention of the world to a new type of microscope which, if it fulfills its apparent advantages over any microscope thus far developed, bids fair to lay the basis for revolutionary discoveries in bacteriology and the allied sciences.”
The editorial was significantly entitled: “Is a New Field About to Be Opened in the Science of Bacteriology?”
Apparently it was about to die aborning.
The Opposition Mounts
The following month Kendall was invited to give the De Lamar lecture at the John Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public health in Baltimore, Maryland, before the Association of American Physicians. As a leader of the filtrationist school he attracted the attention of his adversaries, two of whom were invited as discussants.
The first was an irascible, pugnacious curmudgeon, Dr. Thomas Rivers, of the well-heeled Rockefeller Institute of New York City, who was described by one of his institute colleagues as a “difficult and formidable person to oppose and could be stubbornly inflexible in maintaining a position.”
When he learned of his invitation to discuss Kendall’s presentation of the work with the typhoid bacillus, Rivers hurriedly repeated experiments on which Kendall had worked for years and, by his own account, got no proof of Kendall’s claim. Based on this thin evidence, he arose at the John Hopkins meeting and, to quote him, “in a very temperate manner called the fellow a liar. Not in so many words. Actually, all I said was that I couldn’t repeat this experiment and I therefore didn’t believe his findings were true.”
Rivers was followed in the discussion by the Harvard microbiologist, Dr. Hans Zinsser, also a “non-filtrationist,” who, to quote Rivers anew, “just gave Kendall bloody hell. I’d never seen Hans so hot in my life. I had to agree with everything he said — but I really felt sorry for poor old Kendall — he just sat there and took it.”
In the midst of the venom and acerbity the only colleague to come to Kendall’s aid was the grand old man of bacteriology, and first teacher of the subject in the United States, Dr. William H. “Popsy” Welch, who evidently looked upon Kendall’s work with some regard.
What is of interest today is that at the Baltimore meeting there seemed to be no mention of the Rife microscope. Also, in light of the apparent victory of the “non-filtrationists” over those who claimed that bacteria were filterable, it was curious that Rivers could claim to have repeated Kendall’s work without the use of the instrument Kendall had found so necessary to clearly reveal his filterable forms.
Kendall’s work, however, attracted the rapt attention of the same Dr. Edward C. Rosenow who, in 1914, had been able to prove that stains of streptococcus were able, under the right conditions, to transmute one into the other. In that day he had written that these “conditions were more or less obscure. They seem to call forth new or latent energies which were previously not manifest and which now have gained the ascendancy.”
As a filtrationist, Rosenow was a maverick among bacteriologists up to his death at 94 in the 1960’s. His work had convinced him, also prior to World War I, that organisms in sera — the fluids from tissues of immunized animals commonly used as antitoxins to neutralize microbes in the body — might in some patients have dangerous biological side effects.
The main implication of Rosenow’s work in his own eyes was that bacteria were not as important to disease as the terrain on which they found themselves. “It would seem,” he wrote in his 1914 article, that focal infections are no longer to be looked upon merely as a place of entrance of bacteria but as a place where conditions are favorable for them to acquire the properties which give them a wide range of affinities for various structure.”
Rosenow first became aware of Rife technique through a patient at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota, where Rosenow was employed. The patient was none other than the same Henry H. Timken who had financially aided Rife to develop his microscope and begin his research in the 1920’s.
Rife came to Chicago with his microscope. Kendall invited Rosenow down to the Northwestern University Medical School to work with himself and Rife on July 5, 1923. For three days they made a restudy of the Kendall forms, Rosenow working with a Zeiss microscope, Kendall with an oil immersion dark-field instrument, and Rife with his special device. “The oval, motile, turquoise-blue bodies,” wrote Rosenow of this work, “described previously by Kendall and Rife were unmistakably demonstrated.”
The three next decided to filter cultures of the streptococcus bacteria which Rosenow had found to be associated with poliomyelitis to see what the Rife scope might reveal. What they saw were not the blue bodies linked to the typhoid bacillus but cocci and diplococci of a brownish-gray color each surrounded by a strange halo. These could only be observed in the Rife microscope.
Moreover filtrates of a virus considered to be the cause of encephalitis showed a considerable number of round forms, singly and in pairs, which under the special Rife illumination were pale pink in color and somewhat smaller than those seen in the poliomyelitis preparations.
Rosenow’s work was panned by Rivers in public forum just as viciously as was Kendall’s. This was before Rosenow had worked with the Rife microscope. “I had one run-in with him,” said Rivers, “at a meeting held before the Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Diseases during Christmas week in 1931. I was pretty savage with him. Do you think that helped? Hell, no, if you ask me for my candid opinion, I think that most of the audience believed Rosenow.”
This belief did not last for long. For a variety of reasons, including the very difficult methods of culturing the filterable forms of bacteria — and lack of the Rife microscope to observe them — the “church” of non-filtrationist bacteriology of which Rivers was later proclaimed “the apostolic father” (does one need better evidence of hierarchical priest hoods and priest-craft in science?) was putting the filtrationist camp on the defensive.
Three filtrationists, writing of discoveries similar to those of Kendall, just prior to Kendall’s Johns Hopkins lecture, thus considered it necessary to state in their introduction: “It has come about these days that to express convictions that differ from the consensus gentium becomes almost professional foolhardiness: it brings down the strictures of one’s friends and enemies alike.”
They added: “But we are also conscious of that fact that, beneath the tumult of controversy between monomorphism and pleomorphism, there is being born a new epoch in bacteriology, the limits of the significance of which and the possible future expansion of which no one can yet surmise.”
Like all scientific revolutions the epoch would have to wait patiently for its time to come. Rosenow was held by his adversaries to be 100 percent wrong in many of his observations. His son, Dr. Edward C. Rosenow Jr., Chief Administrative Officer of the American College of Physicians, asserts that his father was all but accused by Rockefeller Institute research moguls of experimental dishonesty.
How was it that none of Kendall’s or Rosenow’s attackers bothered to use the Rife microscope? Rife himself admitted that he was not confident that his experiments, revealing the BX form, could ever be repeated without the use of his scope. “We do not expect any laboratory,” he wrote, “to be able to produce the BX on account of the technique involved and adequate optical equipment. This is why we have never publicly announced that BX is the cause of cancer but we have succeeded in producing from its inoculation tumors with all the true characteristics and pathology of nepotistic tissue from which we have repeatedly recovered the BX virus.”
At the end of his life Rosenow was philosophic about lack of acceptance for his findings among his colleagues. “There is no way,” he told his son, “to convince one’s peer group of something new until their attitude of receptivity changes. They simply won’t listen.” This echoes the German Noble laureate in physics, Max Planck, who started that for new ideas to be accepted, one had to wait for a generation of scientists to die off and a new one to replace it.
The Search Continues
With respect to Rife’s cancer observations, it may be that this process of replacement is now taking place.
Rife’s work has a possible connection with research performed over the last twenty years by several pioneers. One pair of them are Dr. Irene Diller, a former long-time associate of the Institute for Cancer Research in Philadelphia, and Dr. Florence B. Seibert, Professor Emeritus of Biochemistry, University of Pennsylvania.
One day in the late 1950’s Diller called Seibert, who won many awards and five honorary doctorates for her more than thirty-year long work on tuberculosis, and asked her to come and look at some microbes on slides. On the slides Seibert observed tiny round organisms. When Seibert learned that Diller had isolated them regularly from many other tumors, as well as from the blood of leukemia patients, she hastened to ask whether Diller could find them in a sarcoma tumor she, Seibert, was studying.
After several weeks Diller showed Seibert a tube filled with a slightly grayish and moist-looking culture filled with small round cocci. Injected into mice, they produced cancerous tumors.
Seibert became convinced that Diller might have found a link to cancer. Because so many scientists, believing Diller’s new forms to be merely “ubiquitous contaminants” in her cultures, were writing off her work as spurious, Seibert decided to continue working on the problem during her Florida retirement, first at the Mound Park — today the Bay Front — Hospital in Saint Petersburg, later at Veterans Administration Hospital.
Blood samples from cancer patients with varying types of leukemia were obtained and from every one of them Seibert was able to isolate pleomorphic microbes. These bacterial forms were also isolated from tumors, and with a homologous vaccine they decreased tumors in mice. Just like those of the Rife-Kendall-Rosenow research, they could change from round to rod-shaped and even could become long thread-like filaments, depending on what medium they were grown and how long. They would pass a filter and at this stage in their life cycle they were about the same size as Rife’s BX forms.
Today there is great stir about, and much money devoted to, viruses in relation to the cancer problem. The most recent edition of the Encyclopedia Britannica states that “sufficient evidence has been acquired to indicate that one or more viruses probably cause cancer in man,” and that carcinogens, or cancer-producing agents, “are suspected of producing cancers by activating viruses latent in the body.”
But so far, little support is given to those who ascribe bacteria and the forms into which they transmute the ability for close association with cancer. This legacy of the non-filtrationist school persists in the face of mounting evidence that the filtrationists may have been right all along.
These days, because various bacterial forms have been noted to have anomalies in their cellular walls — how could they develop into smaller forms if they could not leap beyond or through the walls which imprison them? — they are known as Cell Wall Deficient Forms. A revolutionary new book about them has been written by the Wayne State University microbiologist, Dr. Lida H. Mattman. Her text opens with the statement: “Clandestine, almost unrecognizable, polymorphous bacterial growth seems to occur as often as the stereotypical classical boxcars of bacilli and pearls of cocci . . .” The book’s contents would seem to indicate that the new era predicted in 1931 for filtrationist microbiology is dawning though presently its adherents are having great difficulty both in publishing their work and getting grants for further research.
Sufficient data, writes Mattman, have been amassed to warrant reinvestigation, and adds: “There is no subject generally viewed with greater skepticism than an association between bacteria and human cancer. However, the medical profession may look back with irony at the stony reception given by his home colleagues to Koch’s paper elucidating the etiology of tuberculosis. Similarly, medical students were once taught that whooping cough vaccination was an unrealistic dream reported only by two women at the Michigan Public Health Laboratories and by a pediatrician named Sauer.”
Most importantly, she concludes: “One must always consider that most malignancies are accompanied by an immuno-deficiency. . . . Therefore, we could be dealing with microbe that finds such a host merely a suitable environment for habitation.”
This is very close to Rife’s own statement that he had unequivocally demonstrated that “it was the chemical constituents and chemical radicals of an organism which enacted upon the unbalanced cell metabolism of the human body to produce disease.” Before he died, Rife stated: “We have in many instances produced all the symptoms of a disease chemically in experimental animals without the inoculation of any virus or bacteria into their tissues.”
What, then, of Royal Raymond Rife and his microscope?
How is it that biologists and physicians, other that Kendall and Rosenow, did not rush to investigate it? Why haven’t physicists looked into the effects Rife achieved with electromagnetic waves of specific frequencies upon disease, including cancer?
Similar effects were observed by Dr. Georges Lakhovsky in Paris who developed a wave emitter called a multiwave oscillator with which he cured cancer in plants and humans as well as other diseases. The multi-wave oscillator is today banned by the FDA as quackery. They have also been noted in Bordeaux by another inventor, self-taught as was Rife, Antoine Priore, whose apparatus combines the use of electromagnetic radiation with a plasma of helium or noble gases reminiscent of Rife’s method used in detecting and devitalizing BX.
Are the strange blue, motile forms which Dr. Wilhelm Reich discovered in the late 1930’s and for which he coined the word bions related to the foregoing? Reich observed the bions to spontaneously proliferate from specially treated organic matter and even from coal and sand! Spontaneous generation of life was supposed to have been laid to rest in Reich’s time, as it is in ours, and he was accused by fellow scientists of confusing Brownian movement of subcellular particles or debris in his cultures with the new subcellular forms he claimed to have discovered.
In cancerous patients Reich observed the bions to degenerate into what he called T-bacilli (the T coming from the German word, Tod, meaning death). When injected into mice, they caused cancer just like Rife’s BX forms.
In Copenhagen, a biophysicist, Scott Hill, reports that a new book written in Russian by two researchers at the Kazakh State University in the USSR deals with a whole new branch of medical science in which “healing” of various disorders is being accomplished by the use of ultraweak, monocromatic laser light. Shades of Rife!
In 1987, Barry Lynes wrote the classic book on Rife history called The Cancer Cure That Worked.
Rife’s World of Electromedicine is the sequel, published in 2009. What is the difference between the two books? The Cancer Cure That Worked was primarily a biographical account of Royal Raymond Rife’s life and work, including detailed, dated records of the events which occurred, and in-depth accounts from the people involved. Rife’s World of Electromedicine, on the other hand, is a bird’s eye view, short summary of the same time period and events. Instead of a detailed biography, Rife’s World is an expository piece that includes brief, targeted chapters addressing each aspect of Rife’s era, utilizing piercing, specific, and direct quotes and excerpts from historical documents including magazine and newspaper articles, court transcripts, Rife’s own statements, and the eye-witness accounts of those who were present during Rife’s lifelong achievements. Written as a short story, Rife’s World is affordably priced so that everyone can read about Royal Raymond Rife.
The book is a perfect gift for someone who wants to find out more about Rife but doesn’t have time to read a longer book.
Additionally, the new book explains what 20+ years of additional research and document retrieval by a dedicated grass roots group have discovered and unearthed. Some of the previously missing, key factors in the suppressed and censored cure for cancer were lost or even locked away in physicians’ closets for decades in order to prevent censors from destroying overwhelming evidence. Now, this evidence is printed for the first time in Rife’s World.June 16, 2021 at 18:42 #1738
A farewell to biodynamic expert and author Hugh Lovel
August 27, 2020It’s with a heavy heart that we share the news that Hugh Lovel passed away on Aug. 25, according to his friends and family. He was the author of Quantum Agriculture and A Biodynamic Farm, and spoke at our Eco-Ag Conference many times.
We are all fortunate for his gift of knowledge he gave us, and before he passed, he shared a manuscript to try and teach biodynamics for beginners. We will work with his family to publish that book in his memory, and continue his legacy of being a leader in eco-agriculture.
About Hugh Lovel
Hugh Lovel wrote many articles on radionics, atmospheric reorganization and the biochemical sequencing of the soil. He consulted, spoke and taught on all aspects of agriculture. He was an expert on AgPhysics and the use of biodynamic energy patterns to affect the atmosphere, weather cycles and soil in order to grow the highest quality food.
Lovel built on his formal education in mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and psychology to formulate his concepts and developments during more than 30 years of farming, first in the mountains of northern Georgia and later on the tablelands of Tolga, Australia.
There is a site out there he and the widow of Christopher Bird created, so she is twice widow now.
The site does not seem to be active anymore, articles are not updated anymore.
There are however very good articles there, those little gems I hastily will copy and paste here before they end up in the Orwellian Memory Hole again.
Acres USA seems to be the last outlet for such dissidents like Callahan, Bird and the others to speak their mind.
That is history now as the CEO of Acres is also no longer with us. Also most important books have been scrubbed from that site, mainly the Ancient History Modern Visions one is taboo now…
How quickly things can change in this reality, amazing , for those who notice it , most will not notice.
The price of the field broadcasters is simply ridiculous. That is sad to say but that is how it is.
It is , for those who read this and have a few functional braincells left, an amazing powerful instrument, a sort of tool of Light you might say.
For those who get it , for the rest it is CIA facebook time anyway ….yawn.. where they get updated being you know …..aware jadija….god help us….
FIELD BROADCASTING 25 YEARS ON
by Hugh Lovel
- Galen Hieronymus introduced his first ‘Cosmic Pipes’ in the mid-1980s and shortly thereafter Jerry Friedenstein introduced what he called ‘Towers of Power’. These were early versions of passive, self-driven field devices using pattern energy to set up induction fields that enhanced biological processes. The Hieronymus design in particular worked like a crystal radio set, driven by the charge differential between the soil and the atmosphere.
Initially the concept was to increase soil vitality with beneficial patterns of energy. This could feed plants better nutrition from the soil and improve agricultural results. Hieronymus’s early experiments indicated energy patterns could be conveyed through copper wires and imparted at a receipt point represented by any sort of ‘witness’. This witness could be a serum specimen, a photograph, a map or even a name of a distinct person or place. This wasn’t a new concept, as Hieronymus patented his ‘eloptic’ analyser based on these discoveries back in 1949.
Long ago I learned faith provides the courage to seek, and what you seek you find. In 1985 a neighbour loaned me a copy of ACRES, USA, prodding me to look into Galen’s ‘cosmic pipe’. I then subscribed to ACRES and found time to visit Galen and his wife Sarah at their Oasis slightly over an hour away in Lakemont, GA. With my background in quantum physics everything made sense, as my university professors had argued that quantum rules, such as non-locality, entanglement and coherence, applied at every level of the universe. This was just what I had been looking for.
As a market gardener I grew many different kinds of crops, so Galen gave me one of his Cosmic Pipes to experiment with. At first I didn’t know what I was doing and set it up against the bank below my chicken coop. Galen and his wife Sarah visited, and he suggested the top plate had to be at least 8 feet away from anything related to the ground to have enough head room to work, so I moved it out across the driveway into a patch I was planting in corn where a Bray 2 test showed 278 lbs/acre phosphorous despite previous signs of phosphorous deficiency. I’d thought to remedy that by placing valerian flower juice (BD 507), a noted phosphorous remedy, in the reagent well. For sure, the corn grew robustly with no signs of phosphorous deficiency, and initially I thought this was good.
Also I’d sowed carrots with a few radishes mixed in to mark the rows, and I was disappointed when the radishes bloomed at four weeks and simply crispend and died in six—no radishes and no seed. That seemed a little strange, but after two months scattered carrots started to bloom, and they too crispend and died—no carrots, no seed. Very strange. Soon the corn started to tassel, but three weeks afterwards only a few stalks had developed ears and presented silks. Even these made no corn. My tomatoes had bloomed and burned up, and my peppers seemed to be going the same way. I was extremely puzzled, and I asked myself, what was going on?
With a start, I realized the valerian flower juice [BD 507] in the reagent well had thrown everything out of balance. The phosphorous process is a burning process that culminates in flowering, and due to the Cosmic Pipe it had overwhelmed all the other biological processes.
Obviously Galen’s technology worked, but the message was to be careful with the reagent patterns. By broadcasting nothing but the BD 507 I had thrown things seriously out of balance and over-stimulated the phosphorous process all by itself. Over the years the issue of balance has turned out to be the most damaging beginner’s error. As a solution, using my Hieronymus Analyser, I made a reagent that included all of the biodynamic preparations (numbered 500-508) as well as a microbial culture and a fossil humate fertilizer with a 5-3-3-2-2 analysis, and the results easily were the best I had experienced in farming. However, that was 1988 and I still had a lot to learn.
The next year, for the first time, my old washed-out, eroded soils put in a genuinely good performance. In October I visited Harvey Lisle, a biodynamic pioneer who lived in Ohio, and we made paper disc chromatograms from my soils and produce crops. Urea showed up quite clearly in every chromatogram except my compost. I had never used urea. To sort this out, I talked to Leland Taylor of Agronics in New Mexico who manufactured the humate fertiliser with 5% nitrogen, and he said it was no secret, his fossil humate, Rico Verde™, was boosted with urea. However, he explained, when applied to a garden or field soil, the microbial activity nourished by the humates would convert the urea to amino acids within a day or two. I’m sure that was correct.
But, obviously that did not apply to field broadcasting which put out the pattern without the bulk microbial food. The only place I had enough microbial activity to keep the urea converted was in my compost piles. No wonder I smelled a whiff of urea every time I fried one of my ‘yard’ eggs. As a biodynamic farmer I was very sensitive to the difference between ‘funny’ nitrogen, such as urea, and functional amino acid nitrogen, and thus I substituted Agronics’ raw humate, Clodbuster™, for the Rico Verde™ in my reagents, whereupon the hint of urea disappeared. The eggs were the best ever, the chickens were broody for the first time, and the farm seemed happy. This was a bit more than two years on into experimenting with the Hieronymus Cosmic Pipe.
Over the following seven years my potato crops continually improved. However, over the last six of those years I lost my tomato crop to decomposition just prior to ripening—a week earlier each year. First it was the beginning of October, then it marched back across September to where at the last I lost my tomatoes at the end of August. Mysteriously some kind of imbalance was building up.
Market gardening is very sensitive to the influences of the surrounding cosmos which constantly shift this way and that. You always win some and lose some. This, however, was a consistent trend. Eventually I realized the flaw in Galen’s concept was his Cosmic Pipe design built up the mineral, biological, digestive and nutritive forces in the soil, but it entirely neglected the atmospheric processes of photosynthesis, blossoming, fruiting and ripening. Potatoes are a crop very close to the soil, while tomatoes are a crop of the atmosphere. By constantly building up the forces in the soil while neglecting the atmosphere, things soon got to where my tomatoes never ripened but were digested while my potatoes thrived—proof once again that the technology worked, but also proof it had to be applied in a balanced way.
At this point I made a complete re-design with two wells, two circuits and two broadcast coils—one set for the soil and another, mirror image of the first, for the atmosphere. In the bottom well I used homeopathic potencies of all the lime polarity biodynamic preparations, and in the top well all the silica polarity ones. And, because of having to face such wisecracks as, “Cosmic Pipe, eh? What do you smoke in it?” I called my new design a Field Broadcaster since what it did was broadcast a patterned induction field to the land. On my farm the following year I was hauling full loads of beautiful vine ripe tomatoes to my markets. At this point I decided to manufacture and sell units.
Lessons in Manufacturing
From the start, Hieronymus’s worst design flaw was condensation of moisture inside the pipe. Unless the pipe was sealed, daytime expansion of the air inside meant cool, moist air came back in at night, and moisture would collect in the bottom and gradually fill up the tube. This affected the broadcast and the results were not desirable. My new design made this a lot harder to happen. While manufacturing flaws can occur, if the assembly is air tight and the well jars are seated with silicone caulk, this cannot occur.
While I published the basic design, both in ACRES, USA and ACRES Australia, there’s only so much information one can give when it comes to manufacturing technique. I wanted individual farmers to experiment. However, publishing plans was not meant to fuel commercial production. Lloyd Charles, an Australian biodynamic farmer that I collaborated with to produce broadcasters in Australia, reckoned it probably takes making 20 broadcasters to get on top of manufacturing technique so a reliable product is produced, and I quite agree. Even then, given a 5 year warranty on defects and customer feedback, manufacturing flaws turn up.
Quality control—thoroughness, skill, dedication and testing—are a product of learning experiences born out of making mistakes. I’ve seen a lot of homemade field broadcasters with a variety of deficiencies, and filling up with water is the leading cause of malfunction. One farmer in a high rainfall area of New Zealand had a friend make him a broadcaster rather than order one from overseas. It filled up with what I believe was high sodium water, because over a period of several years his soil sodium levels climbed and climbed to where they were 4% of his CEC and more than double his potassium levels. This seriously affected his production and frustrated all attempts at correction. From any ordinary point of view it made little sense
Also, livestock—particularly cows or horses—like to rub up against the broadcaster and soon will snap it off. This has turned out to be the second most common problem, is not covered under warranty, and it can happen to any broadcaster lacking a secure corral. Accidents with equipment come under this heading too.
Indiscriminate use of chemical fertilisers and poisons around the broadcaster or in its near vicinity is another major concern. Twice I’ve seen entire banana plantations turn noticeably yellow when glyphosate was applied around the base of their broadcasters.
Most alarming of all, one day while I was out a fellow called and left a message that he had built one of my ‘cosmic pipes’ and put Black Flag™ in it—was that going to take care of his insects? Unfortunately he didn’t leave a number, and this was back when we didn’t have smart phones that remembered callers’ numbers. A commercial insecticide such as Black Flag™ surely would have ‘taken care’ of his insects—and also his dog, cat, kids, wife, etc. and himself. What’s left of him may be six feet under and pushing up daisies. I guess he wasn’t thinking of the sixth commandment, Thou shalt not kill; but it’s amazing how widespread the Cain mentality is. In the Biblical story, when Cain felt he had a problem with his brother, Abel, his solution was murder. If a farmer doesn’t like a weed or an insect, the usual solution is just kill it. Euphemistically this is called control, but personally, I think it is an extremely dangerous approach.
On the Positive Side
On the other hand one broadcaster owner called me up, and with no pause for pleasantries said, “I haven’t slept a wink in over a week.”
I responded, “What are you talking about?”
He blurted, “Even the dog and the cat are jumping out of their skins. What do I do?”
My response was, “Okay. What have you done?”
“I had a bag of Azomite™, and ever since I spread it around my Field Broadcaster I haven’t gotten a wink of sleep.”
He sounded very distraught—almost in tears—and I was beginning to understand. I asked, “The whole bag? How close to the broadcaster?”
“Yeah, the whole bag, maybe in an eight foot radius.”
“I see. Well look, you’d have been fine if you’d used a handful or two over that area, but Azomite™ is a super high energy mineral, and the whole bag was a massive overdose. You need to scrape up as much as you can and spread it out like a normal field application.”
This illustrates that whatever is going on in the immediate vicinity of the field broadcaster becomes part of the patterns that are broadcast. The corollary is that balanced improvement of the soil in the immediate vicinity of the broadcaster will have a favourable effect all over the property—just don’t overdo it. We recommend to people that they spray a complex of biodynamic preparations around the broadcaster when they install it. In America I usually recommend the Pfeiffer Field and Garden Spray from the Josephine Porter Institute. In Australia I like to recommend the Soil Activator preparation available from Biodynamic Agriculture Australia (02 6655 0566). As for what to plant around the broadcaster, my favourite is a stinging nettle patch around the base.
Via dowsing, Harvey Lisle was the first to discover that burying vials of various biodynamic preparations in their physical form a couple inches deep along the east side of his Hieronymus Cosmic Pipe would project these remedies into the broadcast. However, when he left these raw preparations there for prolonged periods some undesirable effects occurred. This was the first clue that field broadcasting worked better with homeopathic preparation patterns than with the raw materials. The physical substances were overwhelming if not diluted so that their subtle patterns came to the fore.
While there are a lot of amazing success stories out there about putting physical materials or preparations in the wells or next to the broadcast coils for a few days and then removing them, the key to lasting success is removing them again.
For example, a dairy farmer in southeast Queensland had over 80% of his farm flooded for a couple weeks. When the water receded the pastures were water logged and anaerobic. In a conference call with other field broadcaster owners it was suggested he bury a vial of hydrogen peroxide alongside his broadcaster for a few days, and he did. Almost immediately the pastures bounced back and started growing, where across the highway his neighbour’s pastures remained sodden and bedraggled for more than a month. After a few days this dairy farmer removed the vial, as advised, and things went well; but try to imagine what would happen if hydrogen peroxide was part of the broadcast 24/7/365. It wouldn’t take long before serious imbalances showed up.
I’ve done this sort of thing with solubor, and by the third day every animal on the farm, including the rabbits and myself, had very, very loose stools. With copper sulphate the effects were so noticeable in three weeks that everyone on the farm was complaining of going numb in any part of their bodies that had received any sort of a recent electric shock, even a low grade one.
On the other hand, 30c potencies of various raw substances left in the wells for months and months never showed any physical symptoms—although tissue tests showed the boron, copper, calcium, molybdenum or whatever soon showed up in the plants.
The general category most pattern energy modalities fall into—like colour therapy, homeopathy, field broadcasters and radionic devices—is called ‘subtle’ energy because these low level quantum effects usually aren’t immediately physical like hammers, levers and gears. It takes paying attention to details, as well as the overall picture and the progression of events, to realize what the effects are. Dowsing can be used to detect extremely subtle effects, which is how Harvey Lisle noticed that any substance placed in the soil adjacent to his Cosmic Pipe immediately affected the entire induction field of the broadcast.
A grazer in the Inland Empire north of Spokane, Washington recently told us he noticed the effects of his broadcaster immediately because he had Lyme disease and the treatment caused something called a Herxheimer Reaction from sudden, massive elimination of dead cells. His doctor had prescribed that he take molybdenum supplementation for this, and the reagent package for his broadcaster had 30c sodium molybdate in both top and bottom wells. Whenever he was on his property with the field broadcaster his Herxheimer reaction was greatly reduced.
Another milestone was laid down in the early days by Mark Moeller, a radionic agricultural consultant who worked with Hieronymus. Mark was the first to insist that that broadcasts must be limited to individual properties, as we have neither the moral nor legal right to affect others’ properties without their informed consent.
My hat’s off to Mark, but as far as I’m aware I was the first to realize that because of quantum entanglement we could use aerial maps of the broadcaster owner’s property with the boundaries marked, along with a written intent that defined the area of the broadcast. The result of this was an even, resonant containment and build-up of the energetic patterns within the broadcast area, and a large improvement in results.
These sorts of lessons arise from trained observation of natural processes by folks skilled in the detection of imbalances and apt in finding corrective measures that increase and enhance beneficial effects. In short, field broadcasters are best placed, maintained and programmed by people with an in-depth familiarity with agriculture and a profound understanding of nature. To this end my wife, Shabari, and I are training and certifying Quantum Agriculture graduates who are equipped to install and service field broadcasters as an aspect of a comprehensive agricultural consultancy aimed at achieving consistent quality results.
The Coattails of Change
Needless to say we feel considerable responsibility to warn against fraud. A new technology like this acts as a magnet for fast talking scam artists who rely on gullibility and ignorance. Field broadcasting fits this bill because few people are well grounded in quantum theory or how nature works in thriving, self-sufficient ecosystems. This makes it a risk to deal with anyone without a proven track record behind them. There have been copies including out-and-out rip-offs of my designs for commercial purposes along with re-printings of my articles, customer testimonials, photos and frequently asked questions straight from my website. This is more than enough reason for us to train certified Quantum Agriculture representatives.
Back in the early days I wanted everyone to understand the concepts and have access to the design to experiment with. This has led to efforts by others to patent my design and/or to sell poorly manufactured units. While I think I should have expected this, the part that worries me most is giving a new technology a bad name. I don’t like seeing poorly made products sold in my name.
While beginners will make their own field broadcasters based on my published (copyright) design and—with little or no experience with reagent patterns—achieve wondrous success, these folks are more or less flying blind in a dense fog. Good luck you brave souls, pay close attention and wondrous things will happen—but they won’t all be good. Mistakes are the key to learning, so take care to minimize risk, have courage, and who knows what can be learned. Keep in touch, keep good records, ask questions and please, share results. That way we all will learn. The application of subtle energies in agriculture is a game changer on par with the development of the steam and internal combustion engines, and it heralds a new age in agriculture.
On the other hand people who go straight into manufacturing and selling hardware using my design for profit should contact me to work out a licensing agreement. I have had people blatantly rip me off and advertise that they are selling “Hugh Lovel Broadcasters” while I had no oversight in their manufacture and received nary a cent for either the use of my name and reputation or my copyright.
My inadvertent beginner’s mistake of broadcasting the pattern of urea, which resulted in things growing well even though it poisoned the environment with low grade nitrogen salts, illustrates how essential a profound understanding of nature is for the success of field broadcasting. Nitrogen salts impair natural nitrogen fixation, which is what we really want if our farms or gardens are to produce abundant, quality results with little or no outside inputs while building soil to the benefit of mankind and the greater ecology. Sure, broadcasting the resonant pattern of urea created physical urea throughout the farm. Superficially it looked good, but nitrogen salts, including urea, are the antagonist of silica which is the basis of transport and organic integrity. The long range effects are pests, diseases and less than optimal nutrition. On the other hand, amino acid nitrogen, particularly the three sulphur containing amino acids found in cell walls, connective tissues and transport vessels are synergistic with silica, and it is this amino acid nitrogen that works with silica to give plants immunity to pests and diseases along with nutritional density.
Unsurprisingly, silica is usually ignored in chemical agriculture where things look good on the surface, but at a subtler level are profoundly askew. The result is loss of protoplasmic density, cosmetic blemishes, disease and pest problems and a failure to raise the soil foodweb and the overall farm ecology to the level of robust self-sufficiency.
From the start, the problem with chemical agriculture has been excitement with what superficially looked great but at the core was rotten. Though agricultural science of the recent past is strewn with bad examples, we need to achieve the highest level of scientific integrity in agriculture. As Liebig pointed out, agriculture stands above all other professions. For all of the wonders of urbanization, sociologists continue to point out that civilization is utterly dependent on agriculture. This means it is a matter of greatest importance that we hold agriculture to the highest standard of integrity, as this will be reflected in our culture.
This was true when Justus von Liebig penned his mea culpa in 1873, “Indeed, Herein Lies the Crux of My Life”, and, it is every bit as true today. I believe it would be appropriate to redeem the great chemist and father of chemical agriculture’s reputation. We must adhere to a high standard, and the application of subtle energy patterns in agriculture may well help us accomplish that.
The worship of false doctrines must be destroyed I’ve long thought it sufficient in science to teach the truth and to spread it. However, the glorification of falsehood must be annihilated to establish a firm foundation for truth, and I’ve recently realized my error in agriculture was not pursuing this further. As my final wish, I pass on the mission to cleanse my teachings of the accumulated lies others have used to obscure them, lo these many years.
In truth, agriculture is both contemplative and spiritual Unfortunately almost no one realizes the truebeauty of agriculture—its inner spirituality and beingness. It warrants the best efforts of science—not only because of its produce and the benefits it bestows on those who understand the language of nature—but because it stands above all other vocations.
The Bondage of Error At one time, the view permeated my every fibre that plants obtained their nourishment in soluble form. This view was false and was the source of my errant behaviour, but the human mind is a curious thing and it sees nothing beyond its field of vision.
–Justus von Liebig, Indeed, Herein Lies the Crux of My Life
Hugh Lovel, author of the book A Biodynamic Farm and frequent contributor to ACRES, USA and ACRES Australia is a multi-disciplinary scientist dedicated to abundant production of food of the highest quality while regenerating soil fertility and environmental health. He farmed for 30 years in Georgia before migrating to Australia as an agronomist, lecturer and consultant to growers from horticulture to grazing. He believes the best results come from empowering farmers to be well-informed and self-reliant, and he recommends only what is needed for best outcomes while saving growers money. Mixing detailed explanations with practical examples, Hugh helps growers sort out problems of all types by learning to identify their causes rather than merely treating symptoms. Using what he calls the Biochemical Sequence and Comprehensive Testing, he points out how to interpret soils, crops, weeds and lab results to grasp the key importance of sulphur, boron and silicon, which all too often go ignored.
Shabari Bird Lovel, Hugh’s partner and former neighbour of 32 years, teaches self-awareness through Shamanism as well as food preparation, fermentation and preservation. She has a passionate interest in agricultural ferments. Her late husband, Christopher Bird, co-authored Secret Life of Plants and Secrets of the Soil.
Shabari works actively with Hugh to update the “Reagents” for their Field Broadcaster clients around the world.June 16, 2021 at 18:43 #1739
Radionics “Black Box”
The father of this movement was Dr. Albert Abrams, a professor of pathology at Stanford University’s medical school. Basing his discoveries on the philosophy that all matter radiates information that can be detected by his instruments in conjunction with the unconscious reflexes of another human being, Abrams succeeded in attracting a large following and also arousing the unremitting ire of the medical and scientific establishment. Thousands of self-professed healers were effecting cures, making diagnoses, and even removing pests from gardens merely by twisting dials, swinging pendulums, or rubbing their fingers across strange devices., The following passage describes the use of one such instrument known as the Delawarr machine:
Suppose that it is required to find out the condition of a patient’s liver. We place a bloodspot or saliva sample in one of the two containers at the top of the main panel, according to whether the patient is male or female, and start turning the tuning knob slowly, passing the fingers of the right hand over the rubber detector at the same time with a series of “brushing” strokes until a “stick” is obtained. The patient’s bloodspot is then tuned into the set.
The stick refers to a particular rubbing sensation in the finger. The location of the dials when the “stick” occurs, when properly translated is said to indicate the diagnosis of the disease. When the disease is tuned in to the instrument, the cure can be “broadcast” over any distance, to the patient.
Other radionic developments are said to have been even more startling, such as the camera developed by the Los Angeles chiropractor, Ruth Drown. Using nothing but a drop of blood, it is claimed that this camera could take pictures of the organs and tissues of patients-sometimes at a distance of thousands of miles. She also claimed to take pictures in “cross-section” a feat that cannot be duplicated even with X-rays. While she received a British patent for her apparatus, Drown was persecuted as a charlatan by the FDA.
A story about Drown’s ability is told by the cosmologist Arthur M. Young, who invented the Bell helicopter:
Ruth Drown was truly an angelic sort of a person–if you can imagine an angel in the flesh. She started reeling off these Pythagorean relationships that just made my mind spin. I couldn’t keep up with her.
It wasn’t on the first occasion, but maybe on the second, that I wanted to put her to a test. I was at that time having a toothache. So I asked her if she would diagnose my condition and take a photograph. But I didn’t tell her anything. And she took these photographs that were about eight by ten. It looked like a very detailed picture of teeth.
She put the film in this box, but there were no lenses or anything like that. Whatever this radiation was, it exposed the film. It was not done with light. And she got a photograph of the tooth.
Being scientific in nature, I said, “Now do it again.” This was all in the dark. She couldn’t see me. So I pressed the tooth hard with my finger to make it hurt more, to see what would happen. The next picture was an enlargement of this same tooth.
Today there are two developments effecting the standing of radionics. On the one hand, researchers in a new area dubbed psychotronics are taking a serious interest in understanding the possible mechanisms such instrumentation might have., In fact, several new radionics devices have recently been manufactured with computerized components. At the time of this writing, there is no clear indication that such new devices represent any genuine advance in the arcane art of radionics. There is no reason to suspect that a major breakthrough is at hand. On the other hand, a number of radionic practitioners and investigators have reported that after becoming proficient in the use of the “black boxes,” they were able to obtain the same effects without them.,
One radionics expert, Frances Farrelly, demonstrated her ability to work without her instrument at the International Conference on Psychotronics in Prague in 1973:
…she was confronted by a professor from the Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences who gave her a chip of mineralized rock and asked her before a large audience if she could state its origin and age. Rubbing the table before her to get a radionic type “stick,” Farrelly, after putting a dozen questions to herself, stated that the mineral in question came from a meteor and was about 3,200,000 years old, answers which exactly matched the most considered conclusions of expert Czech mineralogists.
It was her contention she had learned to “run the instrument in [her] head.” Perhaps, then, the “black box” is to radionics what the pencil is to arithmetic — a tool for focusing consciousness within the structure of a disciplined system.
Interview: A leading radionic medical diagnostician for doctor’s clients discusses her decades of research and experience with the “black boxes” of radionics, as well as her own sensitivity.
Radionics Authority Frances Farrelly
By Christopher Bird
Psychic Magazine – July/August 1975
CBird: How do you describe yourself?
FARRELLY: I am a retired medical technician using my psychic abilities for diagnosis of health conditions. As reported in Dr. Karagulia’s (a M.D.) book Breakthrough to Creativity — I am referred to in it as the clairsentient, “Kay” — I am clairvoyant and clairsentient, and I have had many precognitive experiences.
For example, there have been three instances in which I foresaw the wreck of the train on which I had been traveling. I got off at the next stop, while later down the track the wreck occurred. One of these was while I was in Paris ready to board a train when I got a very clear impression. “You must not travel on this train,” that came through both times I attempted to board it, so I took the next one. Later we were stopped because the train ahead had been wrecked — the one I would have been on. In each case I did not get a mental image of the wreck, but rather I just sensed it or had an urgent feeling to get out of the way of danger.
As a clairsentient, which is my most developed ability, I am able to pick up the physical and emotional feelings of individuals, which tells me exactly what’s bothering them. I use it in my diagnostic work with doctors.
CBird: When were you first aware of these abilities in yourself?
FARRELLY: At the time of the influenza epidemic during World War I, when I was six years old, I made myself a little Red Cross uniform and went round to our sick neighbors. I’d rub their heads and their symptoms would disappear. When they informed my mother, she retorted, down-to-earth Vermonter that she was: “Don’t admit it to her, for God’s sake! She’s crazy enough as it is.” So I didn’t really know I had any healing ability until I was over forty when I was first introduced to other healers and the practice of laying-on-of-hands.
CBird: Were there any other psychic experiences as a child?
FARRELLY: Well, I could see little nature spirits in the woods. They were similar to what I learned later were called leprechauns in Irish stories. We had a flower-collecting contest in elementary school. All the children were sent out to collect wild flowers and got points for the number of varieties they could find. I won the contest each year, starting from the first grade, with the help of my little friends. Finally, in the fourth grade, my teacher asked me how it was that I’d won the contest three years running. I told her honestly that my friends told me where to find the flowers. She asked, “What friends?” And I told her about the little people I played and talked with and that they’re around all the time. I mentioned how they often walked to school with me and then waited and walked home with me. The teacher smiled and said she’d like to go along and see what happened next time.
So one morning, one of these . . . you could call them elves . . . told me he could show me a place in the woods where there was a rare white lady slipper. There had been lots of pink lady slippers in our area, but I’d never seen a white one. All excited, I asked my elfin friend if my teacher could come along and he agreed. He led us about two miles from the school to a part of the woods I had never visited before. As we walked along, my little friend played games. He’d walk along the top of rail fences for instance.
CBird: What was your teacher’s reaction to being led by your little guide?
FARRELLY: She couldn’t see him but she seemed to accept my running account of what he was doing. He led us right up to a gorgeous white lady slipper.
Delighted he’d been true to his word, I turned, beaming at my teacher. Her response was unexpected. She suddenly grabbed me and began shaking me and slapping my face. She told me that I was a liar and a cheat and that I’d known all along that the white flower was where it was.
As hurt as I was, it was nothing compared to the fright I felt when the teacher said she would report the incident to my mother. I’d had several confrontations with my mother from about the age of eight about my fancied play with “little people.” At first, she made light of it but then she told me with great severity that it was all in my “imagination” and it was time to forget about it. She began punishing me whenever she caught me talking to my friends.
When the teacher told my mother about the white lady slipper, I got a nasty licking with a switch and was told there’d be more if I was ever again caught talking to the little people. Although I continued to see them for a couple of years more, I never told anybody.
CBird: What did they look like?
FARRELLY: Lovely and elfish. They were dressed in little costumes, and were about six to eight inches tall. They’d speak to me in good English, but with high-pitched squeaky voices. After I saw Geoffry Hodson’s books on the little people, I was amazed to learn that someone had actually written seriously about what I’d seen as a child.
CBird: When did you first get involved in the unusual diagnostic and healing technology known as “Radionics?”
FARRELLY: When I was operating the Approved Laboratories in St. Petersburg, Florida, doing milk and water analysis for the state. It was straight chemistry, bacteriology, hematology. One day Dr. Robert Love, an osteopath, who described himself as an “electronic physician,” called me to analyze some milk samples for bacterial count and undulant fever. I found it strange that he wanted all his samples back since, generally, we just poured them down the sink after the testing.
CBird: Why did he want them back?
FARRELLY: I found out when I took them to his office. He had a large desk covered with Leeds and Northrop rheostats. He told me to sit down and he’d check my findings on his milk samples. He picked up a sample bottle and put it on a metal plate. After turning some dials on a box-like machine, he rubbed his fingers on a wooden plate attached to it and told me that sample number 16 was negative.
I checked my list of findings. Number 16 was negative.
He took up the next sample. After a few seconds rubbing, he said that it was very bad. My finding on the sample read “Four plus,” which indicated very bad. He went through the complete collection and his almost instant findings accorded exactly with all the ones it had taken me the whole night to make.
CBird: What was your reaction?
FARRELLY: I thought he could have been reading my mind. So I asked him if he could identify some samples I could bring him from my lab. I selected about five, as I remember, one a slide of a piece of liver section with a spirochete of syphilis in it. Another was a sample of lymphatic leukemia for which I had counted the white blood cells myself that same morning.
I gave him the sample unlabeled. While he did his testing I went into an adjoining room and kept my mind off what he was doing and the specimens by reciting poetry to myself. When I came out he told me his analyses. Each one was 100% correct. Of the leukemia specimen he told me that he couldn’t get over the white count in this person. He got over 190,000 white cells, which seemed to him impossible. But that very morning I had counted them in the lab at 192,000 — 5 to 10,000 is normal. I was astonished. Dr. Love seemed to be able to make accurate analyses as fast as one could dial telephone numbers.
CBird: That was the beginning?
FARRELLY: Yes. I asked him if I could try his machine. He showed me what to do. If my fingers stuck when rubbing across the plate, the answer was yes. If they traveled freely over the plate, it was no. I seemed to have the talent. I became very excited. I made a bargain with him to train me in the technique in return for my doing lab tests on any unusual specimens for a year.
CBird: Did you learn how Dr. Love’s mysterious instrument functioned?
FARRELLY: No, he would never show me how his instruments were made. Then I heard of Dr. Ruth Drown in Pasadena, California. I contacted her, went out there, and took a course with her. There was so much rivalry in this field among practitioners about “who had stolen what from whom.” Dr. Drown, for instance, detested Love and didn’t want his name mentioned.
Dr. Drown had a “camera” which worked at a distance. She showed me how to operate it. But she seemed to be the only one who could interpret the pictures taken with it. They could not begin to compare with the ones taken by George De la Warr which I later saw in England. They weren’t clear cut whereas De la Warr’s were very clear. A bone was clearly recognizable as a bone, a stomach, a stomach or a gall bladder, a gall bladder. Dr. Drown also could not duplicate her pictures but De la Warr could. Drown maintained that duplication was impossible because of the different amount of energy flowing through a particular organ each moment. But from my observations of both techniques. I don’t think that was the case.
CBird: What were your conclusions about these various devices?
FARRELLY: It was when I was working with Dr. Drown that I first began to feel that the instruments themselves were not doing the work. Occasionally we’d get a blood sample and believe we were testing it in the instrument only to find that, when we went to remove it, we’d forgotten to put it there. So I began to wonder exactly who or what was being tested.
CBird: Your results were just as effective as if you had put the blood sample into the device?
FARRELLY: Precisely, as long as we knew the patient. Then, too, the Drown instrument operated with no electricity. Other devices used electricity. It was her theory that the sample of blood or hair, or whatever it was, was a part of the patient and therefore in constant rapport with him or her and that one was just tuning in on that frequency, for that patient. There were many other theories developed, here and abroad. I don’t think any of them were even close to correct.
CBird: Did you develop your own theory or reconcile the various theories, which were around?
FARRELLY: Both. And I got the chance when I was introduced to Arthur Middleton Young, inventor of the Bell helicopter, who was running his Foundation for the Study of Consciousness in New York City. I went to work for him for what I thought would be one summer and stayed over five years. Arthur was interested in radionics but felt strongly that the results obtained with this art were a function of consciousness, that they came not from the machines themselves but from the operators.
I had to admit that I had been successful in diagnosis even when blood samples of patients had been inadvertently left out of the instruments. Also, I had noted that, when certain devices which usually operated on AC current were surreptitiously unplugged, the operator could still go on making successful diagnoses, even though the radio tubes and other components were not electrically activated.
CBird: What kind of research was conducted at the foundation?
FARRELLY: We began with experiments on plants and animals, especially with the effects of insecticides. We sprayed fruits and vegetables with DDT and then treated them radionically to try to remove the effects of the poison. Analytic tests run at the Laboratory of Industrial Hygiene in New York City indicated that the treated samples showed less insecticide than those untreated.
We also wanted to see if we could counteract the effects of arsenic poisoning in mice. We fed them nothing but a standard commercial mouse poison but none of them showed any effects from it. Young talked to a professional vermin exterminator who maintained that the poison should have been lethal. He gave us another poison “strong enough to kill a horse.” We gave the mice this stronger dose but, again, none of them would die.
CBird: How did you explain this?
FARRELLY: Arthur Young’s deduction was that since I had not intended to kill the animals in the first place, the strength of my intent overrode the strength of the position.
We did many other interesting experiments with plants and small animals. One of them was to see if some ancient Mexican figurines would have any effect on mice.
One of these figures was eighteen or so inches tall with a fluted neck. I connected it by copper wire to a mouse cage, the statue being three feet from the cage. The mice in the cage immediately got agitated. They would crawl under the paper in the cage as if trying to hide. After about two days, half of the tail of one mouse fell off and even more strangely, its ears developed fluting on their edges. While keeping two more mice under constant observation, we were able to flute the ears on them as well. (See pictures of mouse and figurine.) I took these mice to a nationally known laboratory at Bar Harbor, Maine, where they raise mice and asked if the ear fluting could somehow have been caused by the mice scratching or biting. The laboratory experts said they’d never seen anything even closely resembling the fluting. They had no explanation for it.
We took other figurines and tried out their effects on mice. One of them caused pregnant mice to abort. I later found out that the psychic Fredrick Marion, author of In My Mind’s Eye had psychometrized some of our figurines and had ‘seen’ a group of people potentizing them for various uses.
CBird: What other radionics research did you do?
FARRELLY: Mr. Young sent me to England to make a study of radionics there. I met people in various medical radiesthesia groups: one composed exclusively of doctors, one made up of people Dr. Drown had trained while in England and, the third, people trained by the De la Warrs.
It was then that I had a good look at the De la Warr camera. It wasn’t really a camera. It had no light source. It could be operated only by the physicist Leonard Corte. Other people could use it successfully only if Corte loaded the films put in it.
I decided that there was something which tied the camera specifically to Corte. He suggested we take it apart and that I handle all the various separate mechanical components in order to impress my own energy upon them. After I ran my fingers over all the internal components of the camera, I was able to get pictures, albeit somewhat less clearly than Corte.
CBird: What else did you do in England?
FARRELLY: While there, I also spoke to a group of prominent physicians at the office of Michael Ash, an orthodox doctor who was experimenting with healing by the laying-on-of-hands. I did some healing with him. Ash had a theory about the radionics devices which corresponded with that of Arthur Young. To test it, he brought a deaf-dumb-and-blind patient to this office and introduced me by writing my name with his foreigner in her hand. He told me to step up to her and lay my hands on her and tell him what was ailing here. When I stepped towards her, I got a sudden severe pain across my middle and a searing flash of heat on the right side of my head affecting an area about the size of a quarter dollar. I immediately stepped back and both pains disappeared. When I approached her again, they returned. I looked at Dr. Ash and, knowing the patient couldn’t hear me, I asked what was wrong with her across her middle. He chided me to be more anatomically specific.
I began surveying various organs of the body in my head. Diaphragm. Stomach. Liver. I got no reaction to any of these and others until I thought “pancreas.” Then the pain in my middle instantly returned. I asked myself if it was the head of the pancreas. The pain disappeared again. Same for the tail of the pancreas. I thought: “the Isles of Langerhann, which make insulin.” I immediately got a sharp pain back again in what was obviously my own pancreas.
I told Dr. Ash it was the Isles of Langerhann. He nodded affirmatively and asked if I felt anything else. I decided to plunge ahead and felt a hot spot on my head. I ran a few possibilities through my head: “tumor?” “growth?” Finally “blood clot” occurred to me and when it did, I felt the hot pain in my head.
When I gave this diagnosis to Dr. Ash, he beamed. “See, you are the instrument, not those devices you’ve been working with. This woman got this way from a diabetic coma and indeed has a blood clot in the very area you’ve pinpointed.”
CBird: Did you make other diagnoses for Dr. Ash?
FARRELLY: I spent two more weeks with him and sat next to him at his desk writing down my impressions about all his patients. That gave me much more confidence to go ahead and work without the instrument. I would just hold a blood sample in my hand and either directly feel what the patient was afflicted with or determine it by rubbing, not on the plate of a radionics device, but right on the top of the desk or table in front of me.
CBird: Today you just do the rubbing when necessary don’t you?
FARRELLY: Yes. It was when I was about to leave the Young’s in 1960 that I began working with the California psychiatrist Shafica Karagulla, M.D. I gave up tuning into people directly and getting a pain because my senses were becoming so acute that if I were, say, just sitting in a train, I would begin unconsciously to pick up pains from the people in the same car I was in. My back, my shoulders, my stomach would ache. My bunions would hurt. And the emotions of various people would assail me to the point that I hardly knew how I was feeling myself. I’d feel sad and mad and glad, all at the same time. I could pick out the person associated with each pain or emotion but I had to learn how to shut this out because it was becoming overpowering.
CBird: What use is a radionics device, do you think, if people like yourself can diagnose without it?
FARRELLY: I believe it acts something like a dowsing device. A dowser uses a divining rod or a pendulum to get answers. The rod or pendulum acts to signal a yes or no answer to the questions. In my case, the rubbing provided the answer. The technique I employ may be ages old. There is a passage in a book, Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic Among the Azande by the celebrated English anthropologist, Edward Evans-Prichard relating how a witchdoctor made a little round disk with a tail on it and another disk with a handle on it. He’d sit down and put his foot on the tail to hold it steady and then he’d rub the other disk over it and then ask, for example, if his neighbor’s pigs had cholera. If it stuck, they had the disease. If it slid smoothly, they did not. The technique hardly differs from my own.
CBird: Have your talents been formally tested by doctors?
FARRELLY: I have been repeatedly asked by doctors to take some hundred samples and analyze them under test conditions, being promised that the data I supplied would be written up formally by them in medical or other specialized journals to put the radionics technique on the map, so to speak.
Well, “I’ve spent hundreds of hours fulfilling these requests. Perhaps some of these doctors even did go ahead and write up the data, but I’ve never seen any of their accounts in print.
CBird: Why, do you think?
FARRELLY: It’s hard to say. I believe that either the editors of journals would not accept such an article or that the authors are warned by friendly colleagues not to stick their heads out by associating themselves with what must appear to be pure mumbo-jumbo to the medical profession as presently constituted.
Radionics, as you know, principally refers to a device or instrument and its use, at least in the United States. I believe the term “radiesthesia” which on the continent means “medical dowsing” is better, because it does not imply that an instrument is the key to the diagnostic art.
There has been half a century of controversy about Abrams-type “magic boxes” or radionics devices. At issue today in the United States is whether the science of radionics is against the law. To his letter to the United States Food and Drug Administration asking this question, Mr. Edward W. Russell received the following reply: “In answer to your specific question, the ‘practice of Radionic Medicine’ is not forbidden by the FDA, however, devices intended for such use may be ‘misbranded’ within the meaning of that term under the Federal Food, Drug Cosmetic Act.” The FDA further stated to Mr. Russell: “In order to comply with the statute, a device used in ‘Radionic Medicine’ must be safe, effective and properly labeled. Frankly, we know of no way of labeling a device so that it would bear adequate directions for use for Radionic Medicine.
I agree 100% with the FDA. From what is scientifically known today, or from what radionic operators have said about their instruments in the past, there’s no way a device could be labeled correctly for use.
From the historical point of view, I feel that it is important to remember that Dr. Abrams, who founded the art of radionics, referred to “electronic reactions.” In 1898, electronics was coming into vogue. So Abrams used ohms of resistance to measure the so-called “rates” from various bodily organs. When Drown came along in the 1920s, radio was becoming the new rage. She called her method “radiotherapy.” Now we’re in the computer age and I hear that some radionics practitioners are labeling the technique “computerized analysis.”
CBird: But what about the radionics instruments as devices for, not diagnosis, but treatment? How is the treatment effected, if it is?
FARRELLY: I wish I knew. I know that it works but don’t know why or how. There are several different methods for treatment. Drown would use a diagnostic rate to determine an affliction and then select a remedy, put it in the circuitry of the machine, and claim that the treatment was affected by the vibrations from the remedy.
The De la Warrs used what they called a “complementary rate.” They subtracted a diagnostic rate, say, for flu which is 38 and subtract each of the digits from 10 to get 72, which was the treating rate. This also seemed to work.
Dr. Love had a third method. He’d use another number to annul the first one. If he had a rate for flu, he’d work the dials on the device until he found another number which would completely wipe out his reaction to it.
Even after thirty years in the field, I don’t know how the treatment instruments work, whether for humans or animals.
CBird: What has been the track record?
FARRELLY: Whether it was Dr. Love, Dr. Drown, De la Warr or others, they all have claimed a very high percentage of success with all kinds of illnesses. But it also depended to what stage the disease had advanced. This applies to any disease. It is my impression that with treatment devices using electricity, such as the one developed by T. Galen Hieronymous, the treatment seemed to proceed faster than those which used no electrical current such as the Drown and De la Warr instruments. I know that Dr. Love’s treating machines which used electricity, accomplish in three minutes what it took Dr. Drown’s an hour to accomplish. But I don’t know how to account for this.
CBird: Do most doctors today send you cases they simply cannot diagnose or do they use you as a sort of diagnostic machine for everything?
FARRELLY: Both, some for tough cases, others routinely. I am much more challenged by the tough cases. For example, I had to analyze a sample from a sixteen-year-old who’d had a history of chronic ear trouble. In checking it, I first found it was bacterial so I began checking through the bacteria. And I found tuberculosis. This seems impossible since I’d never heard of tuberculosis in the ear. But I relied on my analysis and sent it to the doctor. He called me long distance to ask: “Have you lost your cotton-picking mind? Whoever heard of TB in the ear?” I told him I didn’t know, but would stick with that diagnosis, no matter how far-fetched it might seem.
The next day he called me back to say that he’d spoken to the patient’s mother, a registered nurse, and told her that she should have a bacterial exam made but using, as I’d suggested in my report, an acid-fast stain to reveal TB. The doctor was surprised that, instead of getting angry, the mother told him that her child had a swollen gland on the side of the neck at age six months. The gland had been found to be tubercular. But they never made a connection with TB and the running ear.
Christopher Bird: How do you work with doctors?
FARRELLY: I am sent a sample of the patient’s blood. I no longer sit with the patient; all of my work now is done in absentia.
I also have a form which they fill out about their patients, which contains standard statistical information requests, as well as any history that may be important to the current complaint. The reason I ask for a current history is because there might be something I need to check which would fall outside the routine diagnosis I ordinarily do. For example, ordinarily I don’t check the eyes or ears or parts of the brain. But if the history warrants or a special request is made, I can go into the specific areas in detail.
CBird: What’s your procedure in diagnosing, your methodology?
FARRELLY: I do a physical report on the various organs and glands of the body, as well as a vitamin assay. In addition, I check the remedies of Edward Bach, M.D., M.B., D.P.H., who was a homeopathic physician. These are homeopathic remedies made in England for treatment of what Dr. Bach calls “the problems of the spirit of man, such as anger, concern, conflict, jealousy, and so on.”
Also, if the doctor asks for it, I run allergy tests on about 700 allergens and am further able to select and suggest suitable dietary supplements for the patient.
I work for about as many MDs and osteopaths, as I do chiropractors. Of course it depends on each doctor’s professional limitations in what I would suggest for his patient. This also applies to the selection or suggestion of medications, or if I feel that surgery is indicated. I have to keep within the realms of what each person’s license permits him to do.
CBird: Do you only diagnose for doctors?
FARRELLY: Yes. I don’t do it for individuals because I would then be both diagnosing and prescribing, which would be outside the law.
PSYCHIC: Then the only way for someone personally to use your services is to find a doctor who is sympathetic and understanding to your methods of diagnosis.
FARRELLY: That’s right. But there are more and more doctors willing to work with patients in this manner, although when I began doing this back in the 1940s, there were hardly any physicians willing to work with me or their patients on this basis. Yet most of the ones I work with still wish to remain anonymous. So I leave it up to each particular doctor if they wish to disclose our association.
CBird: Do all of them know that you use a psychic method and not an orthodox one in diagnosing the blood samples and data they send you?
FARRELLY: Yes. They all know that I’m using psychic means to diagnose their samples. Mostly all have been referred to me by other doctors; I make no effort to go out and get them. In the beginning, they’re quite curious but then become accustomed to my procedure. Currently I work with about 70 doctors across the country, many of whom have been using my services for over ten years now.
CBird: How do you get yourself in a state to do a diagnosis?
FARRELLY: I just focus my attention on the blood sample and data starts coming about the person. Also, it helps immensely to focus my attention when the diagnosis is a challenge to me. But if I received a report that indicated that someone was getting gas from eating onions, that’s no challenge. I would just naturally, without psychically looking into it, think, “Well, why the devil are they eating onions!”
CBird: Are you able to turn on and off at will?
FARRELLY: Yes, over the years it’s become an automatic thing. I just go into a state — probably an altered state of consciousness — by merely focusing my attention on the case at hand. And I know I’m not in a trance, because I am still aware of what’s going on around me, yet I’m not disturbed by it. I was once tested on a bio-feedback machine which showed that I apparently slip very easily in and out of alpha (alpha brainwave state) which is necessary since I have to come back up again to write my report as I go along.
CBird: How do you distinguish between the patient’s ailment and your own?
FARRELLY: Sometimes when I’m looking at the patient and I’m not sure whether it’s his pain or mine, then I will ask myself, “What’s the matter with me?” If the pain goes away, then I know it’s the patient’s and not mine.
CBird: Since you feel and sense things, do you ever see anything visually?
FARRELLY: I’m a very poor clairvoyant. I do see psychically, but it’s not normal for me. And it has to be rather dark, not full light. During such times I have seen colors about the person — like the aura other people describe — and then I see a dark spot in the area of the person where there’s a problem. But I don’t have full control over this at all, because sometimes I see and sometimes I don’t. The feeling part is the one I can rely on much more steadily. And when I’m testing from a blood sample, I do not feel the pain or the emotional factors of the person.
CBird: What about pictures or scenes?
FARRELLY: Yes. Sometimes they occur in a flash. For example, once while driving a car I actually saw the front tire with a bulge on it ready to blow out. I was able to stop in time to avoid the blowout.
CBird: Have you ever used your technique outside the medical field?
FARRELLY: I’ve located lost objects and missing persons. I should say that, to me, a very important fact in this work is the purpose or intent of the client. In my opinion, this has a great deal to do with success. For example, when someone hides something and asks that I locate it, I’m not really turned on to the task because I know they already know where it is. But if it is a real challenge — being truly helpful instead of just demonstrating — I get turned on.
CBird: What have been some of your useful cases in searching for missing people?
FARRELLY: Just recently, a woman called me to say that her son had gone out in a boat and not returned by nightfall. The weather being bad, she was worried and asked me if I could say where he was. I got a map of the Tampa Bay area and taking a photo of the boy, I ran through a number of questions and put an “X” mark on a sand bar off a small island. That’s where the Coast Guard found his boat stuck with the boy still in it.
Then at the First International Meeting for Psychotronic Research, held in Prague, Czechoslovakia in 1973, some of the Czech scientists who had heard me lecture asked me to tell them the age and origin of a small mineralized sample they’d brought with them. I sat down at a wooden table and within about three minutes I told them it was three million, two hundred thousand years old and came from a meteorite. They confirmed that, according to the best judgment of their experts, both my answers were correct.
CBird: Has this changed your philosophy of life or view of the cosmos?
FARRELLY: In the beginning it shook me up considerably, since my background had been quite orthodox — I’m a Christian. But I learned to accept it as a normal part of my life.
As for my view on the cosmos, I have a very definite feeling that there’s a creator — an organized force and energy. And I have no difficulty in accepting a great many of the philosophies and religions. For example, I don’t have any difficulty in accepting beliefs in reincarnation, and I certainly believe in a continuity of life. As I see it, there is this organization force in the universe and we as a part of it have our roles to play.
CBird: Do you think you have guides or entities helping you as some sensitives seem to?
FARRELLY: I don’t deny such presences but I don’t call upon them for help. I feel my approach — the one that works for me — is a little more direct in that I spend a certain amount of time in prayer and mediation each day — without entities interceding. To me it’s the God energy, the Great Spirit, or whatever you want to call it.
CBird: Do you think your technique can be taught?
FARRELLY: I think so. People have varying grades of psychic ability which they can be taught to use effectively. A lot depends on their interest and devotion. I’d like to see many people trained. Children are especially gifted but need training to develop their gifts. Unfortunately, the gift is usually trained out of them just as it was with me when I was a child.
CBird: What else do you think is important to the technique besides personal motivation?
FARRELLY: Several things. First, the truth. Any doctor working with me must know how I work, I say “psychically” for short though I often go into a long description of the process for them. Second, and most important, is evaluation of accuracy. If, for example, I find gallstones, or a brain tumor, the doctors I work for will follow through with so-called orthodox methods to prove or disprove my work. In turn, they will advise me of their findings. Lastly, and no less important is to continually share what knowledge I have about the subject with others.
I find many young people, engineers, doctors, and physicists who have heard either of the Hieronymous or De la Warr “boxes,” eager to rush out and build replicas of them or at least something similar. I always ask them “Why?” I then go on to tell them that they are the operators and that it is the operators who are the equipment.
So I would say to anyone: You don’t need a device. Train yourself to use your psychic ability.
I am encouraged, after some thirty years in the field, that psychic ability and ESP are more widely and openly accepted because somewhere in the field of radiesthesia, or dowsing, lies the basis of so-called radionics, not in the instrumentation. Everyone longs to make an instrument that will read out answers on a graph or flashlights. To date no one has accomplished this. But if any knowledge I have about the various instruments would help some bright young person to come up with such a device, I will feel I have contributed to the accomplishment in some small way.
Born in Vermont, Frances Farrelly was raised in Norwood, Massachusetts, south of Boston. Her childhood was replete with psychic experiences, including healing and being able to see “the little people.”
Of a religious bent from early life, she entered Saint Lawrence University at Canton, New York, an Universalist Church theological school, to study for the ministry. At the outset, she began to doubt the theology taught, which the dean told her was merely a case of “freshman measles.” Yet the doubt persisted, and in her junior year she “dropped out.”
Opting for a more practical profession, Ms. Farrelly enrolled in the Northwest Institute of Medical Technology in Minneapolis, and after graduation, with three of her classmates, opened her own school for medical technicians in Utica, New York. She later moved to Florida’s west coast and started another school in Sarasota. Unmarried, she also adopted two infant boys, Stephen and Peter.
The year 1944 was a traumatic one in her life. Hardly had she learned that her father, to whom she was deeply devoted, was killed in an automobile accident than her son Peter, age 4, fell out of the car she was driving and died within hours, despite her best efforts to save him. Two days later, her business went bankrupt.
With only seven dollars in the bank, Ms. Farrelly took a job as a teacher in a small private school. But she soon found that work insufficiently demanding, so took up laboratory work again, this time in a new hospital, where she demonstrated such skill that she was appointed inspector of Milk and Water by the city of Sarasota, as well as the county, and later appointed State Examiner.
While her laboratory work was expanding, she was invited by a young woman physician who admired her work to lecture to a local medical society on clinical interpretations of hematology reports. After the meeting, the two had coffee together and became friends. A general practitioner, the physician informed Ms. Farrelly that she was interested in “electronic medicine,” a peculiar art of diagnosis which had first been developed at the turn of the century by the San Francisco genius and Director of Medical Studies at Stanford University, Albert Abrams, M.D.
Abrams’s method of diagnosis by picking up “vibrations” from healthy or diseased tissue with the help of a strange “black box” of his own design was ridiculed by scientific and medical establishments in the United States, though not before he had trained over 3,000 doctors in its use. In England the “box” was officially tested by a committee chaired by Sir Thomas Horder, M.D. who later became physician to the royal family. Its main conclusion was that Abrams’s “electronic reactions” were valid in diagnosis and should be investigated in depth. This recommendation and challenge was never taken up by the British Medical Association.
It was when Ms. Farrelly met one of Abrams’s students who introduced her to the use of the “box” that she became convinced that a new method of diagnosis, astounding in its accuracy and rapidity, had been invented. Through her physician friend, she was introduced to Dr. Ruth Drown of Pasadena, California, one of Dr. Abrams’s most brilliant followers. Dr. Drown asked Ms. Farrelly to come and work with her.
When, after a short-lived period of service in an Anglican sisterhood, Frances Farrelly found herself once again penniless, she remembered Dr. Drown’s offer. A phone call to California landed her the job. After several months’ work with Dr. Drown, whose innovative work was later attacked as fraudulent by the medical establishment and the FDA, she met Arthur Young, the inventor of the Bell Helicopter, who had formed the Foundation for the Study of Consciousness in New York City. She was employed by Young in investigating the diagnostic techniques of Dr. Abrams, which were flowering in England under the name of “radionics.”
While investigating radionics in the U.S. and England, Ms. Farrelly became increasingly skeptical about the radionic “box” device used in the diagnostic technique. She came to the conclusion that the operators were themselves the devices.
Returning to Florida in 1960, she found the demand for her psychicdiagnostic work becoming so large that she eventually had to devote full time to it. Today she provides her unique service to professionals only — physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors throughout the country. “I can no longer diagnose on a personal basis,” she says, “because there is not enough time and because there is always the possibility that it might be construed as being illegal.”
Three years ago, after working out of the Bahamas for several years, she founded her own company, Update Consultants, in St. Petersburg, Florida, where she now makes her home.
“The earlier concept of a universe made up of physical particles interacting according to fixed laws is no longer tenable. It is implicit in present findings that action rather than matter is basic. . . This is good news, for it is no longer appropriate to think of the universe as a gradually subsiding agitation of billiard balls. The universe, far from being a desert of inert particles, is a theatre of increasingly complex organization, a stage for development in which man has a definite place, without any upper limit to his evolution.”
–Arthur M. Young
The Reflexive Universe
My late husband Chris Bird and I were so blessed to visit numerous times with Arthur and Ruth Forbes Young.
Chris considered Arthur his mentor and spent many months interviewing him at his home in California.
Here is one of those interviews:
A noted inventor and cosmologist discusses his theories of consciousness and the universe that explain psychic phenomena.
Arthur M. Young
by Christopher Bird
CBird: The theory developed in your new books, The Reflexive Universe and The Geometry of Meaning should attract anyone trying to understand ESP and the psychic. Would you explain it?
YOUNG: One can more easily come to grips with ESP when one realizes that there are phenomena which cannot be explained by the laws of classical physics, the constraints of which apply only to microscopic objects, or those made of millions of particles. Quantum mechanics, itself a part of physics, is also one of the phenomena.
My theory — or more correctly, model — postulates two objective and two projective levels of existence. Of the latter one transcends space, the other space and time. The former can account for telepathy and dowsing, the latter for precognition and prophecy.
CBird: But the main purpose of the theory is not to explain ESP, is it?
YOUNG: No. Rather it tries to account for consciousness and the evolution of life from non-living forms. The theory constitutes a reinterpretation of science in order to update it and incorporate within it the finding of quantum physics which, though discovered by Max Planck at the turn of the century, are still not widely recognized. This is important because science is no longer the determinist system it used to be.
CBird: Where can this knowledge be applied?
YOUNG: In medicine and psychology, for instance. These professions are still based on the assumptions of an obsolete classical determinism in physics which the new discoveries of quantum physics have rendered obsolete. They leave out purposeful intention.
The usual interpretation of science does not provide for consciousness. Science, unlike religious thought, proclaims itself unconcerned with final issues or with first cause. This interpretation has invaded other areas, particularly psychology and other social and human sciences.
But how can there be a valid science of man if it doesn’t recognize first cause which, in fact, is the touchstone of man’s behavior inspiring all his works, goals and responsibilities to his fellows? In jurisprudence, the question of guilt depends on recognition that a person can be first cause.
CBird: Your model offers one the opportunity to break out of the prison of a person’s set beliefs and contemplate the cosmos from a fresh viewpoint.
YOUNG: Yes. Despite the indifference of the grand cosmic scheme to intellectual dogmas, or new models for that matter, a new model is nevertheless of importance in getting people to let go of their belief systems to which they cling as sailors to their ship which they will abandon only when it is sinking. It is belief systems which have burned witches and caused wars and, in our day, put people who have developed cancer cures in jail. The inquisition came, grotesquely, into being to stamp out belief in immortality.
CBird: That being the case, the inquisition lives on, though in a different guise. Do you foresee an abrupt change in the way man views the cosmos?
YOUNG: It must come about because our culture, our whole educational system and our philosophies are products of the scientific method which is turning out to be false in principle.
CBird: In what way?
YOUNG: It is not only that the public is becoming increasingly aware that the industrial age, with all its technology and materialism, is plundering and poisoning and polluting the planet. More important, science itself is encountering problems which can only be resolved by abandoning sacred notions of objectivity and determinism. I have tried to embed a foreign intrusion — like the grain of sand in the oyster which ultimately produces the pearl — into rationalism. This intrusion is the paradox of life.
CBird: When did you first begin developing your theory?
YOUNG: While at Princeton in 1921, I first heard about Einstein and wanted to understand his theory of relatively which seemed so strange to my contemporaries. I was a mathematics major. No course on relativity was offered so I requested one. It was created by Oswald Veblen, one of the top American mathematicians and a cousin of the writer Thorstein. I was the sole student. Though I liked Veblen personally I didn’t like relativity because it was mostly rate learning of the symbolic convention which is a way of writing a whole lot of equations very quickly. I wanted to know what it meant but Veblen said, “Don’t try to understand it, just learn it.” It was because of the inadequacy I felt in the theory of relativity that I began to construct my own theory of the universe in keeping with the spirit of those days. I at first thought it possible to explain the universe CBird: Why?
YOUNG: Because structure is a system of relationships that exist simultaneously. The relativity theory, too, was an attempt to map the universe as a fixed immutable entity, as if it existed all at once. All at once, because time was made a dimension. But almost as soon as I started, I ran up against a difficulty.
I realized that a theory of structure cannot do justice to the content of time, that time was not just another dimension. Time is basically asymmetrical. To go into the future is different from going into the past. We can’t go into the past. It’s like going to Chicago and then coming back again. We are carried into the future. Time is irreversible and cumulative. It doesn’t flow in either direction as space does.
CBird: How did your theory differ from the theory of relativity?
YOUNG: Of course, relatively included time as a fourth dimension. But it still referred to the “structure” of space-time which I felt overlooked a vital characteristic distinguishing time from space its asymmetry and one-wayness.
CBIRD: What first attracted your attention to the idea of symmetry versus asymmetry?
YOUNG: During a course in Chinese art I was particularly taken with the evolution of the old bronzes which go back to 2,500 BC and evolve in shape as one proceeds through the Han period and the other dynasties which follow. I noticed that an insistence on symmetry took place when this art was beginning to deteriorate instead of symmetrical shapes made by a number of bends in the outline of a vase a pure sine curve came into being, perfectly symmetrical but empty of content — which doesn’t say anything. It might be decorative but it doesn’t carry any meaning, any force. The same kind of curve, known as the Hogarth line of beauty, was introduced in the West also at a time when formal art was becoming exhausted. It came to me that the false appeal of symmetry questionably valid in art might be misleading in a theory of the universe and completely erroneous in the treatment of time because it disregards time’s narrow or one-wayness.
CBIRD: How did you further develop your theory while in college?
YOUNG: I couldn’t. At that point I went in a different direction. I decided I should concentrate on problems to which the answers could be tested. So I turned to invention. After a few false starts I began to work on the problem of the helicopter which at that time had a long history of failure and clearly needed a solution. I came across the work of Anton Flettner, a German inventor, who used rotating cylinders as masts, instead of sails, for boat propulsion. The rotation caused the boat to behave like a sailboat but one didn’t need to lower the “sails” in a storm. In one of Flettner’s books I saw pictures of a windmill with little propellers on the ends of the blades and it occurred to me tat one might use this principle for a helicopter. It turned out to be a mistaken idea. I wasted over ten years on the wrong design, although it wasn’t all waste. I learned a lot, but the design was too complicated. In 1938 I went to my first conference on rotor winged aircraft. These included autogyros which did not become successful. They could not compete with fixed-winged aircraft because they couldn’t go fast enough and they couldn’t compete with helicopters because they couldn’t hover.
CBIRD:What led you to a breakthrough?
YOUNG: Progress came when I began building fly models much smaller than the one I had been working on. I found that small models made along conventional lines were highly unstable. This was my first real discovery. Up to then, it had never occurred to me a helicopter could be unstable. Because these models were small and could be quickly repaired, I could test them to destruction and try out various ideas. I had to provide stability.
CBIRD: Then the essential problem was one of stability.
YOUNG: That’s it. The first thing I tried was to get rid of swings with a pendulum device. What made a helicopter deviate from perfect hovering was that, if the rotor tips, then it would start dashing off to one side. The pendulum didn’t work. I tried other things, without success. But I was getting close. I knew I had a creepy feeling.
BIRD: What kind of feeling exactly?
YOUNG: As if I were walking around a corner and expecting something peculiar to happen. Even the slightest sound made me jumpy. The first time it happened, the air felt super-saturated I was so sure my idea was going to work that I asked my patent attorney to witness the first flight. He gave up several appointments and drove a considerable distance. My model was ready to go. Almost ceremoniously I got it started. It took off and immediately turned upside down and crashed. My lawyer was so disgusted he swore to never come back for any more model demonstrations. That was the end of his association with me.
Two or three days later the real thing came through to me. The preliminary brainwave was a false alarm. I believe it was because I was anticipating the real thing.
CBIRD: What was it?
YOUNG: A stabilization bar, a hinged bar with weights on the ends. The bar governed a plate which in turn governing the rotor. The bar *?* even when the helicopter accelerated. The next step was to develop remote controls so I could fly the model whenever I wanted.
CBIRD: Meanwhile World War was at hand?
YOUNG: Yes, and the draft board was breathing down my neck. I appealed to the National Inventors Council but they didn’t help. Then I took my model out to Wright Air Force Filed in Ohio. It impressed a Colonel Gregory enough for him to compose a telegram promising me a contract. That exempted me from the draft. I finished work on the model.
CBIRD: How did you make a deal with Bell aircraft?
YOUNG: I had a friend, a doctor of medicine, who also designed complicated gears. One of them could change the compression rate of airplane engines. I suggested to him that Bell might be interested in his invention because to me, they had the sexiest looking fighter, the Airacobra, which was later supplied in quantity to the Russians. When he was at Bell, he told them of my helicopter design.
They invited me to come to their plant in Buffalo, New York. I put my model in a suitcase and went up there. The guard wouldn’t let me through the gate because he thought there was a bomb in the suitcase. I flew the model right there in the factory between the Aircobras. I assigned my patents to bell and stayed with them until 1947 dealing with the horrendous * complexities of getting the thing into production.
CBIRD: Didn’t the war urgency help?
YOUNG: Not at all. The Pentagon knew nothing about it. Bell was concentrating on building fighter aircraft. But Larry Bell, the president, was a man of vision. He wanted something for his people to make after the war. It wasn’t the helicopter that was unique but my idea of the stabilization device. Sikorsky, for instance, was ahead of me with his helicopter. He had a different configuration. There were many other helicopter companies which did not survive. Platt Lepage won the first army contract to build a helicopter. I sold Larry Bell on the stability question and he bought that.
CBIRD: During this time were you still developing your theory of *provess?
YOUNG: my nineteen years on the helicopter problem never erased my interest in the theory of process. For one thing, I noted that there was a fundamental difference between the method of a scientist and the method of an inventor. Though both are concerned with the laws of nature, the scientist, once having discovered a law, holds it sacred. The inventor discovers laws but his goal is to apply them. This involves a change in direction. A law is restrictive. It limits the possible. But it can be turned about to provide the means for achieving an end. Think of the carpenter who, planing a board, discovers that he is working against the rain and turns the board around.
CBIRD: How did this relate to your theory?
YOUNG: It’s a question of attitude. The attitude of learning how to use a law instead of being *continged by it led to my conceiving of law, or determinism, as the agency of free will rather than its antagonist. This was fundamental to the theory of process since, as my books show, process must create determinism to acquire the means to achieve its goal.
Without purpose, without goal-directed activity, my helicopter could not have evolved. For me this was a lesson in how evolution works. The purpose creates the machine. From the fact that no machine will disclose its purpose unless assembled and in operation, it should be easy to infer that man — widely considered in science to be a machine — cannot be understood by an examination of physical body alone. The tendency of *philosophers and scientist to talk of man as a mere mechanism — intending but this to imply he is without purpose — shows a lack of understanding of machines as well as of man.
So I again took up my theory of process, not only for its emphasis on time, but for the presence implicit in *porvess of a *purposiveness that pushes toward the attainment of a goal.
Another thing I learned had to do with a crazy idea for a machine which would compose music. The music would play backwards just as well as forwards. There was something wrong. Again, it was the symmetry problem. A real piece of music, I realized, wouldn’t act like this. It had to integrate as it proceeded, each phrase being built out of what preceded it. This brought me to the idea that the scientific method wouldn’t always work. It was too static. It didn’t have a built-in integration mechanism.
CBIRD: What else?
YOUNG: All this was linked to the problem of converting a factory making airplanes to one making helicopters. It was no small problem. Something like getting a mouse to eat a mountain. Bell told me “You tell us what to do.” But it didn’t work that easily. The whole plant had to be inculcated with a new philosophy. I remember one *engineer at Bell who put his finger on the nub of the problem when he said: “The trouble is that the modeling clay is full of nuts and bolts.” The day-to-day efforts of solving the problem in the face of so much inertia was emotionally draining. I took to writing my feelings and thoughts down in a journal. All this caused me to delve into philosophy and metaphysics. I took up Yoga at this time.
CBIRD: With a guru or by yourself?
YOUNG: At first, by myself. I preferred the physical Yoga to start. When I got into meditative Yoga, I was introduced to my first psychic experiences. I noticed that when I tried to make my mind blank, I could only achieve the blankness for about five minutes before a thought would intrude. Keeping track of my *mediation, I recorded all the interrupting thoughts. Imagine my surprise when I discovered *ta thtye often turned out to be experiences I had later that day. By concentrating, I was picking up precognitive images.
It was disturbing to my scientific training and increased my determination to search for the meaning of consciousness.
CBIRD: how did you begin your quest into consciousness and man’s real purpose?
YOUNG: when I married for the second time, I told my new wife, Ruth, that I wanted to investigate the consciousness problem. For the next five years we traveled extensively looking into all kinds of psychic phenomena.
CBIRD: What purpose did you conceive for the Foundation for the Study of Consciousness?
YOUNG: Since there were so many unexplained phenomena, like ESP, which did not fit into the current framework of knowledge and therefore remained undigested, it was time to prod people into thinking seriously about them. The main purpose for the foundation was to build a comprehensive theory in which ESP could be integrated into existing scientific knowledge.
Soon after I set up the foundation I met Dr. Andrija Puharich through the well-known psychic, Eileen Garrett, with whom he was working. Puharich had established his own Round Table Foundation in Camden, Maine. He was about to be drafted into military service and asked me if I would take care of his foundation in his absence. That’s a whole story in itself.
In New York City, we worked with various psychics, including Frances Farrelly, who had worked extensively in the investigation of radionics, and Francis Marion, a *psychometrist who wrote the book, In my Mind’s Eye.
CBIRD: Where did all this research lead you?
YOUNG: With Farrelly it led to my recognition of the importance of intention. We found that the various wiring systems for radionics instruments, or whether they were properly connected, didn’t play an important role in the radionics process. What mattered most was the operator’s intention. In diagnosis of disease, she was tuning in on the patient’s condition and using her own organism to respond. The instrument was only a device to assist concentration.
CBIRD: And with Marion?
YOUNG: With Marion, we found that his psychometric readings — of messages in sealed envelopes, for example — clearly did not depend on some sort of x-ray vision. Because it did not matter to Marion whether a message was written in a language completely unknown to him, he was primarily detecting, not the letters and the words, but the meaning of what was written.
CBIRD: In his book, Uri, Puharich mentioned that you were present when Dr. D.G. Vinod, a Hindu scholar and sage from India, was receiving messages, including mathematical formulae while in trance. What influence did this have on your thinking?
YOUNG: I was far more impressed by the poetry that came through Vinod than the science. In fact, I recall my annoyance that the “guides” were employing a concept, so often used by psychics of “higher dimensions” to explain psychic phenomena. To me this was just as much an evasion as, say, explaining radionics by reference to radio. If I were influenced at all, it was toward pushing me in the opposite direction.
CBIRD: How so?
YOUNG: The idea that we can get to another place by “traveling” in some extra dimension is a misconception because positions in space are separated only because of the dimensions of space. To create another dimension to connect them won’t work. Things that are separated are brought together by removing the space between them, not by creating another space.
In other words, dimensions are constraints. It is by removing them, rather than by adding to them, that one may explain, for example, the ability to diagnose the ailments of a person a thousand miles distant. Space may not exist for the psyche as it does for the body.
CBIRD: But wouldn’t that put psychic phenomena beyond the pale of science?
YOUNG: That’s the interesting part. Even in so-called science you have upsetting findings about light. Take the famous experiment proposed by Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen. It was performed over a decade ago and has been extensively debated but its implications are only beginning to sink in.
CBIRD: Would you describe the experiment?
YOUNG: The experiment demonstrates that two light beams emitted in opposite directions from a common source “keep in touch with each other” in a way that cannot be explained by current theory. If the experimenter does something to one beam at a distance from the source, such as to polarize it by passing it through a prism, the other light beam acts as if it knew what happened to its partner. Though proposed to show up a fallacy in quantum theory, the negative result anticipated by Einstein and his colleagues did not occur. The only colleagues did not occur. The only explanation is that light somehow “knows its own future.” The implication is that signals — but not necessarily energy — exceeding the speed of light must traverse the intervening space. Physicists call the phenomenon by the innocuous sounding name of “non-locally.”
CBIRD: Did your theory anticipate this result?
YOUNG: Yes. In the 1950s I was beginning to think of telepathy and radionics as what is now called “non-local.” I recall my using the illustration of a person, sought by the police, whose “Wanted” photograph is posted. The person’s guilt, real or assumed is a question of principle and principles don’t have to travel. I was looking for scientific evidence of this kind of existence, an existence not subject to the constraints of spatial location or even — in the case of precognition, dreams or predictions — to the constraints of time.
CBIRD: What other grounds did you have for suggesting a hypothesis about entities not being subject to space or time?
YOUNG: The answer may surprise. As I was building my theory of process, it only occurred to me that process itself involves a precise number of stages when I began to compare ancient myths that describe how the universe comes into existence. Many of them showed this to take place in seven stages. In Genesis, for instance, God makes the universe in six days and rests on the seventh. The ancient Hindu tradition insists on seven-ness. I thus had a clue, perhaps a directive, that process involves seven stages.
CBIRD: What else shored up this idea?
YOUNG: A difficult book, The Mahalma Letters, by Alfred Percy Sinnett who claimed to have received them from one of the masters who inspired the theosophical tradition. It was explicit on the subject of seven stages of evolution. The author referred to the known animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms to which he added a kingdom beyond animal and three more preceding mineral. He said he could not deal with these because science did not yet know of their existence.
CBIRD: But you *dealt with them.
YOUNG: Yes, since the book was written in the early 1880s I surmised that the subsequent findings of science might provide identification of the three pre-mineral kingdoms. Since minerals are composed of molecules, the mineral kingdom had to be molecular. Since molecules are formed from atoms, atoms had to constitute the premolecular kingdom and particles which form atoms the kingdom prior to atoms.
CBIRD: What about the first kingdom?
YOUNG: At first I called it sub-nuclear. Only later did I realize it must be light. Itself without mass, light can create particles which have mass. Light has no charge. The particles created by it have charge. Light is not seen, it is seeing. For a pulse of light, the photon, time does not exist. Thus mass and hence energy as well as time are born from the photon, from light which is therefore the first kingdom, the first stage of the process that engenders the universe.
CBIRD: And the last, the seventh stage?
YOUNG: I call it “Dominion.” Man would be one manifestation of this stage. Man is at a critical point. He is more than the beasts in that he is in a different kingdom but not very far along in it. He may be at its midpoint, like the claim in the animal kingdom, and, like the clam, he is buried in the sand with only a dim consciousness of worlds beyond. But he has a long way to go. There is no upper limit to his evolution.
CBIRD: Do you think that science will ever accept psychic phenomena?
YOUNG: As a matter of fact, I find it difficult to discover what law of science denies telepathy, precognition and other ESP phenomena. It is, rather, with alleged implications of the laws of science that such phenomena conflict. This prevalent attitude on the part of scientists is against the interests of true science and is even contrary to elementary justice for it becomes impossible to correct a theory by experimental test as long as theory decrees in advance what the outcome of the test must be.
CBIRD: Psychologists in many countries will have nothing to do with parapsychology or psychic phenomena the very existence of which they deny.
YOUNG: Psychologists maintain that phantasms arise in the unconscious. But where and what is the unconscious? What is the substance from which vivid hallucinations are formed? To call them unreal or to say that they arise in the unconscious does not explain them.
CBIRD: How do we know we are not “unconscious” in a so-called normal waking sate?
YOUNG: Well, what do we know of how prevalent hallucinatory imagings may be in ordinary daily life. Normal perception is loaded with second level images or illusions. I see across the street the back of a fascinating female creature, quicken my steps to catch a closer glimpse. As I get closer, or see her turn to look in a store window. I see that my imagination has played me false. The girl is homely.
Or again, we are informed by psychologists that the newborn chick does not really have a true perception of its mother. It will follow any object such as an automated football. This deduction may satisfy the psychologists’ instinct for mechanical explanations, but for me it rather suggests that “mother” is a subjective idea, an archetype of the chick world and that this archetype exists prior to the training or sense experience which will eventually make its contribution, but subsequent to what is subjective, archetypal, or what I call projective.
CBIRD: Your view of cosmology, with its four levels lays a foundation on which to base theories of ESP and other psychic phenomena.
YOUNG: In a way **Telepathy, clairvoyance and map dowsing have a second-level nature since these phenomena do not show the usual dependence on distance. They all behave as if there were no intervening space between the percipient and the target. This is exactly what I would expect of the second **leel where a space does not exist. Recall that it is not possible to attribute a precise position to a nuclear particle. On the other hand, precognition could be assigned to level one because, in this case, there is no time. Above all, level one establishes a basis for intention, important not only for parapsychological matters, but in life situations in general.
CBIRD: Why do people have so much difficulty in understanding your projective levels. I noticed that at your seminar last evening two psychologists in the group were unhappy about what you said about “first cause.”
YOUNG: This is because purpose, the equivalent of first cause, is ruled out in science which has ***decreed that what it is dealing with is the how rather than the why.
But when you get to life, then science must learn to rise above determinism, mechanism. You can’t treat life as a machine. In contemporary medicine, the current philosophy has been to treat symptoms but now some doctors are beginning to realize that a lot of disease is self-induced. It’s a question of the patient’s intention. Here is where the fact of intention could materially change science. I won’t say that it would change the manufacture of autos or clocks or washing machines, although in particle physics determinism is becoming suspect. Perhaps the physicists themselves are creating some of the new particles.
CBIRD: In your lectures at the institute are you offering your audience a new way to approach the world?
YOUNG: When I first tackled the problem of ESP I hoped to be able to lift a veil of ignorance behind which we are forced to operate. I now am beginning to think that the veil is rather useful because it makes people think and work for themselves. It’s no use solving other people’s problems.
CBIRD: Perhaps much of psychology, in its insistence in reducing people to a norm, misses that point; it refuses to see tat everyone is here for a purpose.
YOUNG: In my self-defense, I don’t think my effort is aimed at solving problems. Shakespeare held that “All Life’s a Stage.” But on our present stage, the boards are rotting and the players are falling through them. I am trying to build a new stage so they will have something more solid to walk upon.
Science has lost its meaning. It doesn’t answer questions. It doesn’t interest people, even those who go into it. I know many physicists who have dropped out of physics through sheer boredom. The young people today can’t depend on this tottering science. They become insecure. Insecure people return to simple animal needs. There is no culture possible in the absence of this kind of security.
CBIRD: Are you trying to offer security?
YOUNG: There’s no question of that. I’m trying to open new doors. But many people, however puzzled, are afraid to pass through. The security they seek is endorsement. I hate to stress this because I would like to encourage people to think for themselves. But ours is still a religious culture. The religion now happens to be science, even though its priests are corrupted and its church falling into ruin. We have not left the Christian age — the astrologers would call it the Age of Pisces – we continue to be enmeshed in the old belief system.
CBIRD: Do you think that science should be swept away, then?
YOUNG: Certainly not. I wouldn’t want the edifice of science to come crashing down as in an earthquake. The French and Russian revolutions destroyed more than they created. The history of revolution shows that instead of replacing tyrannical government by a better one, the government gets more tyrannical.
But the academic establishment has been behaving atrociously. Instead of welcoming a wave of new knowledge as it did at the turn of the century, instead of hosting new talent, it turns and flees.
“The Buddhists teach how to escape from the wheel, but I rather think they mean we should escape from endless repetitions of the same cycle. Each new cycling should be a new adventure, incorporating, not repeating, what has gone before.” The Geometry of Meaning
“At no time has it been suggested, either by quantum theory or advocates of free will, that the laws of nature be set aside. No one is advocating causelessness. For it is precisely because free will occurs in an orderly universe that it can have far-reaching effects. If my will says ‘Forward!’ and my legs are paralyzed, nothing happens. If the captain gives an order but the crew stages a mutiny, the captain’s will is ineffectual. So we must see the problem not as free will versus determinism, but as free will plus determinism.” The Geometry of Meaning
“We have not attempted to find sanction for this overall thesis from science, mainly because current science does not recognize the positive role of uncertainty in cosmology. Science, in fact, has become so fragmented into separate disciplines that it has lost sight of the unifying principle that the world ‘universe’ implies.” The Reflexive Universe
“Cosmology remains awe-inspiring despite efforts to wrap it up, and the moral is: don’t trust the limited boundaries which the rational mind uses to protect itself. Don’t permit statistical law to give the illusion that there is nothing here but us chickens.” The Reflexive Universe
Chris Bird with Arthur Young
Arthur Middleton young seemed dwarfed by piles of books and articles surrounding his armchair when I arrived for a two-day visit at his apartment in The Institute for the Study of Consciousness in Berkeley, California. His wife, Ruth, sat at the living-room table putting final editorial touches and pasting countless illustrations into a dozen sets of page-proofs for Arthur’s forthcoming pair of books.
The scholarly atmosphere was misleading for the man who heaved himself, smiling, to his feet, has the open candor of an outdoorsman and the quick wit of a good nightclub comedian.
During the next forty-eight hours I was able to appreciate the depth and breadth of an inventor-philosopher not only during the interview itself which, by the time it was over, could have filled the pages of a small book but by listening to his conversation with visiting physicists, mathematicians, poets and plain seekers-of-knowledge and hearing him give a two-hour evening seminar on his theory of process in the institute’s meting-room.
The qualities which most strongly embellish Arthur’s always serious repartee are those of humor and patience. He was never annoyed when I, or another, seemed unable to follow his train of thought. Arthur as a way, like Socrates, of pulling his interiocutor into a quicksand of self-inquiry, then rescuing him with his gift of metaphor.
There is much of a child’s inquisitivenss and playfulness in Arthur which I have encountered in other inventors. His present project – the correlation of famous people’s horoscopes with radiesthesia-derived indices of brain power – is taking him as did the invention of the Bell helicopter and his investigation of the psychic would, years of effort.
I left with the feeling that Arthur was and *is, ever the pioneer.
Arthur Middleton Young was born in 1905 in Paris where his father, brought up in a farming milieu in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, had come with his wife to pursue their mutual interest in painting. One of their neighbors in Giverney was the impressionist master, Claude Monet. Young recalls that his father used to recount how Monet would paint a scene of water lilies, then get angry and throw his easel, paints and brushes into the lily pond from which they would be fished out by his daughters so the artist could begin his task anew.
The family returned to Jenkintown, Pennsylvania, where Arthur was raised in an old 18th century farm, Meadow Bank. He enjoyed an idyllic childhood.
At the Haverford School near Philadelphia, young, who was forever making things, became known as an expert * gadgeteer. “I loved to construct complicated devices,” he recalls. “I remember once I made a crane from “Mecano Set” parts which would lift one of my little brothers into the air with the help of a motor and endless pulleys. I also made the electric motor. That was my initiation into the electrical field.
For several years his machine building and ham-radio hobby absorbed his life. School was a minor activity by comparison. His first course was physics which was easy because he had already read most of the physics text on his own. This led to violent arguments with his physics teacher.
Young went to college at Princeton where, as he puts it, he acquired very little education. He did what he pleased which was mainly reading books in mathematics and physics. He later turned to the arts, becoming intrigued with a course in Oriental Art largely because of its philosophical overtones. It was at this time that Young was introduced to Zen Buddhism and other Eastern schools of thought.
Young says that, toward the end of his Princeton studies, he dropped science for painting and studying Eastern philosophy. “I even tried to achieve nirvana,” he recollects. “I would lie on my cot, night and day, and try to make myself indifferent to everything. The alarming thing, in retrospect, is that I almost succeeded. I didn’t care about anything.”
Snapping out of this mood, young passed through a series of quasi-creative phases. At first he planned to make a movie in which to quote him, “words, such as those of a poem, would jump and dance.” He was living at the time in Pennsylvania in the heart of the coal-mining district in his grandmother’s laundry Young built machinery to make words “dance and jump,” but soon became more interested in machines than in the movie.
His first attempt at invention was for a machine which could fly to Mars. “That shows how dumb I was,” he says, “even though I’d graduated from college.” The idea was based on a new type of wing which would have a constant lift and a drag which would not increase with the speed so that could move faster and faster. “After a year of this, I went to the library and plunged into the study of aerodynamics and discovered my error,” says Arthur. In the libraries Young became interested in the helicopter and the real number of people who had tried to make them even back in the early 1900s before the airplane had taken wing. Starting in 1928, he worked for over a decade to solve the problem of making a helicopter fly and in 1941 licensed his patents to Bell Aircraft young remained with Bell for several more years to work out production problems for the helicopter during and following World War II. In 1946 young’s helicopter, Bell Model 47, was awarded the world’s first commercial helicopter license.
During his college days, young was also preoccupied with the study of the theory of relativity. Certain deficiencies in this theory led him to construct his own model of the universe, a task upon which he continued to work after leaving Bell in 1947. His early interest in oriental systems of thought combined with stress encountered in his work at Bell led him to the practice of Yoga and to his first psychic experiences.
After divorce and remarriage, Young traveled extensively with his new wife, Ruth, to investigate unexplained phenomena all connected to seemingly unusual powers of the mind. He came tot he belief that consciousness had to be made basic in the theory of the universe he was working out.
This led, in 1952, to young’s establishing the Foundation for the Study of Consciousness in Philadelphia and in 1968 to his launching the Journal for the Study of Consciousness, published until 1971 and edited by Dr. Charles Muses. In 1972, Young and Charles Muses brought out a book, Consciousness and Reality, the Human Pivot Point.
For the past two years Young and his wife have divided their time between their farm in *Dowingtown, Pennsylvania, and their home in Berkeley, California, which also houses the Institute for the Study of Consciousness.
In 1976, the simultaneous publication of Young’s two books. The Reflexive Universe and The Geometry of Meaning (*Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence) crowned half a century of his struggle to understand the true meaning of existence.
Frances Farrelly was born in 1911 in Vermont. Her paternal grandparents were Irish and her maternal grandfather was of English and Scottish descent. Her maternal grandmother was of Scottish, English and Native American Indian extraction, so we have quite a heady inherited gene brew here.
[Left: From left to right Frances Farrelly with Christopher Bird and Florence Silbert – seated]
Frances was one of the healers that Dr Shafica Karagulla used in her studies of what she called Higher Sense Perception. Dr Karagulla was a neuro-psychiatrist who spent eight years researching ordinary people who appeared to have extraordinary abilities. She started off being a skeptic as most scientists are, but over time the evidence seemed overwhelming and she set up a research project to find out more. Her research subjects were carefully chosen. She rejected all those who claimed they had these abilities but instead by a laborious process of enquiry and referral managed to find those who carried on normal professions and who never talked about their abilities but just used them. Frances was one of those people and the code name ‘Kay’ was used in Dr Karagulla’s books.
Her childhood was replete with psychic experiences, including healing and being able to see “the little people.” Like many young people with these gifts she thought that to develop them required her to be ‘religious’ , accordingly she entered Saint Lawrence University at Canton, New York, an Universalist Church theological school, to study for the ministry. At the outset, she began to doubt the theology taught, which the dean told her was merely a case of “freshman measles.” Yet the doubt persisted, and in her junior year she “dropped out.”
She decided to go for a more practical profession and enrolled in the Northwest Institute of Medical Technology in Minneapolis, and after graduation, with three of her classmates, opened her own school for medical technicians in Utica, New York. She later moved to Florida’s west coast and started another school in Sarasota. Unmarried, she also adopted two infant boys, Stephen and Peter.
“With only seven dollars in the bank”, Frances took a job as a teacher in a small private school. But she soon found that work insufficiently demanding, so took up laboratory work again, this time in a new hospital, where she “demonstrated such skill” that she was appointed inspector of Milk and Water by the city of Sarasota, as well as the county, and later appointed State Examiner.
While her laboratory work was expanding, she was invited by a young woman physician to lecture to a local medical society on clinical interpretations of hematology reports. After the meeting, the two had coffee together and became friends. A general practitioner, the physician informed Ms. Farrelly that she was interested in “electronic medicine, a peculiar art of diagnosis which had first been developed at the turn of the century by the San Francisco Director of Medical Studies at Stanford University, Albert Abrams, M.D”.
Through her physician friend, she was introduced to Dr. Ruth Drown of Pasadena, California. Dr. Drown asked Ms. Farrelly to come and work with her. After several months’ work with Dr. Drown, “whose innovative work was later attacked as fraudulent by the medical establishment and the FDA”, she met Arthur Young, the inventor of the Bell Helicopter, who had formed the Foundation for the Study of Consciousness in New York City. She was employed by Young in investigating the diagnostic techniques of Dr. Abrams, which were flowering in Europe under the name of “radionics.”
While investigating radionics in the U.S. and England, Frances became increasingly skeptical about the radionic “box” device used in the diagnostic technique. She came to the conclusion that the operators were themselves the devices.
Returning to Florida in 1960, she found the demand for her healing and diagnostic work becoming so large that she eventually had to devote all her time to it. Eventually she became a diagnostician using her unique skills to medical professionals only — physicians, osteopaths, chiropractors throughout the country.
“I can no longer diagnose on a personal basis,” she said at the time “because there is not enough time and because there is always the possibility that it might be construed as being illegal.”
Where did her skills come from? As we have seen she was helped by having the right inherited genes. But she also had a series of events in her life that I think served to ‘top up’ those skills and all of them were overload and traumatic.
The year 1944, for example, was a traumatic one in her life. Hardly had she learned that her father, to whom she was deeply devoted, was killed in an automobile accident than her son Peter, age 4, fell out of the car she was driving and died within hours, despite her best efforts to save him. Two days later, her business went bankrupt. To add to her troubles she suffered attacks of migraine most of her life and also had malaria, anaemia and pneumonia several times. So quite a heady brew.
I could not find her date of death.June 16, 2021 at 18:44 #1740June 16, 2021 at 18:44 #1742July 1, 2021 at 10:03 #3193
The 500-Year-Old Mystery of Dowsing
By Christopher Bird
The art of searching for water, oil, minerals, and other natural resources or anything lost, missing or badly need.
An excellent book on the existence of water in rock, and of springs that emerge above the water table, near mountain tops. It supposes that water is captured in rock, during its formation, and is liberated into cracks within the rock as it cools.
This copy was downloaded as a .doc file from http://www.christopherbird.org. a site maintained by Shabari Bird including purchase details, about the works of Christopher Bird, co-author of the book “The Secret Life of Plants”. Excerpts of the latter are given in the “Organic Gardening” section of “Booklights”. The downloaded copy includes a table of quality of waters to be found in different soil types and captions for photos which are only present in the book itself.
Chapter 8: Icebergs or “Waters of the Earth”?
Hydrologic Doctrine vs. Primary Water
“In October 1977, 110 scientists and engineers gathered in landlocked Iowa to discuss a bizarre notion: Could an iceberg one mile long, 1,000 feet wide and 900 feet thick, weighing 100 million tons and containing 20 billion gallons of water, be transported from Antarctica to the Northern Hemisphere and parked next to the coast of a desert country to serve as a mammoth water reservoir?
The proposal to solve a shortage of water by moving icebergs halfway around the world was only the most recent in a long history of similar water-transport schemes that date back to the beginning of recorded history, among which canals dug into the earth, or aqueducts set above it, and the construction of ever more costly dams have been favorite choices.
By the time the conference began, a feasibility study for displacing a mountain of ice was already in the works. Commissioned by Prince Muhammad al Faisal, nephew of Saudi Arabia’s King Khalid and sponsor of the Iowa meeting, it enjoined Cicero, a French engineering firm, to solve the problem of towing a gargantuan ice cube 7,500 miles to the Saudis’ Red Sea port of Jidda. Some observers at the First International Conference on Iceberg Utilization estimated that tugs towing the berg, able to move no faster than a nautical snail’s pace of half a mile per hour, would take nearly eight months to reach the Bab el Mandeb Strait at the entrance to the Red Sea.
Then there was the melting problem. Wilford Weeks of the U.S. Army’s Cold Regions Research Laboratory protested that anyone who tried to drag an unprotected iceberg from the coldest to the hottest place on earth would end up with “nothing but a tow-line.” Not disagreeing, Egyptian nuclear engineer Abdo Husseiny nevertheless waxed optimistic that, if a strong enough version of a plastic bag could be devised to retain their melt, icebergs up to five by ten miles in size could make the voyage. UNESCO hydrologists suggested that plants for the desalinization of sea water made better economic sense.
No one at the conference was aware of the fact that over eighty years ago a Stockholm professor of mineralogy and arctic explorer, Adolf Erik Nordenskiold, had written a paper, “About Drilling for Water in Primary Rocks” which concluded that one could sink wells capable of producing water the year round along the northern and southern coasts of the Mediterranean, and in the whole of Asia Minor, or exactly in those areas of the world from which conference delegates most concerned about water supply problems hailed.
Nordenskiold, whose essay won him a nomination for the Nobel Prize in physics (he died before full consideration was given to the candidates), spent years drilling in rocky promontories and islands off the Swedish coast to bring water for pilotage stations forced to capture rain or import water. His impetus came from his father, Nils, Chief of Mining in Finland, who told him with some wonderment that while salt water never penetrated iron mines on the Finnish coast even when they were below sea level, fresh water was always present on the rocky floors of the same mines. The Swedish scientist’s extensive subsequent bores convinced him that water, produced by some process deep within the earth for which he could not account, could be contacted in hard rock.
Nordenskiold’s theory completely contradicted hydrological doctrine of his, and our own, time which insists that most of the fresh water available to living things on earth first rises as vapor from lakes and oceans to form clouds. These in turn deliver the same water, condensed by cool air currents into rain, hail, or snow, back to the earth’s surface. The bulk of this precipitation trickles into rivulets, brooks, streams, and rivers to run back to the sea. Part of it is absorbed by the earth’s crust, where it is tapped by countless trillions of plants to be reliberated by transpiration, or seeps downward as “ground water” to collect in subterranean channels called “aquifers” Ñ Latin for “water-carriers” Ñ from which it can be recovered from natural springs or man-made wells. The whole circulatory process is called the “hydrologic cycle.”
The Swede’s new concept was to lie dormant until it was revived by a Bavarian-born mining engineer, Stephan Riess, who immigrated to the United States in 1923. Though he has never held a dowsing rod in his hands, Riess has developed a geologic theory about the origin of water which, proved by fifty years of practice, meshes well with dowsers’ own deductions.
Eager to discover what California mining had to offer, he traveled to Lassen County near the Oregon border and began working his way down the Sierra Nevada range. For one mining operation with over 100,000 tons of unprocessed ore lying aboveground, Riess solved the processing problem chemically with a special catalyst known, then as now, only to himself. “News of the money those fellows made raced like a grass fire through the hills,” Riess recalls, “and I had me plenty of consulting work right away.”
Riess’s ability to recover metal from ores attracted the attention of then ex-President Herbert Hoover, who owned large mining holdings. Hoover invited the German immigrant to join a metallurgical processing firm, in which he worked together with the former President’s two sons, Allan and Herbert, Jr.
One day a load of dynamite was set off in the bottom of a deep mine at high elevation to break up ore-rich rock. After the explosion Riess was amazed to see water come gushing out of nowhere in such quantities that pumps installed to remove it at a rate of 25,000 gallons a minute could not make a dent in it. Looking down into the valley below, Riess asked himself how water that had trickled into the earth as rain could rise through hard rock into the shafts and tunnels of a mine nearly at the top of a mountain range.
The temperature and the purity of the water’s chemical analysis suggested to Riess that the water must be of a completely different origin than ordinary ground water. Since none of the textbooks he had studies referred to what seemed to be a completely anomalous phenomenon, he decided to look into it.
On trips back to Europe, Riess became aware that many historic castles were built on high rocky promontories such as those in the Rhineland, some of them constructed by Charlemagne’s descendants. At the center of their courtyards were high wells, often as much as eight feet in diameter with steps going into the ground two hundred meters or more, that had supplied water for centuries.
Similar wells can be found in all parts of the world. Typical is the fortress built on rocky Inner Farne islet in the mouth of Scotland’s Tweed River where St. Cuthbert isolated himself from 676-687 A.D. When he visited the site in 1952, the National Geographic’s John E.M. Nolan nearly plunged into “a huge stone cistern filled with ice-cold water” that had supplied the saint and his fellow monks. Even more awesome is a well at La Ferriere, the stone fortress built by Emperor Christopher two thousand feet above the north Haitian plain in the early 1800s and described as “deep and clear and freezing cold, and fed by an inexhaustible spring.”
In the North American West an important clue to the mystery disclosed by Riess came when, working late at night in a mine shaft, he heard a peculiar hissing sound, similar to that produced by a leaky air tank, accompanied by trickling water. He traced the unfamiliar noise down to the ball mill, an enormous cylinder that rotates and pulverizes ore to mud by the tumbling action of steel balls and water contained within it. The water trickling out of the ball mill should normally have been found above the mud in the motionless cylinder but, to his amazement, Riess saw that it lay under a newly formed arch of mud through which hissing bubbles of gas kept rising.
Holding a match over one of the bubbles, he caused a mini-explosion. What he was observing, he believed, was virgin water being liberated from ore-bearing rock by crystallization processes within the rocks themselves. He surmised that these processes had been triggered by the presence of some catalyzing agent among the chemicals introduced into the ball mill for recovering refractory gold and silver.
Riess duplicated the water-producing process in a laboratory, then turned to perfecting methods of rock analysis. He finally came to the conclusion that, in various rock strata, deep in the earth, water was continually manufactured under proper conditions of temperature and pressure and forced up in rock fissures where it could be tapped if drilled.
Classical authors, Riess discovered, tended to support his view. As far back as 500 B.C. Anaxagoras maintained that oceans were created both from rivers flowing into them and from what he called “waters of the earth,” upon which the self-same rivers depended for their own existence. Both Plato and Aristotle also supported the idea that water was formed within the earth as well as in its atmosphere.
In pre-Christian Roman times, Vitruvius, whose Ten Books on Architecture appeared between 27 and 17 B.C., was the first to state that water was best found, not in sands, gravels, and soil but in rocks.
In the first century of the Christian era Seneca referred to great underground rivers flowing in the planet, while his contemporary, Pliny the Elder, championing the idea that water flowed in veins, wrote that they “pervaded the whole earth within and ran in all directions bursting out even on the highest ridges.”
Like the Chinese before him, Leonardo da Vinci, in his long unpublished essay, “Treatise on Water,” compared the earth to a living human body. Wrote the Renaissance genius:
The same cause which moves the humours in every species of animate bodies against the natural law of gravity also propels the water through the veins of the earth wherein it enclosed and distributes it through small passages. And as the blood rises from below and pours out thorough the broken veins of the forehead, as the water rises from the lowest part of the vine to the branches that are cut, so from the lowest depth of the sea the water rises to the summits of mountains, where, finding the veins broken, it pours out and returns to the bottom of the sea.
This idea did not prevent Leonardo from also opting for an early version of the modern hydrologic cycle and stating that a lot of the earth’s water was the result of rainfall from clouds. As Asit K. Biswas notes in his recent History of Hydrology: “Characteristically, Leonardo reported an occasional doubt about certain aspects of both theories, but nothing has been found so far which would indicate that he had at any time discarded the basic concepts of either of them. In fact, the chances seem good that he believed both systems operated concurrently.”
No less impressive to Riess were accounts of travelers in various parts of the Mediterranean littoral and the Near East about sources of water that laid the basis for ancient civilizations. At Cyrene in northeastern Liby the famous Fountain of Apollo still gushes from a tunnel hewn into rock just as it has done since long before the birth of Christ. In his book, Digging for Lost African Gods, archaeologist and explorer Byron Kuhn de Prorok described the enormous spring at Zaghuan, forty-eight miles from the site of the ancient city of Carthage near modern-day Tunis, which flows through a still-standing Roman temple on the slopes of the Atlas Mountains. Denying the usual claim that North Africa became a desert because of severe climatic change, de Prorok believed that if sources such as Zaghuan were tapped anew and ancient Roman waterways to channel their abundance restored, “Algeria and Tunisia could become the granary of Europe, as they were for 300 years under Roman rule.”
In the Fertile Crescent Nelson Glueck describes the easternmost source of the River Jordan as a full-formed stream bursting forth from the base of an earthquake-battered cave in a great iron-reddened limestone cliff, while its westernmost sources originate in one spring at the foot of a buttress of Mount Hermon and in another which “pours from the cliffs in waterfalls.”
In the National Geographic magazine for December 1951, an article entitled “The Ghosts of Jericho” recounts that even in the recent past thousands of Arab refugees were getting their water from the same spring that supplied the site in neolithic times. Called Ain-es-Sultan or “The Sultan’s Spring” in Arabic, it is identical to that “healed” by Elisha as reported in II Kings 2, 19-25.
The Ain Figeh Spring, a remarkable source of water, today supplies the entire population (1.3 million people) of Damascus, Syria, and is also the principal source of the Barada River. A report on it by the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development reads: “The principal emergence of the spring, which has been enclosed in a structure since Roman times, resembles an underground river several meters across which flows up and out of the limestone formation of the mountain. The total flow has averaged 8.63 cubic meters per second (about 132,000 gpm). The water quality is very good, its temperature and pH are relatively constant (near 14 degrees Centigrade and 7.9 respectively), its taste and color are excellent, and bacteriological contamination at the source is practically nonexistent.”
Riess’s first opportunity to prove that water could be located in crystalline rock came in 1934, at Nelson, in the southwest tip of Nevada, where a mine could be made profitable only if a source of water could be found to mill millions of dollars of gold and silver-bearing ore heaped up near its shafts. The idea of drilling into a mountainside for water appeared so outlandish to his associates that Riess, fearing to make them the laughingstock of the mining industry by bringing in a conspicuous drill rig, ordered a 4 X 8 foot shaft drilled with air-compressed jack hammers.
“No geologist would dare recommend drilling for water in places like that today,” says Riess. “That’s why the Hoovers were so skeptical. But as we drove down and went through the upper, softer alluvium into the hard rock below, I began to get encouraged. We worked for several weeks and then, when we got down to 182 feet, boy, we hit it! The water rose so fast in that big shaft that the workers barely had time to get out of there with their jack hammer before they drowned. It came in under a lot of pressure and surged to within six feet from the surface.”
Riess installed a pump in the shaft and, in his words, “pumped the smithereens out of her, on and off for three weeks, half a day, or a whole day at a time. The water ran down the canyon in a brook. There was no drawdown. She maintained her level at six feet from the surface.” The new water renewed the mine’s profitability and 4 million dollars’ worth of bullion was shipped to the San Francisco Mint before World War II exigencies closed down operations. When mining was resumed in 1977, the local press reported that Nelson Joint Ventures was pumping water from a good well drilled on leased land. The good well was none other than that drilled forty-five years previously by Stephan Riess.
Morad Eghbal, an American-trained Iranian graduate student in geology asked Riess to elaborate on his methodology. Eghbal was keenly aware that the mining engineer’s ideas did not fit into any of a series of models which geology, perhaps the most speculative of the natural sciences, has developed over decades to explain what may be happening in the unseen world below ground.
“When you consider,” said Riess, “that so many of the productive mines in the world have been washed out before they could be worked out and a lot of working mines are pumping out thousands of gallons of water, you’ve got to ask yourself where the water comes from. I’m speaking of really big operations like the Comstock and the Tombstone.”
Historians bear Riess out. Of the famous Comstock silver lode at Virginia City, Nevada, Grant M. Smith writes:
The Combination shaft intersected the Comstock Lode at the depth of 3,000 feet and entered a body of low-grade quartz on the 3,200 foot level, which proved of no value. The shaft was then sunk to the 3,250-foot point. The double line of Cornish pumps was unable to handle the water when the shaft began to make connections with adjoining mines, and Superintendent Regan installed a hydraulic pump to assist, using water furnished by the Water Company as a plunger. Later, two additional hydraulic pumps were installed. The pumps were then lifting 5,200,000 gallons every twenty-four hours to the Sutro Tunnel level, or 3,600 gallons a minute. This quantity lifted 3,200 feet would require about 3,000 horsepower theoretically, or with pipe friction and modern pumps and motors about a 4,000 horsepower continuous load.
On October 16, 1886, the Combination pumps ceased to operate. Within 36 hours after the hydraulic pumps were stopped the water had risen to the 2,400-foot level, filling the entire lower workings of the Chollar, Potosi, Hale & Nureruss, and Savage mines, including several miles of crosscuts.
No less impressive is Otis E. Young’s description of the demise of the huge silver mine at Tombstone, Arizona:
While dewatering was going on, the related Tombstone Consolidated Mining Company attended to reopening the mines as fast as they were dried out. By 1905 the project had proved a qualified success. At the eight-hundred-foot level the pumps were raising 2.3 million gallons of water daily, while the output of the reopened mines went to the refineries at El Paso in the form of two or three carloads of bulk concentrates a day. Profits were helped along by scavenging both low-grade ore and the waste dumps of the earlier period. With a rise in world silver prices that occurred at the same time, the operation showed a profit for four years. In 1909 it was given out that boiler breakdown had shut down the drainage system and that before repairs could be effected the entire complex had been drowned beyond redemption.
Riess told Eghbal that he mainly looked for “restricted faults” or breaks in the earth’s crust which rarely reach to the earth’s surface. Where these vertical pipes or fissures or fumaroles did reach the surface, great natural springs of primary water occurred. “You take the creek up in Kings Canyon National Park,” he elaborated, “why, it flows at several thousand gallons a minute and it is above all drainage in any direction. Moose Lake, in the same area, also has no visible watershed and that, too, flows at several thousand gallons a minute. Even in dry summer months on mount Whitney at about 13,000 feet there is a sheer granite wall with a protrusion on its face that cups a small lake. If that lake water is rain or snow, then all we have to do is hang tanks on the Empire State Building or the Eiffel Tower and expect a constant flow of water.”
“At no time is water static,” Riess went on. “It is constantly changing form. It is either a liquid or gas, or it is bound up in crystalline form in rocks and minerals. The cycle of gas to liquid to crystal is repeated over and over. Oxygen and hydrogen combine under the electrochemical forces of the earth to form liquid water. Not only is water being constantly formed within the earth, but also rocks, minerals, and oil. What I seek is water in its liquid state.”
During a ten-day field trip to look at various water wells developed by Riess over the last thirty years, all of which are producing as copiously as when they were first bored. Eghbal learned that the mining engineer uses a twofold approach in locating sources of water. First comes a detailed study of surface structure, the main targets of which are the identification of contacts, or places where two kinds of rock strata adjoin to create natural fissures. Such a contact zone can be found between overlying layers of sedimentary rock laid down over millennia by erosion and deposition, and underlying basalt, a hard, dense igneous rock formed, like granite and other varieties, by crystallization of molten material that comes upward from deep within the earth.
“Just like igneous rock,” Riess further explained, “the water I get has to be coming from great depth because it is free of leach minerals found in water flowing through sediments. It comes up through the basalt in fissures, some from 5 to 10 and up to 20 to 30 feet wide, that go down into the earth to provide vertical aqueducts.”
To demonstrate to Eghbal the kind of thing he looks for in surface structure, Riess indicated a dyke, a miles-long thin protrusion of igneous rock slicing through adjacent sedimentary structures. To visualize this, one need only posit an extended strip of metal sheeting forced vertically into beach sand to create a barrier within it.
“This dyke,” Riess told Eghbal, “is made up of gabbro. It has risen up through sandstone and cuts very plainly through this geology. You can see where it actually surfaces in some places from which its direction, or ‘strike’ as geologists have it, can be traced across country. On this gabbro contact, a seam of water is flowing down below in a big fissure maybe five or six feet wide. The dykes, penetrating as they do into the lithosphere, the rocky crust of the earth, go down to where the rock becomes fluid. The contacts on gabbro can run thousands of feet. The dykes are mostly vertical or with a very slight dip, never much less than 70 degrees.”
“Do you always drill next to a dyke?” asked Eghbal.
“No,” replied Riess, “if it’s a displacement, I don’t. You have to figure that out. You can get misled a hundred times over if you don’t know your business.”
“So in essence you want to know if there are any displacement faults that might have moved the area you’re going to be drilling on?” Eghbal asked, hitting on the essence of the problem.
“Yes, it might have moved as much as 500 yards, and then you’ll be off it,” Riess both agreed and warned.
Riess further explained to the Iranian that if the water came up to, say, 150 feet from the surface and struck a lateral channel, it could travel horizontally for one hundred miles or more. “I couldn’t give you an accurate prediction on that without first-class instrumentation and a time-consuming study of the region’s geology and possibly by sinking some core holes miles apart which would give me a picture of the strata below ground,” he made clear. “This would give me an idea of whether the bedrock lay high or low. The dip and strike of the bedding plane would be revealed very clearly in the cores.”
Eghbal broke in: “What would happen if the water ran twenty miles in a lateral displacement and then hit another vertical fissure. Would it come up?”
“Yes,” replied Riess, “if it’s blocked. If it hits any kind of restriction it has to rise just as if it were coming up behind a dam and spilling over it. You could find water at one spot only 500 feet down and, maybe three miles away, it might be down at 5,000 feet. It depends where the basement, the bedrock, is.”
Side by side with his evaluation of structure, Riess focuses a lot of attention on the composition of rocks. Says Eghbal: “What he’s looking for is which association of minerals, including water, they might contain. Think of a cocktail or a dinner party. If you know some people will be present, they you might deduce that others will also be in attendance. This is where his petrography and crystallography come in. He doesnÕt care about the size of the crystals in the rocks as much as their relative quantity, which gives him an idea of how the rocks have altered, or metamorphosed, over long periods of time and allows him to trace the deposition to the time of its origin.
“I also asked him if the age of a given rocky formation made any difference and he replied that, if the structure of the formation permitted an upflow of water, he didn’t give a damn if it were Precambrian, or only half a million years old. It’s mainly a vertical, rather than a lateral, opening between two distinctly differentiated formations that he’s looking for. It’s always on a contact between two walls with a space, he says. The space can be filled with impervious material, sort of like a long cork which you have to drill through to get down underneath it. He’s drilled as much as 1,000 feet but when he finally broke through, he got a good well.”
Eghbal inquired of Riess whether he could predict water veins through seismology, the study of subterranean structures by use of sound waves. “Very likely,” was the reply, “because then I’d have a lot of stratographic information. But still I have to depend on past experience which has taken years to collect. I have to know what to look for. You can’t learn these techniques in a few weeks or even a few months.”
After listening to Riess’s exposition and looking at his well sites, Eghbal began to wonder why in his geology classes he had never been taught some of the ideas the mining engineer was expounding. “Riess’s work brought into focus some of the very problems that I tried to address to my professors,” explained Eghbal, “but they always shield away from them and I could never get any straight answers.”
L’Eau des Roches”
Is primary water produced in rock and available for tapping there? Nordenskiyld and Riess are not the only ones to provide an affirmative answer to this question. Professor C. Louis Kervran, a biologist and engineer who before his retirement was a French government expert on nuclear radiation hazards, asserts that most of the wells in his native Brittany are dug into solid granite.
“Certain ‘purists’ declare this impossible,” wrote Kervran in a 1977 essay on the origin of water found in crystalline rock. “They hold that water can only come from a permeable layer impregnated with it. A sponge, as it were, I needed, they say. This is entirely false and everybody knows it except overspecialized theorists who, even when confronted with facts, will not admit to anything that falls outside the subject matter they absorbed in school.”
During his professional career, Kervran knew of so many cases in which tunneling operations in mountain rock were suddenly flooded with water that he did not even bother to collect data on them. “The incidents were,” he noted, “so banally collect data on them.” The incidents were,” he noted, “so banally commonplace as to be known to thousands.” The floods, which in many cases literally “drowned the construction sites,” says Kervran, were generally attributed by geologists to what they called “contained” or “perched” water.
Brittany’s granite Ñ termed by Kervran “primary, impermeable terrain” Ñ has supplied water for all farm animals and humans as long as anyone can remember. Like Livingston’s wells in the granite under the high Sierras, the wells in Brittany rarely run dry, even during extended droughts such as the one which struck the peninsula in 1976. So widespread is the knowledge of wells in granite among the Breton peasantry that the expression “L’eau des roches” or “rock water” has long existed in their vernacular. Labeling it “constituent water,” or that forming part of a whole, Kervran notes that anyone can find out how much of it any rock contains by weighing the rock before and after heating. In his view constituent water was formed at the same time as the rock itself, a lot of it hundreds of millions of years ago, by penetrating the metamorphosing rock as steam and becoming imprisoned when the rock was a precrystalline viscous paste heated to temperature of an order of 800 degrees Centigrade at enormous pressures of 2-3 kilobars. Cooling, the rock shrank and cracked, opening up fractures leading in all directions.
On this account Kervran holds that it is difficult to find a rock even ten meters thick without such a crack or fissure, many of which intercommunicate, meeting at various angles and forming huge crevices or voids. The voids fill with water for which the myriad fissures are pathways or what Kervran terms “drainage pipes.” He has even seen water protruding from such channels where they are laid bare on the faces of cliffs.
During his years as a construction foreman building Interstate Highway 88 through the Sierra Nevada, Livingston, too, noticed similar openings oozing water, especially after heavy equipment had made cuts through rocks. Echoing Livingston’s idea that the water in rock is “living water,” Kervran avers that this water is generally in motion and that where the flow is more than minimal, it can be easily detected by dowsers. This explains why dowsers are, in his words, “habitually used in rocky regions in Brittany to pinpoint the exact location where one must dig to contact flowing water. The locations are detected by the dowsers with great precision.” During the 1976 drought in Brittany, the French Geological and Mining Bureau lent its drilling equipment, used to prospect for minerals in the Amoricain Mountains, to a crash program to find new water wells. In 1977, Ouest France, the newspaper with the highest circulation in the French Republic, reporting on the Bureau’s work, emphasized in italic print that its wells in Brittany were “drilled into crystalline and metamorphic terrain which has too long been erroneously reputed not to be water-bearing.” “Why can’t geologists submit to the evidence?” asks Kervran. “It is easily possible to find water in so-called impermeable rock. If books on geology do not mention this, it is because all the widely known observations of this phenomenon have never yet been assembled. No synthesis has ever been made of the data, and what a shame.”
To gather data on water from rock in Brittany, Kervran traveled in 1977 to the village of Lizio near Plormel where a local industry, Katell Roc, was bottling 300 million liters of particularly pure, almost mineral-free, water that is distributed all over Brittany and has recently become popular with “health-food” stores burgeoning in the region of Paris. Greeting Kervran at the Katell Roc site in a sparsely inhabited countryside were three installations that might have been taken for secret underground laboratories. Surrounded by high barbed-wire fencing, each appeared to be a dome of cement some thirty-five meters in diameter, rising above the ground to a height of about four meters. Out of the domes protruded huge ventilation shafts suggesting underground activity. When the door of one of these installations was unlocked, the Katell Roc president led Kervran down underground beneath the dome. To his surprise, Kervran found himself standing on a kind of catwalk and looking into an enormous round well thirty meters across and nine meters deep. That the well itself had been dug into solid granite was clearly revealed by the side walls all the way around its circumference.
The Katell Roc president told Kervran that the well was fed by a threadlike fissure only 5-6 millimeters wide, which had been detected by a dowser. The huge cisternlike tank had been dug into the rock to serve as reservoir which is pumped off during the day and recovers each night, even overflowing to fill an additional tank of 700 cubic meter capacity.
“Where does water of such purity come from?” asked Kervran.
“I don’t know,” replied the Katell Roc executive. “Geologists claim it comes from rain falling on Brittany’s central mountain range more than fifty miles from here.”
“Then water in the wells all around Lizio should be of the same composition as yours,” reasoned Kervran.
“Yes, it should,” the other man agreed, “but it isn’t. It’s of a totally different composition. The geologists have always told me that our water is rain water. Now I wonder if they are right.”
“For a century it has been known that, under certain conditions, some rocks yield hydrogen and oxygen gases which subsequently combine to form new water. In connection with the mining and recovery of gold, a natural coincidence led me to suspect, many years ago, that such a laboratory reaction might proceed within the earth. My discovery was then put to a field test by locating drilling many water wells. The record to date is 70 producing wells out of 72 attempts, all drilled in hard rock, all located in distress areas generally considered unproductive.” Stephan Riess, 1954.”
EARTH-GENERATED WATER: A POTENTIAL SOLUTION
“Waters divided… “1 or “well
of living waters” and “living fountains of waters”?2
Morad EghbalThe Middle East is not the only place where water crises and disputes arise and continue, but it is the region in which the potential for conflict over water is perhaps most extreme. A long history of hostilities and border disputes, plus the presence of oil, make the need for binding international agreement most pressing, though history gives us little confidence that international law can avert wars there.
Though the region is generally referred to as a whole—the Middle East—it is full of contradictory values, ranging from those of the desert, shaped predominantly by nomads, to the ideas of shepherds of the plains, and to the expectations of farmers and urban population of the few areas rich in water resources. These regional and local rules, no matter how contemporary they might seem, were founded on values that grew out of religious and social customs— often more rigid than the harshest of state-made laws.
We will embark on a journey in three parts.
Part One, about our “water planet,” sets the stage for water use, water rights, and regional security in the Middle East.
Part Two briefly surveys the paradigm-breaking scientific work of Stephan Riess, with its relevance to providing much-needed additional supplies of potable fresh water, particularly in the Middle East. One hopes this new paradigm could guide present dialogue in a different and long-ignored direction. Perhaps this could further the evolution of more cooperative, less adversarial approaches. In
Part Three we will address the interface between water resources and water rights in the Middle East, considering two river systems of particular interest: the Euphrates and Tigris river system and the Jordan Valley.
The Water Planet
Every living thing on this unique planet has a water connection. Our bodies are approximately 60% water, which lubricates our internal systems, keeps them free from waste, and maintains normal body temperature. Beyond these confines, trees, which are considered the “lungs” of the Earth, are 70% water and rely for the most part on a steady and reliable supply of fresh water. Every living cell is water-dependent and therefore vitally affected by the quality and quantity of fresh water available.
One of the circulatory systems which provides this vital resource is known as thehydrologic cycle, which is both simple to describe and complex in its application. Circulatory means recycling, a word that has increasingly permeated the consciousness of the public. In nature, recycling is a built-in part of the ecosystem and is the way water in changing form and function is used and re-used.
Water descends upon the face of the Earth as precipitation of one kind or another. It penetrates the surface and migrates along aquifers, a word whose Latin origin connotes the leading of water collected along a particular stratum, toward a point where it will resurface once again, to run off in creeks streams, and rivers—ultimately collecting in the lowest points, from where it again rises by evaporating and condensing into clouds, to descend again as precipitation.
This evapo-transpiration system is run by the energy of the Sun, which causes liquid water to turn into vapor, a change which is under way constantly over all bodies of water and on wet surfaces. We could say that we live in a state of constant net-deficit of this vital resource. Forests act as natural water reservoirs and are an important part of the Earth’s hydrological system.
The leaves and branches of trees catch a great amount of rainfall that would otherwise run off into streams. They shed this moisture on the surface of the ground, some of it to be held in the thick Layer of duff that forms the mulch covering forest floors. Trees and plants also absorb water through their root systems. The moisture that is not used up by trees or plants rises through osmotic pressure and evaporates to the atmosphere. Remarkably, water from the hydrologic cycle is not the only source of fresh water, as we shall see!
If so much of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, why are so many areas of the world, especially the Middle East, experiencing shortages and competing for fresh water? It is simply that fresh water resources, at least obviouslv accessible ones, are not evenly distributed either within national boundaries or globally.
The planet’s rapidly expanding human population also places a severe strain on the supply of this vital resource. This is not so much because supplies are low in an absolute sense, but because an ever-increasing population places ever larger demands on locally available reliable sources of fresh water.
As a result of this population increase, every country today is not only confronted with a growing demand for water, it must also come to terms with accompanying legal problems. If we add the additional concern of increased levels of industrialization, one can readily see how complicated the equation becomes and why non-industrialized countries also have the highest demand for this resource. They lack technological advance, being dependent mainly on agriculture, perhaps the most water-intensive industry in the world.
If so much of the Earth’s surface is covered with water, why are so many areas of the world, especially the Middle East, experiencing shortages and competing for fresh water?
Turning now to the second part of our journey we discover possible alternatives to these persistent problems. For at least twenty-five years a global water shortage has been the focus of increasingly dire predictions in the national and world press.3
First, there is over-pumping of groundwater from fairly shallow aquifers—for example, the Ogallalla that underlies the High Plains states in the United States from the Dakotas to the Texas Panhandle. Replenishment of this water by precipitation has not kept pace with an over-greedy use of this water. Should the tapping of such aquifers continue at present rates, the question arises whether that portion of the High Plains overlying the Ogallalla Aquifer will once again become the “Great American Desert.” It was so labeled on maps in the middle of the past century, long before the water below it was used for irrigation.
Then there is the increasing pollution of groundwater sources in many areas due to the influx of chemicals and toxins. Typical is the nine million gallons of chemicals that hav poured into Price’s Pit, the municipal dump at Atlantic City, New Jersey, which caused water in ten of fourteen city wells to become unpotable in the early 1980s.4
The solutions to this problem advanced by policy-makers are basically of two kinds.5 Solution one: Building very expensive “long-distance plumbing” in the form of pipelines, canals, and other conduits to channel water from rivers or from impoundments behind dams. This approach has been in favor since the days of the Babylonian King Hammurabi, who built an extensive system of irrigation canals in his Near Eastern domain.
It also flourished in the vast network of aqueducts that were constructed throughout the Roman empire. The second solution: Conserve existing supplies through voluntary limitation of use, i.e. rationing, or perhaps more effectively, through a steep rise in the price of water. Neither the “conservationists” nor the “long-distance plumbing advocates” seem to be aware of a third solution to water shortage problems. With the exception of a few stalwarts who have <!–[if !vml]–><!–[endif]–>advocated its potential for more than a century, this solution has remained dormant, thanks to outworn dogma.
Dogma insists that all the water available to humankind derives exclusively from the hydrologic cycle, which we have described above. Even as recent a publication as “Water for the Future: The West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan” by the National Science Foundation6 overlooked this potentially highly promising alternative. Advocates take exception to the well-entrenched notion that the Earth’s water can only be of “meteoric” origin. (Editor’s Note: The author means weatherborne water, not extraterrestrial water—as in the controversy over the influx of “small comets.”—EFM) They have affirmed that the Earth itself generates massive amounts of water from deep within, which has no connection with the water of the hydrologic cycle. They maintain that if this water were to be tapped by drilling, it would constitute a copious—for all intents and purposes an inexhaustible—supply of pure, unpolluted water.
Leonardo da Vinci, in his famous Treatise on Water, championed the idea that water comes both from precipitation and from internally generated sources. In his History of Hydrology, Asit K. Biswas notes that the Renaissance genius characteristically reported an occasional doubt about certain aspects of both theories, but nothing has been found which would indicate that he at any time had discarded the basic concepts of either of them. In fact, the chances seem good, that he believed both systems to operate concurrently.7
<!–[if !vml]–><!–[endif]–>In 1896, Adolf Erik Nordenskjold, a Stockholm professor of mineralogy and Arctic explorer, published an essay, “About Drilling for Water in Primary Rocks,”8 which was to win him a nomination for the Nobel Prize in physics, though he died before the prize was actually awarded. Nordenskjold had spent years on rocky promontories on and islands off the Swedish coast, organizing the drilling of wells for pilotage stations that were forced to import water or capture rain. The impetus for his effort came from his father, Nils, who was Chief of Mining in Finland. He had told his son, with some awe, that while salt water never penetrated iron mines on the Finnish coast, even when they were below sea level, fresh water was always present on the rocky floors of the same mines!
From his work, Nordenskjold concluded that a new type of water, independent of the hydrologic cycle, and generated by the Earth itself, was available. He called this water “primary,” due to its association with so-called “primary rocks,” which geologists term magmatic, or those, such as granites, basalts, and rhyolites, which derive from the molten magma deep within the Earth and later cool to crystallize into igneous rocks. He also affirmed that one could sink wells capable of producing such “primary water” year-round along the northern and southern coast of the Mediterranean Sea and in the whole of Asia Minor— precisely the best known part of the world afflicted with aridity.
Shortly after the appearance of Nordenskjold’s essay, his speculations about water newly formed in the Earth were echoed by a German geologist, Edward Suess, who coined the term “juvenile” or youthful, to characterize this water. Speaking with special reference to the thermal springs at Carlsbad (now Karolvy Vary in the former Czechoslovakia), he advanced persuasive arguments to show that waters of this class “see the light of day for the first time.” That is, they issue from deep within the Earth, from the fundamental magma itself, to bring up veritable additions to the hydrosphere.9
Suess’ contribution was noted by Frank Wigglesworth Clarke, a geologist with the United States Geological Survey, who, in a long memoir published in 1924, wrote that one of the most important questions for geology was whether it is possible to discriminate between waters of superficial origin and magmatic, or deep-seated, waters,10 for which I have coined the more <!–[if !vml]–><!–[endif]–>descriptive term “Earth-generated” waters.
Clarke cites the work of Armand Gautier, who pointed out several criteria for discriminating between Vadose (water located in the zone of aeration in the Earth’s crust) and magmatic waters and who stated that one cubic kilometer of granite, subjected to requisite heat and pressure within the Earth, could yield from twenty-five to thirty million metric tons of water—or something in excess of eight billion gallons—which at 1,100°C would form 160 billion cubic meters of steam. A family of four uses an average of 600 gallons of water per day for their daily sustenance and personal use. Calculated accordingly, such copious supplies of water would be sufficient for the daily need of about 1.25 million households of four.
The eminent mining geologist, Josiah Edward Spurr, in his two-volume treatise published in 1923, called attention to the fact that the existence of water as an essential component of igneous magmas had long been recognized. The existence was clearly shown by the vast clouds of water droplets that condense from the emitted vapor during volcanic eruptions. The fundamental idea that there is a thermodynamic cycle within the Earth that both produces and is fueled by water was still of concern at least up to 1942, when Oscar Meinzer, formerly head of the Groundwater Division of the U.S. Geological Survey in his book Hydrology (published in 1942), espoused the view that waters of internal origin are tangible additions to the Earth’s water supply.
Fifteen years before the publication of his book, Meinzer in a long essay referred to huge springs in the United States that yield 5,000 gallons or more per minute. This phenomenon is not confined to the United States. One incredibly productive water source flowing out of limestone is the Ain Figeh spring that alone supplies water for the over one million residents of Damascus, Syria, and is also the principal source for the Barada River. A report on this spring by the World Bank reads:
The principal emergence for the spring which has been enclosed in a structure since Roman Times resembles an underground river several meters across which flows up and out of the limestone formation of the mountain. The total flow has averaged about 132,000 gallons per minute. The quality is very good, its temperature and pH are relatively constant (14 degrees centigrade and 7.9, respectively), its taste and color are excellent, and bacterial contamination at the source is practically non-existent.11
(The same report is equivocal about the origin of the massive amount of water that has been flowing from this spring for millennia.)
Engineers digging tunnels have also frequently been faced with an outrush of water from what had to be considered an anomalous or mysterious source, given the depth at which it was contacted. Typical was the Tecolote tunnel in the United States, which runs 6.4 miles through the Santa Ynez Mountains to transport water from the Cachuma Reservoir to Santa Barbara, California. In the drilling process, the work was impeded by subterranean water flows of 9,000 gallons per minute, some of which was cool and fresh, some hot and mineralized. What the city of Santa Barbara could have saved by now in water supply expenses by drilling to tap such water (at a cost orders of magnitude less expensive than the 1957 completion price of the tunnel, $40 million) is a matter for conjecture. This issue is at the core of financial considerations in development schemes generally.12
Another anomalous episode, one of the strangest to occur in the annals of construction engineering, took place in Manhattan in 1955. An engineering firm had begun excavating for the addition to the Harlem Hospital at the intersection of 5th Avenue and 136th Street. On St. Valentine’s
Day, while removing a layer of hard rock only twelve feet below ground, workers were suddenly confronted with an enormous out-pouring of water, which rapidly began to fill the vast excavation. Pumps hurried to the site labored day and night at a rate of 2,000 gallons per minute to keep the working area free of water.
Particularly puzzling to engineers was that during the cold winter months the water maintained a constant temperature of 68°F and was so pure that hospital chemists who analyzed it certified it could be drunk without chlorination or other chemical treatment! A billion and a quarter gallons were pumped out of the hole until twelve stories of structural steel had been erected and several lower floors were decked with concrete slabs, which provided enough weight to hold down the foundation of the new building against hydrostatic pressure from this mysterious water.
Despite the fact that New York City has repeatedly been faced with serious water shortages over the past decades, no effort has been made to utilize the more than three million gallons a day that came out of the granite of Gotham’s body near the Harlem Hospital, or to drill for more such sources.
Trying to explain this over thirty years ago, Michael Salzman, then a professor at the University of California’s School of Commerce, who had served as an engineer with the U.S. Navy’s Hydrographic Office, pointedly wrote: “There can be but one reason why this water, despite its purity and constant flow, is not used, and that lies in the many fears associated with it, since its existence cannot be explained by conventional hydrologic practice.”
Salzman dedicated his book to Stephan Riess with an inscription, which said:
To Stephan Riess, for demonstrating his firm belief in democracy, individual initiative, free enterprise, and the need for open minds to the end that all men [humans] may truly be free to think and solve the great problems of their times.
Riess (1898-1985) was a Bavarian-born mining engineer and geologist who emigrated to the United States in 1923. While working in a deep mine at high elevation in the 1930s, after a load of dynamite had been set off in the bottom of it, Riess was amazed to see water come gushing out in such quantities that pumps installed to remove it at the rate of 25,000 gallons per minute could not make a dent in the flow. Staring forth into the valley below, Riess asked himself how water that supposedly had trickled into the Earth as rain could rise through hard rock into the shafts and tunnels of a mine nearly at the top of a mountain range.
The temperature and purity of the water suggested to Riess it must have a completely different origin than ordinary groundwater. Since none of the textbooks he had studied had referred to what seemed to confront him as an entirely anomalous phenomenon, he decided to look into it further. In 1957, after Riess had been working on the problem nearly two decades, Encyclopedia Britannica’s Book of the Year ran the following statement: Stephan Riess of California formulated a theory that “new water” which never existed before, is constantly being formed within the earth by the combination of elemental hydrogen and oxygen and that this water finds its way to the surface, and can be located and tapped, to constitute a steady and unfailing new supply.
This is not the place to document the incredible success Riess had over fifty years of practice drilling water wells at sites where professional hydrologists and geologists flatly predicted that not a drop of water could be found.13 But the central questions that arise are: How far have scientists actually gone to determine the nature and amount of deepseated, Earth-generated water, and in what way is society capable of accommodating the developments which would inevitably accompany the acceptance of this discovery and paradigm shift?
In his foreword to Salzman’s book, the English philosopher and writer Aldous Huxley comments poignantly: “It remains to be seen whether those who are now regarded as experts in the field of hydrology and the politicians whom they advise will also agree that a good case has been made and that large-scale experimentation is in order.” Since Huxley penned that sentence more than a quarter century ago, there has been no such experimentation, large or small, funded by hydrologic officials, state or federal, in the United States, or elsewhere in the world. Only private investors and entrepreneurs with foresightful initiative have dared to carry the research forward.
By 1958, Riess’ exploits came to the attention of the Israeli government, which invited the mining engineer and geologist for an official visit to find water for the then-new city of Eilat on the Red Sea’s Gulf of Aqaba. After a flight to Tel Aviv, he met with Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion and his advisors, who urged him to go ahead with his search as soon as possible. Less enthusiastic were a group of leading Israeli geologists, who, like their American counterparts, vigorously opposed Riess’ theory and methodology of water development. “Only after a protracted session during which I explained it,” Riess would later . relate, “did they agree that my proposal had merit.”
This was confirmed by Israel’s chief water geologist at the time, Arie Issarof, who in a letter, wrote: “As a geologist who is occupied with water research in arid zones, I am fully aware of the limitations of our orthodox methods, in geohydrological possibilities which may be opening up before us while applying these methods. I decided, encouraged by my superiors, to cooperate with Mr. Riess’ research for primary waters in our arid zones.” High in the mountainous country along the Israel-Jordan border, Riess located the first of several wells about a mile and a half from Eilat itself. As Meir Ben-Dov wrote in the Jerusalem Post:
The site chosen is where a fivemeter- wide cleft, running vertically through the mountain, is crossed at right angles by a similar cleft, hardly twenty centimeters across. The bowels of the earth in erupting have filled these clefts with an igneous intrusion of a sort, soapy-feeling, mottled brown rock called gabbro. The drill slowly worked its way downward, alternately in igneous intrusion and again in granite as the cleft in the rock snaked its way downward.
During the work, problems linked to cave-ins and the jamming of drill pieces beyond the Israeli drilling team’s experience were finally solved when Riess’ associate, Jim Scott, who had worked with him on many wells over the vears, was sent to Israel to supervise operations.
On May 29, 1959, the Jerusalem Post published an estimate that the amount of water struck in the Riess located wells was enough to supply a city of more than 100,000 persons including industry, air-conditioning, parks, gardens, and a dozen outlying villages. Analysis of the water, stated the newspaper, revealed that the Eilatis, used to drinking water with 3,000 parts per million of dissolved mineral salts (TDS), now had a supply with only 1/6 that amount of TDS. For his work in Israel, Ben-Gurion presented Riess with a medal and his wife with a sterling silverbound copy of the Talmud in English.
The astounding find was not lost on Arab leaders, neighbors of Israel. Invited to Cairo by Egypt’s Gamal Abdel Nasser, Riess became the only exception to a rigid years-long stricture prohibiting Americans who had visited Israel from setting foot in Arab lands. Along the Nile, Riess located several water wells on rocky promontories for well-known Egyptians before flying on to the Sudan at the invitation of the Mahdi, where a revolution disrupted his planned geological exploration for water. This prompted his return home.
In fact, Riess’ exploits in drilling for fresh water were not quite as unusual as it might have seemed then, because his was perhaps the most recent of a number of accomplishments in this area by others, such as Leo Picard, a contemporary and fellow German who had been born into a Jewish family in 1900 in the city of Wangen near Konstanz, Germany. From 1924 to the present, Picard devoted his life to geology and groundwater exploration in what was then Palestine and is now Israel, following completion of his academic training in geology at the University of Freiburg, Germany. His accomplishments are in addition to and related to those of Riess, ones that we will not have an opportunity to revisit in this short space.
Nor is it possible now to delve into the life and work of Fritz Josef Heidecker, another contemporary of Stephan Riess, who was born in 1912 in Georgensgmuend in Mittelfranken, Germany as the third son of an old, established Jewish family, whose documented lineage goes back to 1650. Fritz Josef Heidecker was another builder in the Middle East who devoted much time and energy to building wells during the infancy of the State of Israel.
By analogy, the concept of plate tectonics developed first by the eminent German geologist, Karl Wegener, nearly a century ago, was probably as difficult for geologists to tolerate then as the concept of “Earth-generated water” is for hydrologists now. Few of them are aware that the profession as a whole lags behind the times. In 1960, one of hydrological science’s critics, William C. Ackerman (then-vice-president of the American Geophysical Union, AGU, and chief of the Illinois Water Survey Division) tried to shake up his colleagues at a regional meeting at Moscow, Idaho.
He expressed his disappointment that for years many revolutionary papers on hydrology submitted to the AGU’s Transactions had been refused publication. Ackerman concluded that the heart of the problem was that hydrology had been resting for too long on the laurels of its greatest figures, whose work had been performed prior to World War n. He said that nothing of consequence had been contributed to the subject since then.14
Water Rights and Water Use in the Middle East
In the ancient Middle East, water was perhaps the single most important factor that influenced the settlement patterns, life, and culture of its inhabitants. Since vast areas of the ancient Middle East were comprised of deserts, settlements and cultures developed for the most part in a region (often referred to as the Fertile Crescent) where fertile soil and a major source of water were located. Thus, we find in the history of antiquity the evolution of villages and towns along the Nile River in Egypt and the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in ancient Mesopotamia. In Palestine and Syria some communities evolved near rivers, while others originated near springs, such as Jericho—perhaps the oldest known city in that region of the world.
Notwithstanding the location of such water resources throughout the Middle East, the accessibility of water was often a problem. In some areas water resources were present yearround, but the transport of water for irrigation and domestic needs was still difficult. So a variety of water systems developed throughout the ancient Middle East—irrigation systems, storage, and methods to transport water from one locale to another. You may recognize the following scene:
A lone figure dressed all in black, tall and of proud bearing, materializes out of the mirage caused by the blistering heat, where the glare of the dry sky meets the hostile floor of the desert. As he slowly moves forward, his attitude becomes tense, and his eyes blaze with disdain as he reaches the well, where a stranger plunges his head into the water to slake his thirst. He looks up in sudden terror. With a single stroke of his sword, the man in black slashes off the wet head of a man taking more than his due. “He was sullying my well,” explains the executioner.
The scene is from the film “Lawrence of Arabia,” based on a passing reference in The Seven Pillars of Wisdom. Though it is a mythic event, it is a good image for the harsh reality of the desert—a clear warning that water in the arid environment of the Middle East is a matter of life and death. The tableau shows too the uncompromising rigidity of the laws and rules surrounding water that grew out of the customs of the desert.
A thirsty man may drink from another man’s well, but only in the manner prescribed. He may lower a container, and the water in the container will become his property, without any compensation due; but he must not dive into the water or immerse himself, which would pollute the well.
For centuries, the history of the desert lands of the Middle East centered on the wells and water courses as tribes followed the vegetation with their herds and traders traveled from well to well as they opened up the great caravan routes. In this century, Turks and Arabs—with the occasional involvement (some might call it interference) of British, German, French, and American forces—fought for control of the wells along desert routes to determine the outcome of the First World War in the dry and hostile wastes of the Arabian peninsula.
Eighty years later these old adversaries are still fighting over scarce and rapidly diminishing water resources. But now they have more destructive weapons, thanks to the willingness of external powers to provide them. Everyone wants to secure the riches provided by oil, a resource for which water is key, both in the exploration for oil and in its refining. The cinematic scene at the well demonstrates yet another truth in the Middle East: water cannot be owned.
All that can be controlled is the means by which it is transported or distributed. Only in case of disputes does water itself become a strategic commodity, to be denied to an enemy or even contaminated in a way no desertdweller would normally consider. At times, a whole civilization can be wiped out by the destruction of an irrigation system, as the Moguls did to the Persians, or the Iraqi government has attempted to do with Marsh Arabs in the lower parts of the Mesopotamian delta in more recent times. In times of peace (or “non-war,” for that is the reality in the Middle East today), there are other rules.
There is a slowly evolving set of basic criteria to complement the customs that for decades generally succeeded in organizing the sharing of water resources. The map of the Middle East has changed. Tribes acquired flags and national boundaries; customs and rules that were once effective in governing water-sharing between cousins and tribes related by blood no longer work when the cousins have become sovereign nations.
In the West Bank, Israeli military occupation forces are selective in applying Ottoman or Jordanian law, or the new military order, which tends to add to the burden of occupation and deepens the sense of alienation of the local population. Elsewhere, without water-sharing agreements, one state might limit water flow to others, as Turkey did to Syria and Iraq in January 1990.
Turkey stopped the flow of the Euphrates to fill the Ataturk Dam, a part of Eastern Anatolia Development Project. At the same time, Cairo received reports that Israel was helping Ethiopia to erect dams on the Blue Nile, threatening to lower Egypt’s already low water levels. In both cases, international law and diplomacy took over and the situation was resolved peacefully, but the potential for conflict was there and has not disappeared. (VN: as we pointed out, that is why Israel helped to precipitate the rebellion and then controlled who the new leader was to be, now the Egyptians are under assault again since nothing has changed except Mubaraks head of torture is now the new Mubarak)
Apart from minimizing the danger of conflict and the potential for the outbreak of war, there is another compelling reason now for trying to codify the use of water resources in the Middle East. Environmental issues, expected to become even more urgent as the area works its way toward a level of peaceful co-existence, demonstrate an urgent need to balance optimum use of water resources with a well-founded understanding and concern for the quality of the environment.
The most elaborate (even by modern day standards) irrigation systems in the ancient world were developed in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Evidence of more limited and less-elaborate systems have been found in ancient Palestine and elsewhere. The systems of Mesopotamia consisted of a series of canals, cut from rivers like the Tigris and Euphrates, into the fertile regions between the rivers.
The feeder canals were then tapped by individuals who used smaller channels to bring water to private plots. The important societal role these systems played in the cultures of ancient Mesopotamia is demonstrated by references to them and information about their construction and maintenance in ancient records, e.g. the Mari tablets, as well as inscriptions from Assyrian kings such as Sennacherib and others.
While irrigation systems of Mesopotamia were designed primarily to transport vast amounts of water, the Egyptian systems were constructed to distribute “mud-water” (water with rich deposits of silt) from collecting pools or basins to agricultural plots in the Nile River valley. Irrigation systems were also applied in ancient Palestine, where evidence of sluice gates, channels, and catchment basins designed to capture run-off water from the Jordan River or streams in the Transjordan provide lasting testimony of those practices.
One of the most important sources of water, however, was the natural spring, such as the Gihon spring at Jerusalem and the spring at Jericho. The location of many of Palestine’s earliest settlements was determined by springs of this type. Irrigation systems associated with springs have been found at Jericho, where water was diverted to fields or plots, and in Jerusalem where water was channeled from the Gihon spring along the east side of the Ophel ridge to provide water distribution for the Kidron valley.
Wells were constructed in semiarid regions used by pastoral nomads and village herdsmen, as well as in some ancient towns. Since southern Palestine was semiarid, wells such as those located at Beersheba15 and Gerar16 constituted the major water supply for herds and flocks. Even in ancient times, the wells were frequently a source of contention between the local herdsmen and the more nomadic pastoral nomads.17 Large storage units, including reservoirs and pools hewn out of solid bedrock formations below the surface of the ground, were designed to capture the water that came during the rainy season.
Excavations at Ai, Raddana, Qumran, and other locales have uncovered a series of such reservoirs or collecting vats that provided water for the ancient community. Though the water supply depended on rainwater, i.e. the hydrologic cycle, it was being channeled through a network of canals or watercourses from the surrounding hills to the collecting pools in the community. Generally, the systems were designed for one of two reasons: 1) to provide safe passage to the water supply; and 2) to bring the water to a more convenient location.
Warren’s Shaft, named after Charles Warren who discovered it in Jerusalem in 1867, was designed and engineered by the pre- Israelite inhabitants of Jerusalem, the Jebusites. It was a water system located beneath the surface on the east side of the old city of Jerusalem, also known as the Ophel ridge, just above Gihon spring. It was designed to provide safe access to the spring during times of warfare, and consisted of an entrance on the side of the hill, a tunnel of approximately 130 feet length, a shaft about forty-two feet deep at the lower end of the tunnel, and a horizontal channel which brought water from the Gihon spring back under the ridge to the base of the shaft. This shaft was the means by which David captured the city and made it his capital.18
In another instance, two major water systems have been discovered at Gibeon, home of the Gibeonites who served the Israelites as “hewers of wood and drawers of water.”19 The earliest of the systems, perhaps built about the twelfth century B.C., consisted of a large cylindrical pool, approximately 37 feet in diameter and 35 feet deep, carved into solid bedrock. The pool had a spiral staircase which led to a tunnel that descended to a kidney-shaped water room.
Ancient Megiddo had a water system that was constructed in three different stages, with each replacing or improving the earlier. The earliest phase, from prior to the time of Solomon, consisted of a short stepped passage through the city wall that was connected to a covered stairway leading to the spring chamber near the base of the mound. The Solomonic system was replaced by an extremely large system constructed in the ninth century B.C., with steps and a tunnel that led from the base of the shaft of the spring near the base of the mound. At a
They have affirmed that the Earth itself generates massive amounts of water from deep within … it has no connection with the water of the hydrologic cycle.
later time, the tunnel was deepened in order to allow the water to flow to the base of the vertical shaft. The ancient city of Hazor had a shaft and tunnel system similar to the one at Megiddo; however, the Hazor shaft was approximately twice as large as the Megiddo shaft with steps wide enough that pack animals could be used to carry the water up and out. The shaft-and-tunnel method was also used for the design of the water system at Gezer, which consisted of a rectangular shaft, and a tunnel that led to a large cave filled with spring water.
It is noteworthy that historical sources from antiquity, though filled with examples of different regimes governing the extraction and use of water, are generally silent about instances in which the rules actually denied the ruled access and use of this vital resource. Limited though it may have been, ancient rulers from pre-Solomonic times to the Middle Ages appear to have recognized that a persistent denial of access to and use of water would only invite a state of permanent conflict with the population— anathema to the rule of law and order. Even though water may have been used strategically in times of war to achieve victory, once the conflict was over, the victors typically would return in practice and policy to the sharing of water.
In present times, the apparent lack of clear interpretation of an international or regional legal regime in the water flashpoints of the Middle East will only help to aggravate the already tense situation and perpetuate existing imbalances in the exploitation of water—often based on certain states being militarily and politically dominant powers. Strong downstream countries use their military might to take more than their fair share of available waters, and regularly imply that they might take action that would threaten the stability of upstream countries if they attempted to develop hydrological projects on the shared watercourse. Thus we have Israel against Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and West Bank Palestinians; Egypt against Ethiopia and Sudan.
Countries not in a position to force a powerful neighbor to reach a fair settlement on the use of water might start a war that would put Western interests at risk, thus requiring intervention. Since they could not win a war single-handedly against the neighbor who threatens their water supplies, they would create an unstable situation leading to a general regional conflict. Weaker states would hope to achieve two aims: 1) to secure allies against a powerful neighbor and 2) to precipitate a war invoking the international community, which would lead to water issues being put on the agenda of general settlement. Neither scenario is acceptable, of course, both being fraught with serious danger.
Mark Twain’s witty comment, “Whiskey is for drinkin’, water is for fightin’,” describes the situation in the Middle East, where fresh-water resources are replacing oil as the probable cause for the next international armed conflict. While Egypt, Ethiopia, Sudan, and Uganda are staking out claims in the Nile River basin, and Iraq, Syria, and Turkey eye one another over the Tigris-Euphrates river system, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria are competing with Israel over water rights in the Jordan Valley.
The Ottoman Empire used the sharia as the basis for its water law in the civil code known as Al majalla othomaniyah, in which eighty-two articles deal with water. Those articles became an important source for the codification of Islamic law in the Levant, and they remain the residual legislation for Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine-Israel.
In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, there was a transformation of the Levant under Ottoman rule, with the rules of the sharia and the body of precedents being codified into legislation that was also affected by the influence of the French colonists. This helped establish a more comprehensive approach to water sharing in the Levant and other countries under both Ottoman and French influence.
The Ottoman majalla redrafted the original laws after incorporating the French legislation, and these were still the rules governing water use in places such as Mauritania (1921), Lebanon (1926), and Tunisia and Algeria (as late as the 1970s). Countries that came under the British influence—Turkey, Saudi Arabia, and most Gulf countries, Jordan, Libya, Sudan, and Yemen—had a different approach based on customary usage, sharia, and other rules. Egypt, however, was an interesting case: it had been in the heart of the Ottoman Empire, came under strong French influence, and was occupied by the British in 1882. From that time, it was the British who influenced the irrigation, educational systems, and army, right up to 1956. Yet Egypt never implemented the sharia, any of the Ottoman laws, or the French Code, but kept the ancient traditional ways related to the Nile. This showed, once again, how the state and the river together make the national identity of that which is Egypt.
As in other parts of the world, population growth is of concern in the Middle East, too, where Israel’s population has increased dramatically, and its national average use of water per person per day is at least five times as much as in neighboring countries. Israel is at present using 95% of its available water resources. In 2000 or soon thereafter, it may be short by one-third of its needs, as one million immigrants are awaiting re-settlement from abroad in that troubled country’s borders. Since 1948, Israel has multiplied sixfold the acres dependent on irrigation for cultivation. Although Israeli farmers are admittedly among the most water-efficient in the world, the government may soon have to choose between water-intensive crops, such as cotton, and critical domestic and industrial needs.
The questions of a reliable source of water, whether potable or not, are closely connected to the far deeper, implicit questions of what development is, might be, and how it can be implemented. Is it not conceivable and appropriate now to anchor a lasting peace in the troubled Middle East in a Regional Water Authority with cross-boundary jurisdiction? It could be created collaboratively, staffed, financed, and operated cooperatively by all the nations in that region, friend and foe alike, who depend on this life-giving resource?
The legal, technical, and political issues surrounding water and its many-faceted uses transcend a human lifetime. They are certainly not confined neatly to national boundaries, and are perhaps among the great problems of our times. Perhaps the paradigm of “Earth-generated water,” given increased attention and application, will lead to enduring solutions.
For now, let us bring our journey to a close with a quote from Aharon David Gordon (1856-1922), a pioneer in Galilee, whom Arthur Koestler quotes in his book Diebe in der Nacht (Thieves in the Night; 1983). Gordon:
We shall shake off the old life, which has become rancid for us and shall begin anew. We do not want any changes or modifications and we do not want any improvements. We simply want to begin anew.
1. Exodus 14:21.1967. The New Scofield Reference Bible, 88.
2. Ibid., Song 4:15, p. 708 and Rev. 7:17, p. 1359.
3. For instance, “Water Warning Being Prepared by City Officials,” New York Times, January 15, 1983; and “Tucson Streets are in Trouble, but Without Water It Won’t Matter,” Washington Post, November 23, 1982.
4. Grundy, Denise. 1982. “Trouble in Atlantic City,” Discover, March.
5. “Water for the Future: The West Bank and Gaza Strip, Israel, and Jordan,” Committee on Sustainable Water Supplies for the Middle East, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC, 1999; see also, Summer 1982 issue of California magazine (cover story).
7. Biswas, Asit K. History of Hydrology, North Holland Publishing.
8. Nordenskjold, Adolf E. “Om Borningar Efter Vatten in Uberget.”
9. Suess, Edward. 1902. “Ueber Heisse Quellen,” Leipzig, Gesellschaft deutscher Naturforscher und Aerzte Vehandlung, translated in part by D. H. Newland, Engineering and Mining Journal, 1903, p. 76, July 11.
10. Clarke, Frank Wigglesworth. 1924. The Data of Geochemistry, U.S. Geological Society, Bulletin 770, Washington, DC.
11. For a photo of this spring see Bird, Christopher. 1979. The Divining Hand, E.P. Dutton, 153.
12. Salzman, Michael. 1960. New Water for a Thirsty World, Science Foundation Press, Los Angeles, CA.
13. For a more detailed treatment of the work of Stephan Riess see Bird, Christopher, The Divining Hand, E.P. Dutton, Chapters 8 and 9.
14. Ackerman, William C. 1961. “Needed: Three Wise Men,” Transactions, American Geophysical Union, 42,1, March.
15. Ibid., The New Scofield Reference Bible, Genesis 21:30, p. 31.
16 Ibid., Genesis 26:18, p. 39.
17. Ibid., Genesis 21:25, p. 31; Genesis 26:15, p. 38-39; and Genesis 26:19-22, p. 39.
18. Ibid., 2 Sam 5:6-10, p. 363.
19. Ibid., Josh 9:23, p. 269.
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