DELUSION and MASS DELUSION by A. M. MEERLOO

Forums Cabal Psychology DELUSION and MASS DELUSION by A. M. MEERLOO

Viewing 2 posts - 1 through 2 (of 2 total)
  • Author
    Posts
  • #15973
    AvatarEK
    Keymaster

      DELUSION and MASS DELUSION by A. M. MEERLOO
      ©1949

      Introduction:

       

       

      The human mind is characterized by two antagonistic forces struggling for supremacy. This is
      the conflict between the intellectual components and the instinctive drives, each apparently
      attempting to achieve dominancy. In some situations the instinctive forces gain control in a way
      to encourage those individuals involved to gather in groups, masses and mobs. Here the “herd
      instinct” becomes supreme with the inclination to organize and to follow and obey a leader. In
      such situations either much good or irreparable harm to society may result, according to the
      issues involved.

       

      Psychology is the discipline that has the most direct bearing on our daily activities. Its
      phenomena are ever present in our feeling, thinking and dreaming. However, the ways in which
      it works and its actual significance are mysterious to the average person, and the language of the
      learned in this field is mere jargon to the uninitiated. It is unfortunate that it is not better
      understood by all, and particularly by those whose duty is to make decisions that may threaten
      the security of mankind.

      Many writers have attempted to inform the public on matters of psychology and
      psychopathology without having the proper training and experience, the result being a flood of
      books on the market having little value and too often presenting untrue and harmful
      pronouncements. The human mind is a very complex system of actions and reactions requiring
      years of persistent study to acquire even a working knowledge of its intricate patterns of
      expression and function.

      The average reader is not able, nor can he be expected to be able, to differentiate between the
      real specialist and the would be authority in psychological science. There is a great deal of
      psychological knowledge that has accrued without yet having gained its possible applications in
      society where it would enrich the lives of the people.

       

      The problems of mass psychology are complex and do not lend themselves to an early, rapid solution. Some may never be solved, but it
      is our task to make careful studies and to disseminate whatever knowledge that has been gained
      about the psychological peculiarities of so called “mass mentality”. Dangers in social life cannot
      be avoided without some idea of their nature. People should be informed about these dangers
      and taught to understand that individuals possess inborn tendencies driving them into actions that
      their logical powers of thought have difficulty in preventing.

       

      This is the duty of our psychopathologists who in the past have devoted the greater portion of
      their time to working with individuals. Therapeutic work with individuals is important, but the
      person is only a unit in a huge social organism or mass of human beings influenced and moulded
      by its form and laws. Most of our mental reactions and adjustments are related to other persons
      in the mass.

      Mass psychology should be brought into the foreground for much needed research with special
      institutes for the study of its unique problems, where all aspects could be analyzed and data
      accumulated for the direction of practical applications.

       

      In this monograph Dr. Meerloo, an experienced psychiatrist, has presented a large area of
      psychological and psychopathological import. He has discussed, psychodynamically, the
      thinking process in all of its various normal and pathological ramifications and special
      significant functions. The different types of delusion formation, the problems of the masses,
      mass thinking, and the characteristics of collective action in its many expressions are treated in a
      most informative and interesting account. His concepts are clearly stated and they bring together
      a wide variety of facts, theories and constructive ideas that should prove to be thought
      provoking, and a stimulation to additional investigation.

      Nolan D. C. Lewis, M.D.

      Preface

       

      These essays are the reactions of a psychiatrist to fettered thinking. The first draft was written
      during the dark days of Nazi occupation in Holland, when the iron blows of official “thought
      control” smashed down on all free cultural discussion. In such an atmosphere, imagine the
      cathartic value of setting down one’s own aggressive reaction on paper, of clarifying-for oneself,
      at least-why man must resist attacks on mental freedom and civilization or perish.
      These days of conquest saw the people of Western Europe turning more and more to American
      thought, to the pragmatic philosophy of that huge, free land. Long before the two world wars
      Europe had been overwhelmed by German romantic idealism. With high-flown words and
      theories that captivated a willing world, Germany went far toward conquering European thought
      long before its armies annexed its material wealth.
      The first essay attempts to show the change in attitude that arose from our need to stem the
      German impact on our thinking. It started as a series of lectures in occupied territory and
      developed into an essay on man’s fearful groping with the mind in the midst of his expanding
      knowledge of the universe. The two shorter essays present some practical implications of our
      deluded attitudes.
      Most of these reflections were gathered without benefit of scientific contact, without access to
      any literature, without the possibility of research or discussion. Yet the very fact that they were
      born of mental exile may help them to portray more convincingly the spirit of stubborn
      resistance that filled our hearts in those days.
      Are we not becoming increasingly aware of the tremendous influence that opposition exerts in
      shaping man’s mental processes and character?
      A. M. MEERLOO, M.D.
      New York, 1949
      Contents

       

       

      Part One Delusion and Mass-Delusion

       

      THINKING AND DELUSION

       

      Introduction.

      The Tragedy of Thinking.
      Thought and Delusion.
      Affective Delusions.
      Thinking as Contact with Reality.
      Limitations of the Psychologist.
      Our Thought is Capricious
      Logical Tricks as justification for Our Wishes.
      Ogling Reality, the Only Common Concept.
      The Evidences.
      Circular Reasoning.
      Psychology and Logic.
      Thinking as a Foetal Luxury.
      Thinking as a Social Function
      Adjustment by Retarded Reflection.
      Thinking as a Function.
      Thinking as an Ambivalent Function.
      Thinking and Feeling.
      Thinking and Intellect.
      Pseudo-Intellect.
      Previous Theory of Delusions.
      Delusion as Substitute.
      Hallucinations.
      Thinking that Withdraws from Reality.
      Learnedness
      The Development of Thinking.
      Archaic or Primitive Thinking.
      Identifying or Magic Thinking.
      Participating Thinking.
      Participation Through Isolation of Culture.
      Mythical Thinking.
      Identification in Thinking.
      False Figurative Language.
      The Dictatorship of Imagery.
      Wishful Thinking.
      Totalitarian Thinking.
      Traditional Thinking
      Thought and Language.
      The Language of the Child.
      Word and Intonation.
      Sound-Languages.
      Word-Magic.
      The Power of Talk.
      Crypto-Archaisms
      Causal and Final Thinking.
      Laws of Thinking
      Western and Eastern Thinking.
      Types of Consciousness.
      Male and Female Thinking.
      Anatomical Thinking.
      Biological Roots of Thinking.
      Shallow Modes of Thought.
      Labeling Thinking.
      Juridical Thinking
      Normal Delusions.
      Seductive Stupidity.
      Superfluous Thinking.
      Obsessional Thinking.
      The Autonomy of Ideas.
      The Delusion of Certainty.
      Proverbial and Patterned Thinking.
      The Subject Thinks.
      The Unconscious as Creator of Our Thinking.
      Fashionable Thinking.
      Scapegoating.
      Nominative Thinking.
      Fixed Thought Values.
      The Readiness for Truth.
      Knowledge-A Dangerous Game.
      Synthetic and Analytic Thinking.
      Autistic Thinking
      Delusion and the Subjective Feeling of Power.
      Delusion and the Subjective Feeling of Certainty.
      The Incomprehensibility of the Delusion. . . . . •
      Thinking-The Overstepping of Limits.
      Dimensional Thinking.
      The Conceit of Thinking.
      Over-strained Thinking.
      The Delusion of Justification.
      The Treason of Our Thoughts.
      The Mania for Objectivity.
      Delusion and Resentment.
      Pathological Delusion.
      Thinking Needs Harmony
      II. MASS AND DELUSION
      The Problem of the Mass.
      The Molding of the Masses.
      Mass Thinking.
      The Craving for Catchwords.
      The Equalization of the Masses.
      Traditional Mass-Thinking.
      Conformism and Submissiveness in the Masses.
      The Paradox of Censorship on Public Opinion.
      Suggestive Weapons.
      Independence of Public Opinion.
      Pseudo- and Real Public Opinion.
      The Formation of Public Opinion.
      Individual and Mass-Thinking.
      The Effect of Suggestion.
      Identification and Psychological Feeling.
      Participating Feeling.
      The Social Value of Suggestibility.
      Anonymity.
      Lability of Mass-Opinion
      The Effect of Fear and Terror.
      Induction Psychosis and Mental Epidemic.
      Mass-Delusion.
      Contagious Mass-Delusion.
      Short-Cuts and Mass-Delusion.
      Historical Delusions.
      Mass-Delusion and Rite.
      Chorea Major, St. Vitus Dance. Modern Chorea.
      Mass Ecstasy.
      The Suicidal Thinking of the Mass.
      Mass-Suicide.
      Delusion of Metamorphosis and the Delusion of Witches.
      The Delusion of the Ritual Murder.
      Collective Conceit.
      The Readiness for Collective Delusion.
      Collective Symbols.
      The Power of the Masses.
      The Urge for Equality in the Mass
      Word-Sensuality.
      The Dictatorship of the Printed Word.
      Mass-Hypnosis.
      Suggestive Association.
      The Spread of Hypnotism.
      Hypnotizing Noises.
      Hypnophilia.
      The War of Nerves.
      Collective Paralysis.
      Restitution of Free Opinion
      The Sense of Mass-Delusion.
      The Stability of the Mass.
      Part Two
      Mass-Suicide and Atomic Fear
      Latent Suicidal Thoughts of the Masses.
      Atomic Fear.
      SelfDestruction.
      The Urge for Catastrophe
      Part Three
      Some Mental Aspects of the Human Animal (Remaining Young, Walking Erect and Playing
      Continually)
      A Picture of the Human Animal.
      Man Walks Erect.
      Man Is An Escapist.
      Man Has Instruments.
      Man Lives Opposite Things.
      The Tyranny of Instincts.
      Man Grasps the Opportunity For Speech.
      An Eager Learning Animal.
      Only Man Is Surprised.
      Prejudice-The Enemy of Learning.
      Man, The Eternal Baby.
      The Dreamer-Fighter.
      Homo Ludens-The Playing Man.
      The Quest for Safety.
      The Sclerotized Student.

       

       

       

       

       

       

      PART ONE

      Delusion and Mass-Delusion – An Essay on the Capricious Thinking in Man and Collectivity To be a part of human tragedy, To know all things so very well, But still to act against all intellect.

       

       

      A.M.M.

       

       

      THINKING AND DELUSION SECTION ONE

       

       

       

      Can we be made to understand what an exciting adventure thinking is? Can we be made to
      understand at the same time that there is often more wisdom in silence than in endless talk?
      We live in the midst of a curious and continuous clash of opinions. Opinions and catchwords do
      not arise sui generis. We are constantly swayed and subjected to the convincing thinking of
      others. We are confronted with persuasive editorials. It is almost impossible to evade the
      suggestive pressures of the world around us.
      In this essay I have briefly attempted to place myself outside the tumult of hastening,
      deliberating and fighting mankind, attempted to answer how men came to accept their fictions,
      their chaotic notions and ideas.
      The Tragedy of Thinking
      The realization that our own open mind and brain are not entirely our own is a tragic one. We
      come to realize that the weighty thoughts with which we attempt to clarify the problems of our
      time are partially the products of the thinking of others and partially emerge from the
      unconscious patterns of our own mind. We think and try to become conscious of the world
      around us but we are not independent in our reasonable existence.
      The new psychology has given us many examples of primary instincts and urges which act upon
      our thinking. There is a close link between thoughts and emotions. A well-known philosopher,
      spokesman for a sharp-witted idealistic system, once confessed that during the writing of his best
      theories, he experienced several curious bodily sensations together with accelerated intestinal
      activity. It was as if his best logic were expelled physically as well as mentally. He functioned
      best when suffering from a headache.
      Man involves his entire body in thinking and involves it in a distinct, personalized way. Some
      become quiet, silenced and meditative, others nervous, excitable.
      This essay is an attempt, from the clinical standpoint, to account for the various influences that
      rule our thoughts. Delusion and mass delusion, suggestion and mass suggestion have to be
      accounted for if they are to be corrected.

      Thought and Delusion

      Our first concern is the problem of delusion. The clinical psychology of the nineteenth century
      attempted to explain delusion as the result of a pathologically changed process of thinking. It
      defined delusion as an incorrigible error, as an incomprehensible obstinacy of the psyche. The
      intrapsychic process of delusion, since it was not understood, was written off as inexplicable.
      Examples of the curious thought pictures of the mentally diseased were cited, which were
      impervious to outside influence. These patients tried to prove one delusion with another, even
      more improbable one, and out of the primary error erected an entire delusional system.
      The analysis of this delusionary growth process revealed threads of comprehensible thought
      with, however, a bizarre and incomprehensible superstructure. Many adequately functioning
      people who show too much concern with themselves often conclude that the treatment accorded
      them does not do them justice. This common correctible aberration we refer to as “conceit” and
      “self-centered behavior”. Incomprehensible in the delusion, however, was its fixed, incorrigible
      nature. The delusion seemed to persevere as an impenetrable mental armor. Many psychologists
      considered this well protected and armored insulation of the delusion the specific pathological
      process. They defined the delusion as a specific change in the thinking process, in which
      selfcentered evaluations turned into rigid delusions as a result of pathological processes of the
      brain. In most cases, however, it was impossible to point to the intracerebral deviation.

      Affective Delusions

      Beyond these pathological thinking processes there is also the formation of delusions due to the
      impact of emotions, namely, the affective delusions. When the intensity of certain emotions
      reaches abnormal proportions the thinking processes change. This form of delusion is a more
      comprehensible one. It is plausible, for instance, that a person under the impact of tremendous
      fear might think he is persecuted, or that a person in extreme pain and sorrow might consider
      these punishment for his sins. But even here our understanding is not complete. The reasons for
      the persistence of fears and suspicions, their incorrigibility and immutability, seem inexplicable.
      It is as if a strange growth had invaded the thinking processes and distorted them. Thinking is a
      vivid, moving, dynamic process, changing and adapting in contact with reality And it is precisely
      these aspects, this alertness and dynamism, which cease in the delusionary process.

      Thinking as Contact with Reality

      The animal lives and moves in a passive world. The human being lives and moves in an active
      world. His senses transmit a passive picture of reality, but from these fragments he structures his
      own picture of the reality situation. Active and passive reality are interacting, related to each
      other. Without this interaction man is lost. This creates the constant need for accounting for both
      realities, for continually gathering new experiences. This constant process of orientation,
      confrontation and constant contact with reality is evidenced in the erect posture of man. Unlike
      the animal, man walks erect and faces reality. It is only tinder these conditions that the
      continuous interrelationship between the inspecting subject and the object can be maintained.
      This relationship is the basis for our relative and temporary knowledge.
      Thinking is that process which enables us to come to terms with reality. Through trial and error
      the subject gradually comes closer to the object and both subject and object undergo change as a
      result of this interrelationship. This dialectic process of interrelated development of man and
      world shapes the remaining elements of human culture and civilization.

      Limitations of the Psychologist

      In judging delusions and mass-delusions the psychologist studies the biological phenomenon of
      human thought, which, at the same time is his own instrument of research. Only one’s own
      thinking can evaluate that of others. It is an unfortunate limitation of the method that one’s own
      thinking might reasonably form the nucleus for further study. The necessary circularity of the
      operation in the study of delusions, therefore, poses a paradox which in its essence excludes the
      subjectmatter from philosophy and formal logic.
      But having faced this, it is not proposed that the subject be dropped here. It has been shown most
      convincingly that delusion and mass delusion do exist, that they are dangerous and persuasive.
      The psychological approach, however imperfect, is urgent. Straight human thinking is in danger
      and will remain in danger until the nature of delusion and mass-delusion is understood.
      Philosophy, logic and the science of critical knowledge have investigated man’s thoughts since
      the time of the ancient Greeks. They provide us with a wealth of subject matter, rules and
      methods which will be valuable in our psychological approach. However, we do not propose
      only to judge specific thoughts or rules by which “good” thoughts may be told from “bad”, but
      rather to study the process of thinking as such. The subject matter of the psychology of thinking,
      unlike the science of philosophy, is the science of stupidity, of delusion and illusion, of the
      capriciousness of thought.

      Our Thought is Capricious

      During the past few years we have witnessed ages of science and critical thinking melt like snow
      in the sun as a result of mass feelings. The process was the same as the formation of affective
      delusions. The sense of reality dwindled before mass feeling and delusion.
      Politically inspired fictions penetrate science and philosophy. Systems of thought provide masks
      and justifications for brute drives and lust for power. We vaguely sense that desire and instinct
      are masked behind “logic”. Mental tricks are easily substituted for “logic” and out of the
      multifarious logical possibilities we tend to choose those most compatible with our own desires.
      How can we be taught to distrust this self-satisfying pseudo-philosophy? How deep is the
      relation between thinking and lying? We like to impress ourselves with words and thoughts and
      then to hide behind those very words. The animal is always true in his affections, the human
      being, however, selects some parts of reality while others, ignored or denied, fade into obscurity.
      We are forever expressing, hiding, demonstrating, charging, exaggerating and selecting. Much
      so-called “healthy” thinking hides hypocritical demonstration. And what is referred to as
      independent thinking is an unconscious transference and reproduction of the ideas of others.
      Small wonder that we have grown suspicious of “logic”, especially when people emphasize their
      clear and logical thinking.

      SECTION TWO

      The old logic, the science which first sought to provide us with immutable laws for sound
      deductive reasoning, was grounded in the conviction that the thought processes were identical in
      all persons. Even the “possible” fallacies were tabulated and defined. A list of “thoushalt-nots”
      was compiled and as long as truth was dumped into one end of a syllogism truth would
      unfailingly emerge. Socrates is mortal. Thus it was hoped that through discussion differences
      could be resolved.
      In actuality the surface is only scratched. Clear thinking for any sustained period (five minutes,
      for instance) is rare indeed. But for two persons to hold a clear, dispassionate and mutually
      comprehensible discussion, which terminates in absolute agreement, is virtually unknown
      outside the field of mathematics. (And the only reason for the exemption of mathematics is its
      highly hypothetical nature. It is a question of if f I have four apples and if f you have four apples
      then between us we have eight.)
      The main single reason that the old logic is of little use in resolving differences of opinion is that
      there is no sound method of lighting on a mutually agreeable major premise. Aristotle and the
      logicians of his time were convinced that “all men are mortal” was an immutable truth, whereas
      we of the modern world recognize that all the data is not yet in. This is not to be construed as a
      bland dismissal of modern logic, which is even more hypothetical than arithmetic. It simply
      means that from a hypothetical premise one can draw only a hypothetical conclusion, and human
      thinking is rarely carried out on that level. The present world is a chaos of conflicting beliefs, not
      of conflicting hypotheses. It is not a mere question of “all men are mortal” but whether “this is
      better than that” or “that is strategically unsound” or “he is an evil man”. A living logic sufficient
      for the purposes of psychology must be equipped to deal with moral and qualitative judgments.
      Not only are ideas subjective but so are the words that express them. The word “evil” alone has a
      separate connotation for each person who sees, hears or speaks it.
      Fortunately, there tends to be general agreement in practice on the meaning of some of our more
      common words. Webster-or rather the brothers Merriam-define the word “chair” as “a seat,
      usually movable, for one person. It usually has four legs and a back, and may have arms.” Quite
      involved arguments may be constructed around this definition. Everything seems to be optional
      except that it shall hold only one person. Is an upended box a chair? We may argue
      (teleologically) that it is not, because it was not constructed for that purpose, but then neither are
      those cut-down and upholstered beer-barrels one falls into! Or we may argue (functionally) that
      anything becomes a chair when it is used as such. This of course immediately involves small
      tables, foot-stools, radiators and so on. But happily, one may yet use the word chair witch
      presupposes certain basic ideas or evidences on which unprovable ideas may be built (as in
      mathematics, complex conclusions). Thus, thinking, with the human being as the engineer,
      becomes an intelligent construction. Everyone utilizes these unconscious thought constructions
      of which analogies and syllogisms are a part.
      Conversations and discussions are understandable as long as they stem from similar premises.
      The technique of reasoning, however, results in constant error and chaos. Wrong analogies are
      constantly drawn.

      Circular Reasoning

       

      Man’s present forms of aggressive argumentation and verbal seduction approach the comical.
      Not only do we pretend not to be aggressive, we go so far as to assert that our aggression is
      nothing but a higher expression of civilization. It was precisely this argument that the oppressor
      of our country (Holland) used against us. While our country was plundered and our freedom
      destroyed, the Nazis asserted that we were being ushered into the European heaven. Most
      arguments accomplish little beyond stating their own falseness. One supposes what one has to
      prove, and reasoning moves in a circle. It is like the story of the accused dishonest borrower,
      who attempted to prove before the court, first, that he had never borrowed anything, second, that
      he had received it in bad shape, and finally, that he had returned it long ago and did not owe a
      thing.

      The premise includes what one wishes to prove (petitio principii). In the same way, the
      tyrannical aggressor argued that bombardment of an open, peaceful, neutral town like Rotterdam
      was an emergency measure perpetrated for the benefit of the people oppressed by democracy.
      Constant repetition imbues this argumentative sophistry with more and more suggestive power.
      The vicious circle is only too well-known. As far back as Greek antiquity, a clear distinction was
      drawn between everyday reasoning permeated with incorrect syllogisms and analogies and a
      pure thinking which is conscious of itself and aware of its limitations. The latter produces
      philosophical derivatives of a qualitatively superior order. The clear statement of a problem
      encourages this advanced treatment.

      Psychology and Logic

       

      The psychologist is required to familiarize himself with both types of thinking. He approaches
      the process of thinking differently than the
      philosopher, for he finds that overemphasis on logic weakens man’s links to reality. Life is not
      clearly logical and simply determined, for such logic prevails only in the rule-ridden world of the
      insect. The psychologist cannot subscribe to the superstition of logical thought. Ideas spring forth
      illogically. Idle play, sleep and other partially-aware states are fertile soil in which ideas
      germinate. The determination to think logically is not sufficient for production of thought; the
      mind requires the motoric power of passion to produce. Man opposes logic when he cannot profit
      from it, hence a scrupulous application of laws of logic is no adequate guide for the solution of
      life’s problems. Logic only assists in the avoidance of major errors. Kant defined comprehension
      as the solution of a problem to that extent to which it is adequate for our purposes. The logic of
      the moron is brought forth as unconsciously as the clear systematic thinking of Hegelian
      philosophy.
      The psychologist allows riddles to exist. He opposes the fiction that phenomena demand an
      immediate explanation. All logical reasoning was produced as much by impressions and
      suggestions as logical rules. Logic presupposes a world made tangible by hand and idea, a world
      in need of coordination and selection. Logic can only prevail in a stable world. Life, however, is
      forever bypassing logic.
      Psychology studies the inner and outer conditions which determine thinking. Philosophy
      concerns itself with the laws of thinking apart from those conditions. Psychology plays a role in
      those areas where thoughts are still rigidly rooted in the conditions that are responsible for their
      growth. The psychologist looks upon thinking as a biological luxury largely limited to the human
      species. Thinking is a curious biological function, an inhibition of vital functions accompanied
      by a curious self-accounting consciousness. The anatomist Bolk (4) ascribed those peculiar
      inhibitions and retardations of functioning and the special structure of the brain to the erect
      posture of man, his long youth and his never-ceasing play. Because man remained a foetus and
      his physical defenses did not develop and differentiate, as for instance in the ape, his forebrain
      had the opportunity to develop as a useful instrument of consciousness. Foetalization and
      retardation provide the opportunity for thinking.

      Thinking as a Foetal Luxury

       

      Man, homo sapiens, does not throw himself impulsively upon his prey, but has the capacity for
      restraint which is a function of his reflective organ. Many scholastic philosophers will shudder at
      the follies written by this philosophic outsider. The guns and tanks and planes, however, jump
      their prey and leave philosophy in rags. Today’s world bears dramatic proof of thought as a
      reaction to the occurrences of the day. We get more and more “liberated” from the serene period
      of isolated scientific thinking which preceded the first World War. Today we are forced, nolens
      volens, to take a stand toward the events around us. It did not take Hitler long to convert many an
      idealistic philosopher into a spokesman for his madness.
      Thinking as a Social Function
      Thinking is a social instrument. We think and speak to someone, in relation to others. Thought is
      unconscious speech and communication. We must speak, even if only to the trees. Not until
      recently has the intellect become so aware of its social function of thought. It had remained aloof
      from wisdom and peace, power and wealth. Intelligence and technical thought were available for
      the highest bidder. They were at the service of drives and instincts, negligent of their social and
      harmonizing function. Thinking is a multifarious instrument with roots and stimuli in all organs,
      instincts and emotions.

      Thinking is an attitude of the organism as a whole. Feeling and willing, striving and acting,
      cannot be differentiated from the reactive and reflective organism.
      The psychologist has to try to unravel our complex split world of platonic fictitious thought and
      unguided animal action.

      SECTION THREE

      Adjustment by Retarded Reflection

       

      Comparative psychology teaches us that the higher mammals still live in a world of pure
      sensations. Nevertheless, a primitive synthesis of sensations and new responsive actions does
      function, namely the socalled conglomerate of conditioned reflexes. The reflex, however, occurs
      without reflection, without the knowledge of knowing. This should immediately brake the action.
      Unlike lower animals, however, the mammal is able to adjust to a new environment. The insect
      is almost completely bound to its innate rigid instinctual actions. The insect remains chained to
      the reflexes brought about by the stimuli of the outside world. Only the highest mammal, the
      human being can synthesize the different sensations with his own observations and create the
      distinction between an inner world-the subject-and an outer world-the object. The insect can
      adjust only in the most limited way, that is, it can survive in a world already geared to its innate
      potentialities. The mammal, by means of the conditioned reflex, has the capacity for growing and
      changing adjustment. Man alone, with forethought, afterthought, self-reflection and selfobservation
      at his disposal, can achieve an almost unlimited adjustment to his environment. His
      mind is an organ of adjustment. More effective than innate and conditioned reflexes, it teaches
      the organism to adjust itself to changed circumstances. The organism is free to select its form of
      adjustment. Consciousness of its aim determines the selection of stimuli. The instinct can adjust
      rapidly but is limited in scope. Thinking adjusts gradually but is unlimited.
      Man is most adapted for adjustment to reality. Man, therefore, can also fear, anticipate and
      tolerate more than any other organism. Thinking is the retarding and tolerating process.
      Via its sensations the animal is in continuous and direct communication with the outside world.
      Man, however, opposes, confronts the outside world.
      Once reflection has been liberated from sensation and representation, it becomes pure and
      independent thinking. Thinking must be planned and be productive; it must be regulated and
      directed toward an adjustment and a real aim-thinking has to reflect something. Representations
      and feelings weaken thinking and regress it to the level of animal dependency on accidental
      impulses. Love makes us blind. Due to hormonal action people in love revert to magical
      thinking. The adult tackling of reality is supplanted by reflex actions springing from direct
      communication with a limited world.
      On one hand, thinking widens the distance between man and his physical universe; on the other,
      it bends him toward it and sharpens his conception of reality. Thinking observes the personal
      struggle, observes the disentanglement of the biological chains and biological indispensabilities.

      Thinking as a Function

       

      Thinking is a developing function. Every thought process integrates previous and lower
      processes. Thinking is the function of growing consciousness and self-enlightenment. It is the
      instrument of readaptation. It is the ripening of prejudices into judgments. Man is never
      completely conscious but is always progressing toward complete consciousness, that is, toward a
      better adjusted approach to himself and reality. The growth of consciousness signifies the
      capacity of the organism to contemplate and confront reality.
      Man gradually rouses himself from somnambulistic slumber to a waking contact with reality.
      Without difficulty, however, he slips back into sleepwalking and automatisms. Man can sleep
      with his eyes wide open without ever taking account of himself.
      A few men become seeing prophets and show us a new reality. Most people, however, remain in
      a sleeping state having hardly opened their eyes. The thinking of others does not benefit us no
      matter how great its stature may be. Only our own readiness to think and verify for ourselves, to
      attack new problems benefits us. The ability of the thinker to put forth his thoughts demands the
      courage to doubt old truths and correct threadbare thoughts.
      Thinking, as stated above, is coming to grips with reality. It is the probing and searching of
      reality with accepted propositions and the reshaping and reformulation of these where they no
      longer serve adequately. This coming to terms with reality takes place with an aim in mind,
      namely, the reshaping of reality. Interest and self-interest direct the thoughts, and thinking,
      however imperfect, is motivated movement toward a goal. This reshaping of reality takes place
      even under the most tragic circumstances. In concentration camps one of the first deeds was to
      rebuild the reality following some simple symbolic schemes, a womb, a house, some cozy
      corner; it was the only way to cope with the circumstances.
      All psychological thinking implies identification with its object of study. It presupposes the
      feeling of oneness with the object of research. It feels itself a part of it. Because of its failure to
      grasp with care, psychology runs the risk of faulty observations. Its aims compel psychology to
      take this risk.
      Since the thinking process implies memory and conscience, it requires the capacity for gathering
      and judging observed data. Thinking is the process of internal observation and selection of
      sensations, experiences, memories, judgments and evaluations to serve the purpose of a thoughtaim.
      Von Monakow (19), the well-known Swiss neuropsychiatrist, referred in his book on
      hallucinations, to this judging, adopting and selecting instance as the beginning of moral
      conscience. Thinking aims at the stabilization of man grappling with reality. Without loving
      reality, we cannot cope with it. The original love we received from our environment made us
      accept its norms and value judgments, shaped our conscience (superego) and now demands an
      accounting for reality.

      Thinking, then, consists of imaginative action and selection, a regulation of impressions and
      sensations with an aim in view. The psychologist refers to an intentional thinking “act”, apart
      from all content of thoughts.

      Thinking as an Ambivalent Function

       

      Thinking, as much as speaking, is an ambivalent function. Thinking is the effort to acquire
      knowledge and is at the same time an intellectual play facilitating escape from the riddles of the
      world. Thinking is both a cognitive function and an active imaginative process which shapes a
      private, secluded world. It is simultaneous approach to and flight from reality, submission to
      nature and worship of idols.

      Thinking and Feeling

      The gradually expanding consciousness liberates itself slowly from the partly conscious, partly
      unconscious receptive world of feelings. Feeling is the partly conscious experiencing of
      emotions. Feeling is a reaction to the outer world directed by instincts. Every such reaction has
      components of pleasure and displeasure, depending on the impressions from without and drives
      from within. An impression without feeling does not exist; an impression without thinking does
      not exist. An impression is always partially an observation. Feeling and thinking are the
      inseparable function of becoming conscious.

      Nevertheless, a continual polarity between thinking and feeling exists. I use my intelligence in
      certain instances and follow my feelings in others.
      Thinking implies placing oneself in opposition to the world, yet acting with that world,
      conceiving that world. It implies choice, selection, arrangement, placement and active motion.
      Our impressions and reactions to the outside world and our relation to it are expressed in various
      terms of evaluations. Certain evaluations are directly dependent on the impact of the outside
      world. Scheler (17) referred to these as sense feelings, or reality feelings. Ego-feelings, or
      spiritual feelings, on the other hand, are much more dependent upon evaluations of the central
      selecting and judging instance, the thinking ego. Thinking becomes a function sufficient unto
      itself, apart and independent from reality, while feelings always maintain some relationship with
      this outside reality, however inappropriate they may be.

      This latent dichotomy between feeling and thinking leads to erroneous assumptions. The human
      being needs the harmony of both a thinking and a feeling reality-response. The human being
      cannot permit over-evaluated affects to suffocate the intellect, or the biting intellect to kill the
      warm feeling. This is the explanation the psychologist provides for the split-personality
      prototype.

      Thinking and feeling constantly alternate. Certain neurotic persons substitute thought for feeling.
      One cannot only think but must feel at the same time; man has to experience the world with all
      layers of his personality. In our period of civilization our feelings about many things are even
      more difficult to accept than our thoughts about them. Who, conscious of his moods, can accept
      and be happy with them? Fascism has taught us how destructive the solely emotional basis of
      thinking can be.

      Thinking and Intellect

      Consciousness grows out of observation, regulation, schematization, planning, abstraction-the
      polishing and chiseling of all these component functions to a thought-picture. There is a
      tendency to shape and fix such a picture instead of maintaining its mobility and vividness.
      Thinking actions tend to become rigid systems in the service of narrow aims. Man has a
      tendency to repeat his primary actions even when they are failures. The same phenomenon
      occurred with the unhappy laboratory dogs of Pavlov. The trained functional and useful reflex
      (conditioned reflex) became a useless automatism. Productive thinking is extension of the first
      thought and first deed to further suppositions and possibilities.
      Intellect comprises not only the analytical research quality, but the vivid ability to search for a
      new aim and broaden the scope. The higher animals, too, act intelligently; that is, they adapt
      speedily to a new situation. Man, however, because of his eccentric position in the world, has
      special opportunities for developing his intellect. Vivid intellect, however, can regress to rigid
      automatisms and so resemble the innate instinct patterns. In man every automatism and rigid
      behavior pattern can revert again to a new adjustment. If this were not so, neurosis would be
      inaccessible to treatment.
      Beyond the analytic, selective function, intellect is the vivacity and spiritual potency of life.
      Intellect becomes vulnerable when no personality is developed to fortify it. The cultural
      acquisition of intellectuals is easily paralyzed by terror and fear when character falters.
      Character, its potency, and the stable personality it provides for mental functioning is more
      important in society than a purely analytical intellect. This we could observe among the people
      who formed the resistance movement. The pure intelligentsia stayed away. In a fullgrown
      personality feeling and thinking harmonize with each other.
      The analytical part of the intellect, the selecting and sifting capacity, is forever hesitant. It
      opposes all that is accepted. It welcomes discussion and dialectic research. It breaks the spell of
      old thought concepts and paves the way for the spontaneous, creative function of the intellect.
      Unintelligence implies an inability to change, a rigid adherence to the same pattern, enslavement
      to habit.
      Intellect can remain the sterile tool for selection and correction, the mere librarian of observed
      data. It can be creative only so long as it remains active, charged by the live personality.
      Out of his delusions of greatness, man overestimated the technical intellect and neglected the
      instinctive, creative power that propelled it. The supertechnical surgeon, however, is helpless
      without the instinctual regenerative forces. Those forces heal the wounds inflicted by his tools. In
      every human being there dwells an instinctual unconscious technician operating outside the
      conscious functions. This formative intelligence, which makes or breaks us, can be studied by
      different methods beside the usual ones of psychoanalysis.

      Pseudo-Intellect

       

      We still tend to evaluate all labor of the mind as intellect instead of the thinking potency behind
      it. The human being comes into the world a bare, unprotected and unadapted animal, who can be
      subjected to various forms of training. He may even be made an imitative, mechanical thinking
      automaton. An intellectual is not necessarily a personality. On the one hand, training has created
      pedants, students, servile clerks-mental engineers who fall easy prey to the economically and
      mentally powerful. This form of imitative intellect is as much for sale as the labor of our hands
      and the power of our muscles. On the other hand scholarly training may make independent free
      thinkers of people who are forced to reorientate themselves as soon as they stand before a new
      situation. The real power of thinking is not imitation.
      The over-development of technique and pseudo-intellect creates the myth that special training in
      a certain school or college produces more valuable personalities. The development of character
      and personality is subordinate to scholastic and technical achievement; to diplomas and report
      cards. The quiz can become a fatal instrument of education.
      The last war taught us the danger inherent in the mass production of pseudo-intellectuals. They
      failed to resist overwhelming fatal emotions and capitulated to every outside mental power.
      Knowledge and philosophy were controlled by the blackjack. Many of the “intelligentsia”,
      emotionally dissatisfied and disgruntled, surrendered to traitors and tyrants who ruled by
      intellectually-rationalized brutality.

      Previous Theory of Delusions

       

      Analysis reveals that instinct and affect, memory and conscience, are the roots of the thinking
      function. Love and hate penetrate our thinking and stimulate it to demonical activity. Gradually it
      becomes stripped of affects, but it cannot survive without feeling. Thinking loses its potency and
      contact when thoughts become isolated; one set point of view obscures all others. In our world
      too much is thought and not enough is felt. Thinking is stripped of its instinctual basis.
      Delusion is a regression or isolation of the thinking function. It is either the dominance of archaic
      instinctual forms of thinking or the isolation of consciousness, the autonomy of thoughts without
      feelings. Delusion seeps gradually into the thinking function. It begins with a basis of truth, but
      the persistent error gradually supplants reality to such an extent that it is impervious.
      Feeling must never he without thinking, thinking never without feeling. If either of these
      functions gains autonomy the individual loses his consciousness of and contact with reality.
      Our science of thought has as yet failed to detach itself from the Aristotelian concept of one way
      of thinking. The science of physics was dominated by the same misconception until the period of
      the renaissance. It is regrettable that the experimental inquiry into thought processes is such a
      difficult procedure. (The Rorschach test has taught us a great deal about the relation between
      thinking and feeling and psychoanalysis has clarified the role of the unconscious.) I want this
      essay to be limited to the phenomenology of deluded thinking under normal circumstances.
      Delusions are incorrigible ideas for which many normal men are willing to die.

      Delusion as Substitute

      Let us first understand that delusion is inherent in normal thinking. The delusion treated by
      psychiatrists belongs to the same thinking process, but is fortified by pathological disturbances of
      the psychosomatic organism. ‘

      Thinking can be ruled by anarchy to such an extent that any formulation
      of ideas becomes impossible. The unconscious content of our thoughts may overwhelm our
      logical consciousness. The dream is the moot normal example of this phenomenon of delusion.
      In all growing’processes of consciousness man reaches a limit. Beyond that limit thinking ends
      and faith begins: Credo quia absurdum. Delusion is a substitute belief. It is the enforcement of
      certainty instead of the acceptance of uncertainty. Delusion is the fear of uncertainty, of
      hesitation and skepticism. Just as the “idee fixe” defends the human being against the small
      vaccilations of life, the delusion defends us against the great leap into the obscure and unknown.
      Every acceptance of limits implies an obscure and unknown. Superstition is also a substitute for
      faith, it is a collective delusion, a remnant from previous magical and mythical conceptions of
      life. Delusion is the fear of realistic, critical thinking, the kind of thinking which is subject to
      criticism from without and the criticism from within that illuminates one’s own subjective
      notions.

      Hallucinations

       

      The hallucination is a regression to a genetically older mode of feeling and observation in which
      ego and world are not yet distinct entities. This archaic orientation toward and contact with the
      outside world is dependent on functional disturbances of several organsystems. Otherwise it
      occurs only among children and primitive people. Since reality contact is disturbed, most of the
      hallucinations are the result of a chaotic projection of memory-pictures (engrams). (13)
      When man is possessed by an overwhelming emotion, he immediately may hallucinate its
      possible causes. Fear produces hallucinations even more easily. The exhausted soldier on the
      battlefield envisions every automobile noise as an aerial attack of the enemy. Every social
      formation has its own collective illusions, hallucinations, revived images and primitive
      representations. These collective conceptions are never subject to discussion but only to blind
      acceptance. Every form of rite and suggestive training enforces these collective images. Many a
      member of such a collective can never be freed of such an unconscious, enforced image. In the
      delusion we become familiar with a similar process.

      Thinking that Withdraws from Reality

       

      Janet was one of the first to call the attention of psychology to the reality function (fonction du
      reelle). He speaks of a mental tension and force in. man, the highest perfection of which is the
      reality-function. When this tension diminishes certain mental characteristics disappear. The first
      to weaken is the capacity for adjustment to changing reality. The immediate experience of,
      insight into and enjoyment of reality is a highly differentiated and vulnerable mental activity.
      Mature man, confronting reality, must have an alert adjustment.
      “Carpe diem” is a vulnerable function. Most people’s enjoyment is only the memory of
      experiences, the recounting of these to others. They are too exhausted to enjoy the supreme
      moment. They take snapshots of their experiences and relive them through the photograph
      album. “Kodakomania” is a form of mental ennui. But thinkers and dreamers, too, who withdraw
      into meditation are among those who cannot bear the tensions of reality. Escape into a system, or
      dogma relieves them of all tension. Their vague idealism bears an “as if” touch of reality. They
      withdraw into the abstraction, the isolated reality, the extraordinary.

      Learnedness

      Eventually we may prefer learnedness to wisdom. The learned and strange holds for us a magic
      fascination before which, like children, we bow. Learnedness grasps only that which has already
      developed and become rigid; it can never, however, follow the continuous stream of
      development. It is often a mixture of undeveloped wisdom and lust for power. The learned man
      is distracted and lacks contact with living reality. His system of thinking is a facade for inner
      doubt. His scientific display is often a well-regulated collection of plagiarisms.
      It should now be easy to understand that conceit and partial delusion result from the loss of
      continuous, alert, and lively contact with reality. The study of these problems on a deeper level
      would reveal that these delusions and hallucinations, intensified, relate to the same mental
      disturbances. This essay, however, is concerned with the normal, rather than the pathological
      delusion.

      Delusionary thinking can be called the continuation of primitive thinking without the correction
      by self-reflection. It is a withdrawal from reality. In all civilized thinking, however, these forms
      of thinking persist.

      SECTION FOUR

      The Development of Thinking

      To understand the above statement, we have to give up the dogma of identical thinking in all
      human minds. We may say that the more purified and technically trained thinking is, the more
      identical it becomes. Unconsciously the different laws of logic are accepted. The more primitive
      thinking is, the more confused feelings it contains and the less identical it is. It is possible,
      nevertheless, to study the general development of thought. It was analytical psychology which
      first called our attention to the gradually evolving relation to reality. The following stages in the
      development of a sense of reality may be distinguished (7).
      First is the phase of intrauterine development, preceding birth, in which there can be little more
      than a feeling of satisfied omnipotence. There is no noxious outside world.
      The stage of magic-hallucinatory potency follows birth. The child has the feeling of knowing and
      directing all. No distinction between an inner and outer world is drawn.
      This phase is succeeded by initial attempts at conquest of the outside world with magic gestures.
      The child tries to command the world within his reach by pointing at it with his hands. Children
      feel that ideas are tangible and plastic. By keeping their lips stiffly closed they withhold evil
      thoughts. They also imbue inanimate objects with life. When they get hurt by bumping against a
      table, it is the table which beats them.

      Out of this gestural thinking develops an uncritical animistic thinking, in which self-qualities are
      projected upon the outside world. All inanimate objects have a soul and no distinction between
      dead and alive is made. This thinking has a passive nature; thoughts are experienced as
      personified actions in which father, mother and siblings are the actors. Mythology is filled with
      such personifications. The adult, too, creates his personified delusions.

      The following stage of magic thought is more active. It is a form of primitive strategy in which
      the spirits of objects are not only passively accepted but manipulated. The magic action attempts
      to seduce the spirits and to command them. The inner and outer world grow apart and magic
      thoughts are used to maintain contact between the two.

      After the phase of imaginary omnipotence a change takes place. Unlimited power is granted not
      to the ego but to the outside world. In the games of children, every toy can become a symbol of
      parental power. Gradually this power and influence are incorporated and conscience is shaped by
      the penetration and incorporation of social values.

      In these early stages of thinking the main influences emanate from the outer world. They
      overwhelm the thinking subject. His feeling of loss and helplessness is the same that we
      experience when we feel ourselves part of a mass. The regressed thinking of many psychotics
      reflects a similar experience; everything in the mind is experienced as an influence from outside.
      Archaic thinking is an almost wordless thinking, a kind of dream thinking and sinking away unto
      unconsciousness.

      In totemistic thinking a symbolic displacement has already taken place. Good or bad spirits are
      represented or symbolized by a totem. In this projective thinking one’s own power, misery and
      cruelty is transferred and attributed to the totem. The totem, the sacred animal, for instance, is the
      feared animal.

      The confession to pure reality, the “adequatio cum re”, the acknowledgment of preoccupation
      and prejudice of all wishing and thinking is the final phase of consciousness of reality.
      Nevertheless, it accepts responsibility for its limitations.

      It takes some time before an independent judging ego is shaped, free from observations and
      images. The first ego is the product of observation rather than an independent entity. Primitive
      thinking is primarily affective thinking. The ego judges immediately under the influence of an
      observation and emotion. Only gradually this subjective form of thinking adjusts itself to reality.
      In adult thinking the archaic illusion of almighty power may lead to self-overestimation and
      egocentricity.

      The evolution of individual thinking is paralleled in the growth of civilization.

      Archaic or Primitive Thinking

      During the last few decades primitive thinking has been subjected to careful study. This is due
      not only to progress in the fields of ethnology and anthropology, but also to the realization that
      analogous forms of thinking could be found in children, psychotics and the unconscious of every
      human mind. The idea has also developed that the difference between civilized and primitive
      thinking is one of degree. Many present primitive societies are the descendants of formerly
      civilized peoples.

      Primitive thought is not less logical than mature thought. Sensual experiences, however, are less
      adequately controlled and the reaction is a far more emotional one. The primitive confronts the
      world with more affectivity. He lives in a world o£ continually existing fear toward which he is
      constantly alerted. Constant tension prevails between himself and his environment. His feelings
      are more explosive, his actions more instinctive. Modern man of the Atomic Age shares the same
      attitudes to some extent.

      The European of the Middle Ages was still a man of uncontrolled emotionality. His actions were
      affect-ruled. The mourner was paralyzed 1>y sorrow for weeks; the sad man displayed his
      feelings with theatrical complaints. Collective hallucinations and delusions were experienced
      with greater ease (20). Collective myths, alive in all, came to the fore more easily.
      Primitive thinking is not subject to argumentation and correction and is almost insensitive to
      experience. If it fails to coincide with the reality situation, its errors are ascribed to mysterious
      influences from without. The primitive easily resorts to pretexts and magic forces to explain his
      failure. Hidden qualities take precedence over actual ones.
      The primitive rejects logic. B may be equal to A or not, depending on the wishes of strange
      powers. The archaic thinking is concept- and habit-bound. It is dominated by the images and
      emotions of the collectivity, which easily abandons logic. Its own rules are elementary and
      infinite in power.

      The archaic psyche has an unlimited memory. It is comparable to our own subconscious. The
      primitive man is familiar with a large quantity of images and words. His language, usually more
      complex than our own, does not combine word pictures to form abstractions. What he thinks he
      sees, he sees. That is why he lives in a hallucinated world. Affect and drive rule his observations.
      A vague feeling, a superficial resemblance, an insignificant totem carry more meaning than
      generalized concepts. Man, animal and inanimate object bear mystical relationships to each
      other. The world is colored with subjective expectation and the expectations are hallucinated.
      Primitive conception of life supposes a “mystic participation” existing between man, animal and
      inanimate object.

      When the primitive comes into contact with an ominous totem, he may die of fear. In his prelogical
      form of thinking no distinction between conscious and unconscious is made. Primitives
      dream aloud, so to speak. The fearful dream becomes reality; unpleasant reality is fantasied
      away. In Northern Borneo, all dreams are interpreted as real. The man who dreams that his wife
      is unfaithful to him has the right to disown her.

      Identifying or Magic Thinking

       

      In primitive societies a man does not live far apart from his fellows. A relationship of common
      fate and mutual thought pervades primitive community life. The thoughts of one member of the
      tribe, for instance, can endanger the entire community. The word as such has suggestive and
      destructive power. The victor who slays an enemy is imbued with the power of the dead man.
      The Dajaks in Borneo believed that the decapitation of their enemies would fortify them with the
      power of the killed. One is what one possesses.
      The artistic remnants of pre-historical man are interpreted as examples of magic thinking. The
      pre-historic hunter inscribed his prey on a rock wall so as to gather greater power. Creative art
      was a magic action performed as a symbolic conquest of future prey. Our unconscious is still
      permeated with magic archaic power. The twentieth century slave is too dependent on his
      technical intellect to show concern for his magic, yet a Teutonic magician restored him to a stage
      of collective madness. The economic logic of our time has rejected all magic and fears the
      untouchable possibilities of long forgotten worlds. It does not dare to live side by side with the
      shadows of long ago.
      Yet all objective knowledge preserves the magic experience of unity. Every higher form of
      thinking embodies earlier forms.

      Participating Thinking

      There are many causes for regression to primitive thinking. Terror and persecution, slavery and
      famine can reverse high civilization to more primitive modes of mentality. Recall the extinct
      Negro civilizations of central Africa, the civilizations of the Mayas and Aztecs. Even more
      clearcut are the many examples of primitive thinking we find in our own present-day society.
      We call participating thinking (mystic participation) (12) that form of identificatory thinking that
      accepts no difference between inner thought and physical occurrence. This form of thinking
      assumes that inner thoughts precipitate a change in our fellow beings and even in inanimate
      objects. Every thought wields influence. Our prayers are reminiscent of that type of thinking.
      Thinking implies active participation in collective events. Barriers between individuals are
      nonexistent, and each individual participates in the thinking of the entire world. Growing
      consciousness, however, opposes reality as critical judge and observer. The public in the theater
      considers itself a participant In In the dramatic action.

      Participation Through Isolation of Culture

      Participating thinking spreads if the community remains isolated. We shall see how this may
      cause mass delusions in a modern civilization.
      In a closed circle of conversation some magic participating thinking occurs.
      The same type of thinking goes on within a school or university. Students preserve the thinking
      of their school years. Even the scholar experiences difficulty in liberating himself from the
      suggestion of his philosophical instructor.

      Participating-thinking imbues life with all kinds of rites. Without these, the world would not be
      what it is. We experience this clearly with the thinking of the Malayan people among whom a
      general feeling of spiritual participation prevails. Everyone is invested with a soul, whether dead
      or alive. Everything is imbued with good or evil forces. The man who covers his dagger with
      saliva thus makes it part of himself and assures his own immunity. In Java people open doors and
      chests to facilitate the birth of a child. The world is a magic helper in everything that affects the
      individual. Similar concepts survive in popular medical superstition. The weak child is made to
      eat horse. meat and drink oxblood. The father partakes of the medicine when his child is ill. The
      newborn infant is protected from future trouble by burial of the placenta and so forth.
      In the periphery of our consciousness participating thinking lives on The most acutely critical
      person experiences moments of vague and relaxed meditation in which archaic forms of thinking
      come to the fore together with day dreams and half-dreams in which no differentia- tion between
      object and subject is made. In sleeping and dreaming the archaic world takes complete
      possession of us.

      Mythical Thinking

      Man likes to live in myth. He converts his fatherland into a legend a beautiful fairy tale. He
      speaks of the old European liberalism an( the new American democracy while he by-passes
      reality with all its subtleties.
      As part of a mass, as members of a crowd, our identifications and
      participations come to the fore with greater ease. The meeting of a former schoolmate
      immediately precipitates patterns of former studentthinking; adolescent thoughts are reactivated,
      we relive the beautiful myth of our youth.

      Identification in Thinking

      As the native identifies with the totem in his group, so do more civilized groups identify with
      their subtly concealed totems. If our home town is subjected to criticism we spring to its defense.
      We identify with our school, our town, our country. At a meeting in which this topic of disguised
      identification was discussed a philosopher debated rather indignantly: “My Groningen-heart is
      revolted.” In his criticism he had identified with the theories of his university. We identify with
      our countries, our climates, our class, with the layer of the population to which we belong and
      with its way of thinking. We identify especially with our possessions. The more we possess, the
      more difficult it becomes for us to renounce either the possessions as such or the theories which
      justify our having them.
      Certain remnants of archaic thinking permeate our daily existence. Take, for instance, “lese
      majeste”. It is a rather primitive conception that damage to the name or damage to the picture
      implies damage to the person himself. The magic man lives on within us.
      A preconceived idea, a rooted, fixed way of thinking is often such a remnant. It is as if archaic
      thinking continued to contaminate our well-adjusted system of thought.
      There exists a refined form of identifying thinking. To empathize or sympathize with another is
      impossible without this thought process. The serious psychologist has to utilize this process to
      familiarize himself with his fellow human beings. Psychology, therefore, maintains certain
      aspects of a magic science. Such thinking processes, however, are of slight value to the physical
      scientists.

      False Figurative Language

      Since our daily language so frequently resorts to allegory and figurative speech, we can assume
      that man feels a tremendous need for identification. Whenever we are anxious to prove
      something, we refer to an analogous case. These analogies, which play on feeling rather than
      logic, are dangerous for our thinking. A political speech, for instance, can overwhelm and
      narcotize by a flood of suggestive pictures and allegories. When our feelings are aroused we lose
      our critical ability and insight and reactivate earlier, incorrect concepts of reality. False figurative
      language dims our thinking.

      The Dictatorship of Imagery

      In primitive thinking as well as in our trained twentieth century mind imagery plays an almost
      dictatorial role. Ask a philosopher to walk the plank over an abyss-as Pascal proposed-and he
      will hesitate as much as the child who has no reason. The imagined risk defies all logic.
      Images and representations exert a formative influence on our organism; they are creative
      thoughts. Wrong and good images act deeply on our biological being and produce organic
      reactions. The science of hypnosis teaches us these facts.
      Contemporary life overwhelms the human brain with the most chaotic impressions and images.
      Propaganda and advertisement, the manifold forms of distractions create such chaos of
      impressions that logic can no longer find its way. Man has become hypersensitive to suggestion.
      We are grateful to anyone who takes us in hand and clears our path through the chaos of our
      thoughts and images.

      Wishful Thinking

      The subjective wish as well directs our thinking. Our daydreams and undefined wishes are
      forever misinterpreting reality. There is chaos in our thinking. Sorrow and defeat and all other
      emotions are continuously playing on the direction of our thoughts. Pride and bitterness revolve
      our thoughts in an eternal vicious circle.

      Totalitarian Thinking

      Totalitarian or dictatorial thinking is a remnant of archaic times. Objective verification of ideas is
      rejected since no reality beyond the dictatorial opinion exists. The deviant point of view is
      considered dangerous for the weak. Free thought is experienced as a thwarting, hostile force. The
      critical word, the deviating attitude, the non-conformism of one man threatens the clan. The
      individual is only permitted to think with the tribe. Archaic thinking follows what we might call
      an imperialistic strategy. It lulls people to sleep, it resists their consciousness and critical
      confrontation, it suppresses all individual creativity. Totalitarian thinking is identifying thinking;
      it takes account only of totalities and never of parts. Specific and particular forms have no value.
      Only the recurrent and expected is accepted. Man remains one with his people, his land, his race.
      Human evolution, however, breaks the bond between man and his world and places him in
      opposition to it.

      In time of war primitive attitudes come to the fore in all fighters. The individual is only part of an
      organism. The army is hypersensitive to
      criticism. There is no sense of humor-the army offends easily. Blood revenge and collective
      punishments are again made use of. Collectivities are held responsible for the deeds of
      individuals.

      In the highly vulnerable feeling of military honor one finds much archaic thinking. To lose face,
      to be shamed, is equivalent to a beating. The aggressive word demands revenge as much as the
      bullet. Restrictions placed on the topics of discussion by soldiers and enemy aliens are a further
      reflection of the authoritarian attitude.

      Primitive civilizations are more keenly aware of the need for respect of leaders and superiors. In
      Java, for example, a respectful language, devoid of the aggressive and sharp words of everyday
      speech, is used in addressing superiors. In occupied Europe a great many had to learn restraint in
      their speech. Expression of individual thinking was severely punished by the magic Teuton.

      Traditional Thinking

      We find the archaic way of thinking in all forms of traditional thought, rooted in fixed patterns of
      feeling, acting and thinking. Tradition is the continuum of mass action. School already forces
      ideas into the harness of dogma. Only after intense conflict is the personality able to free itself
      from this tradition.
      It is one of the paradoxical tasks of teaching to form fixed patterns of thinking in the student. The
      learning man must first embrace that which is handed down from the past. Beyond this, however,
      he must be taught to confront and criticize what he has learned. The true school prepares its
      students for free thinking-thinking that is capable of renewing and correcting itself continuously.
      “La tradition, c’est la democratie des morts.”

       

      SECTION FIVE

      Thought and Language

       

      Thought and language are intimately related to each other. All memory of mankind, all tradition,
      are enclosed in language. Language reveals old historical traditions. He who creates new words
      opens up new territories of thought.
      The word raises man above the level of the animal. It provides the
      opportunity for mental contact. Gesture and mimicry are the oldest forms of communication.
      Indians and Greeks made use of a sign language, and remnants of sign language are still found in
      the Javanese dances. But we too use gesture and mimicry subconsciously. At times we use a
      theatrical gesture to make ourselves understood, and a wink, a hidden laugh, a cough, can change
      the meaning of an earnest word.
      In a later phase of development sound and speech become our chief means of communication.
      Timbre, velocity of expression and gesture as well, constantly change the meaning of words.
      Primitive languages express sensual variations and concrete peculiarities with a tremendous
      richness of distinction. They are unfamiliar with the symbolic condensations, displacement and
      transference of meanings, which, for instance, the mathematical sciences use. Hence, primitive
      man must resort to manifold distinctions. He cannot arrive at a general insight-his language
      affords no opportunity for thinking in generalizations. He speaks in a pictorial way, as the poet,
      he identifies in word and gesture with the expressed situation.
      Language-the gradually expanding treasury of words-is always the expression of a special kind
      of thinking. That is why language may block our attempt to attain a purer and better form of
      thinking. Gradually, customary language becomes too limited for special ways of thinking. This
      is why thoughts must continually strive to free themselves from the existing language and must
      create new word symbols in order to express new and better thoughts. With our mother’s milk we
      swallow a special -language and with that language, anchored habits of thought.

      The Language of the Child

       

      The first verbal expression of the child is usually a monosyllabic prattling, much like that of
      animals, used to indicate the aim of his drives. Natural sounds are imitated. The dog is “wuf,
      wuf”, the cat “meow, meow”, etc. Soon the sounds and half-words are utilized as magic strategy.
      When the baby says “fair”, he means chair, give me that chair, I want to do something with that
      chair. The child endows the object with life through the use of the word.
      When babies converse in their broken tongue they do not ask for a logical compromise. They
      talk with no thought of relating the different parts of their conversation. The same abracadabra
      recurs in the language of senile patients.

      The word which was originally attached to the object and considered an integral part of it, later
      becomes endowed with an independent existence of its own. The child begins to grasp that the
      word is a creation of human intelligence. The more keenly he senses that the word belongs to
      him, the more the child is able to free himself of his inner fixation to the rest of the physical
      world.

      As we have already seen, identification with and feeling for someone are the incipient processes
      of reality contact. Without these “human” qualities, deeper communication between beings is
      impossible. However, by naming things, the child partially frees himself of this process of
      identification and acquires the notion of a real world distinct from the “I”. The monosyllabic
      nominative thinking of the child is the beginning of his capacity for confronting reality.
      Word and Intonation

      Our word is a manifold being. Every word evokes visual images from our unconscious. We first
      thought in pictures, later in words. In dreams we revert largely to the world of pictures.
      The pronunciation of words as such changes their meaning. Every word has its significance but
      at the same time its unconscious background. Words are expression, but also disguise. They are a
      living act with peripheral scenes and hidden motives.

      Sound-Languages

      Sound and rhythm often have a more important function than the specific meaning of the word.
      Eros especially colors ordinary words and makes them deep and significant. Would it even be
      possible to write the semantics of the half-words and sounds that people in love use as a means
      of conversation? The murmuring and small names between mother and baby mean words of love
      indescribable in stark definitions.

      There are languages which rely more than others on undefined emotional sounds. German words
      often have more sound than real meaning. Appealing more to mass and sentiment than reason,
      they keep the words caught in ambivalence, suspended between emotion and intellect. It was a
      strange experience to hear the vocal disguise of Goebbels propaganda thrown over one during
      the Nazi-occupation.

      Word-Magic

       

      Words may become magic symbols, condensations of meanings endowed with special power.
      This is seen especially in the rapt, repetitious phrases of the child. The expression of the word
      signifies the attainment of power over the indicated object. Words themselves become powerful.
      During the evolutionary phase of a word especially, during its period of detachment from an
      object, the value of the word and its power become especially great. The words become bold
      flashes of lightning with which one can banish, beat or praise. How many snobs there are, whose
      loaded words tyrannized their surroundings! With a master-word, one can conquer masses.
      The magical quality of the word is greater than most of, us realize. How many of us “touch
      wood” when we express a certain word? We fear that the word with its magic background
      attracts danger.

      This superstitious influence is especially pronounced in vague, undefined words. Their contact
      with the unconscious is closer and they therefore exercise more power. To move the masses one
      has to make use of such vague terms whose real significance defies definition. The therapist uses
      the magic influence of the word when asking the patient to express freely his feelings. The
      verbalization of vague feelings is of great cathartic value.

      The Power of Talk

      Endless talk my conquer fear. One fears silence. Those who least understand the world in which
      they live are its most talkative citizens. Propaganda tries to achieve its aim through endless
      repetition and the constant dinning in of words. The masses like mythical words and the
      sledgehammer blows of windy speeches. Clear expression becomes heresy. The word that
      evokes the most bizarre associations becomes the most beloved. Everyone projects his own
      unfulfilled wishes upon it.

      The preachers of penitence in the Middle Ages were familiar with the suggestive power of
      words. Their word-pictures of hell could transport whole masses into a state of religious ecstasy.
      In our age the loudspeaker has assumed that task.
      People are possessed with a motoric lust for talk. Many dogmas and political theories appeal to
      this motoric lust-pattern. They gratify a universal need for talk which abreacts vague fears rather
      than promoting a real understanding of their message.

      Crypto-Archaisms

       

      It is difficult to free our thinking from hidden archaisms. After the first world war, many cryptoarchaisms
      came again to the fore. There was a preference for the emotional and the ecstatic, the
      elementary and the chaotic. In the field of art, futurism and dadaism were the fads of the day.
      This rebellion against civilized refinements was rationalized with theoretical explanations of the
      respect for the primitive. Jazz was existence of its own. The child begins to grasp that the word is
      a creation of human intelligence. The more keenly he senses that the word belongs to him, the
      more the child is able to free himself of his inner fixation to the rest of the physical world.
      As we have already seen, identification with and feeling for someone are the incipient processes
      of reality contact. Without these “human” qualities, deeper communication between beings is
      impossible. However, by naming things, the child partially frees himself of this process of
      identification and acquires the notion of a real world distinct from the “I”. The monosyllabic
      nominative thinking of the child is the beginning of his capacity for confronting reality.

      Word and Intonation

      Our word is a manifold being. Every word evokes visual images from our unconscious. We first
      thought in pictures, later in words. In dreams we revert largely to the world of pictures.
      The pronunciation of words as such changes their meaning. Every word has its significance but
      at the same time its unconscious background. Words are expression, but also disguise. They are a
      living act with peripheral scenes and hidden motives.

      Sound-Languages
      Sound and rhythm often have a more important function than the specific meaning of the word.
      Eros especially colors ordinary words and makes them deep and significant. Would it even be
      possible to write the semantics of the half-words and sounds that people in love use as a means
      of conversation? The murmuring and small names between mother and baby mean words of love
      indescribable in stark definitions.
      There are languages which rely more than others on undefined emotional sounds. German words
      often have more sound than real meaning. Appealing more to mass and sentiment than reason,
      they keep the words caught in ambivalence, suspended between emotion and intellect. It was a
      strange experience to hear the vocal disguise of Goebbels propaganda thrown over one during
      the Nazi-occupation.

      Word-Magic
      Words may become magic symbols, condensations of meanings endowed with special power.
      This is seen especially in the rapt, repetitious phrases of the child. The expression of the word
      signifies the attainment of power over the indicated object. Words themselves become powerful.
      During the evolutionary phase of a word especially, during its period of detachment from an
      object, the value of the word and its power become especially great. The words become bold
      flashes of lightning with which one can banish, beat or praise. How many snobs there are, whose
      loaded words tyrannized their surroundingsl With a master-word, one can conquer masses.
      The magical quality of the word is greater than most of, us realize. I low many of us “touch
      wood” when we express a certain word? We fear that the word with its magic background
      attracts danger.

      This superstitious influence is especially pronounced in vague, undefined words. Their contact
      with the unconscious is closer and they therefore exercise more power. To move the masses one
      has to make use of such vague terms whose real significance defies definition. The therapist uses
      the magic influence of the word when asking the patient to express freely his feelings. The
      verbalization of vague feelings is of great cathartic value.
      The Power of Talk
      Endless talk my conquer fear. One fears silence. Those who least understand the world in which
      they live are its most talkative citizens. Propaganda tries to achieve its aim through endless
      repetition and the constant dinning in of words. The masses like mythical words and the
      sledgehammer blows of windy speeches. Clear expression becomes heresy. The word that
      evokes the most bizarre associations becomes the most beloved. Everyone projects his own
      unfulfilled wishes upon it.
      The preachers of penitence in the Middle Ages were familiar with the suggestive power of
      words. Their word-pictures of hell could transport whole masses into a state of religious ecstasy.
      In our age the loudspeaker has assumed that task.
      People are possessed with a motoric lust for talk. Many dogmas and political theories appeal to
      this motoric lust-pattern. They gratify a universal need for talk which abreacts vague fears rather
      than promoting a real understanding of their message.
      Crypto-Archaisms
      It is difficult to free our thinking from hidden archaisms. After the first world war, many cryptoarchaisms
      came again to the fore. There was a preference for the emotional and the ecstatic, the
      elementary and the chaotic. In the field of art, futurism and dadaism were the fads of the day.
      This rebellion against civilized refinements was rationalized with theoretical explanations of the
      respect for the primitive. Jazz was preferred to more traditional musical forms, expressionism
      replaced naturalism.
      One could also find these crypto-archaisms in the lability and suggestibility of human opinions.
      Year after year new dogmas were presented to an eager audience. The extreme was defended.
      Romantic attitudes toward crime and gangsterism developed and the criminal was idealized. The
      intelligentsia, especially, provided fertile ground for this peculiar fluctuating thinking. They did
      not know what to confess or what to believe and bent to each passing wind. In central Europe the
      adoration of the people’s mentality (das Volkische) was a triumph of archaic thinking.
      In retrospect, such crystal-clear dogmas and proven theories are later seen to belong to a certain
      period. Even for the man of science, the more objective he considers himself, the less aware he is
      of the subjective premises of his knowledge.

       

      SECTION SIX

      Causal and Final Thinking

       

       

      The causally-oriented theoretician tries to reduce reality to generally valid rules. The smaller
      probability becomes absorbed into a larger probability. He is not taken up with the accidental
      constellation of reality, but only with the manifest causal chain. Causes and consequences were
      at work in the world, even when they remained unobserved by the thinking individual. It is
      impossible for us to view something outside these causal relations. We are confronted
      everywhere with the outcomes of causes. Causality dissects the continuum of reality into a series
      of sections. It responds to the human preference for regularity, for interrelated and dependent
      facts, for continual and gradual development. It does so, even where reality does not correspond.
      Final thinking, however, tries to discover the sense and significance of historical events.
      Every historical event is an accidental “cross-section” of continuity. The individual conceives of
      the “accidental happening”, the “unique event” (Einmaligkeit) only as a phase of historical,
      purposeful reality. Indeed, creative thinking tries to free itself of archaic automatisms and aims at
      planning before acting. This tendency to plan, to develop a thought-program, is projected by man
      onto external affairs. For him there is no accident. Historical events are symbolic meeting-places
      of the historical process and the historical cause. Reality never changes suddenly; the
      foundations for these changes are laid underground and come to the fore as historical facts. From
      the causal point of view, occurrences are living proof of prevailing laws. From the final point of
      view, the concrete event is an incidental happening in the service of a greater aim. Both forms of
      thinking aim to create eternal continuity out of the chaotic present.

      Laws of Thinking

      Thanks to the influence of Aristotle, philosophy is burdened with formal laws of thinking.
      Aristotle’s postulate of the identity of thinking is an incorrect one. Even philosophers in their
      discussions don’t think in the same way. Their education, training, social environment and other
      factors combine to determine their way of thinking. Acquaintance with other systems of thought
      invalidates Aristotelian logic. The Brahman philosophy, for instance, preaches that human
      sorrow begins with thinking, that thinking is revolt against the Gods and bans us from the truth.
      Aristotle’s principle, nevertheless, provided the thinkers of twenty centuries with a meeting
      ground and formalized laws of thought. Other civilizations demonstrate that common modes of
      thinking are the product of a culture.
      The imperialistic European thinker, of course, considered other systems of thought as primitive
      and less refined. Participating thinking, magic thinking were attributed only to natives.
      Gradually, however, the realization grew that our forms of thinking were permeated with these
      forms of thought. The idealistic German system, for instance, surrendered without protest to the
      participating Nazi philosophy
      .
      Western and Eastern Thinking

      Western thinking is restless. The Western spirit is impelled toward activity. The Eastern thinker
      does not think with the same motility. He enjoys a static state, rest and contemplation. He is
      more open to inner visions than to illusions of the senses based on external stimuli. Western
      thinking is geared toward the broadening of its views of the world. Eastern thinking does not
      search for disparate point of views. It does not define but creates inner worlds.
      Western civilization makes use of confronting thinking. Its logicloving mentality places itself in
      opposition to rather than in the midst of reality. It belongs essentially to an individuating
      civilization. The Aristotelian logic belongs to him who, in his loneliness, touches the world with
      critical antennae. This touching has an element of danger, since it may alter reality. There is
      always a destructive element in restless touching and tasting of the world. Nervous, obsessional
      thinking and verifying continually destroys part of its own world-picture.
      Once the individualistic man conforms to the logical laws of thinking, all other forms of thinking
      become illogical or primitive to him. He praises only what is adequate in terms of his own
      system. Logic, however, also embraces a series of rules which are made use of as long as they
      prove adequate. Who can tell what other means of gaining consciousness remain unexplored
      (metaphysical, parapsychological) as a result of the dictatorship of Aristotelian thinking? The
      clinician knows that the exploration of the apparently chaotic unconscious yields a treasure of
      knowledge about man and universe.

      European logic, however, nearly always fails in actual life. It is difficult to convince people in a
      logical way; they are eager to convict and mistrust logic. They justify their actions in terms
      rooted in unconscious wishes and drives. Logic remains only one means for cataloging reality.

      Types of Consciousness

      Psychology has tried to classify the ways of gaining consciousness of oneself and the world. The
      roads toward reality are manifold. The typical separation is dependent on the means chosen
      toward gaining consciousness of the world. Jung (10) and Van der Hoop (21) distinguish
      intuitive types, feeling types and thinking types. Although any such classification is rather
      artificial, it offers insight into the varied character structures of man, and his reasons for
      choosing a particular road toward reality.

      Male and Female Thinking

       

      Let us take an example of different approaches to reality. In reality there is no pure distinction
      between masculine and feminine thinking; both forms exist in everyone in varying degree.
      Man is more of a specialist, concerned with specific aspects of the universe. He is one-sided, and
      stronger because of this one-sidedness. Woman is more of a generalizer. Her functions demand
      familiarity with many things that man treats with disdain. She must know a little of a great many
      things while the man seeks to know a great deal about few. Ancient science went through a
      generalizing feminine approach.

      Modern science has passed through a male stage of research, namely a a specialistic stage. Until
      a few decades ago only the male was permitted to study science. That is why modern science
      bears the aspect d male aggressive power. Those who restrict themselves to highly specialized
      knowledge have the opportunity to attain power. This power is part of the Western ideal.
      Male thinking is one-sided and split thinking. Particularly pronounced in the male is the split
      between thinking and feeling to the extent that he is unable to relate the two.

      In the future, science must become more conscious of the new need for generalized integrated
      knowledge. It will have to become more female in character. Female thinking is more realistic; it
      is imbued with more sense and feeling for practical adjustment.

      The woman with deep and clear intellect,’ who yearns for creative expression in science,
      remains, however, burdened throughout her life with the care of her children and family. After
      maturing considerably, she becomes aware that she has gathered through her multifarious
      experiences wisdom not learned and abstract, but real and warm and full of life.

      Anatomical Thinking

      The sharp, dissecting thinking, which destroys feelings, is unaware of moral value judgments. It
      makes no distinction between good and evil.
      Anatomical thinking-due to its lust for pure dissection-is heartless. It is aware only of objective
      morphological relations, not of human beings. It is incapable of penetrating the mysteries of
      man. It lacks the capacity for identification and intuition. It cannot identify with the world into
      which it probes. It cannot rid itself of the idol of mirrorlike objectivity. Complete knowing is
      impossible, however, without loving.
      Anatomical thinking became a means of gaining power. He who could handle it well could
      subject the world and his fellow beings. This is the main reason for the worship of cold,
      intellectual thinking and critical dissection.
      Such thinking, however, may cause neurosis and unhappiness in its students. It creates a bulwark
      of intellect against feeling and emotion. Such people no longer live, but only read and think
      about life. The world is reduced to a cold and loveless existence, a formula without inner sense.

      Biological Roots of Thinking

      All thinking has biological roots. Thinking requires certain foods and fluids for growth, a special
      diet and special physical exercise. Certain rites and rhythms alter thinking. The gastronomist
      thinks in another way than the aesthete who tries to purify his thought by fasting.
      We witness the arousal of self-awareness in those who are successful erotic partners and its
      disappearance among those whose sexual pride was hurt. Woman nearly always places her
      thinking in the service of an erotic aim. Male thinking derives more satisfaction from
      maintaining a logical equilibrium.
      All ideas demand a vital basis. They get lost in a vacuum without it.
      Shallow Modes of Thought
      Many thinkers live among big and idle thoughts and words, borrowed from books, rather than
      derived from experience. Unaware of life’s reality, they think in the same way in which the child
      plays with colorful soap-bubbles, watching the brilliance and color of the bubble until it bursts.
      It is the infantile philosopher in us who is seduced by weighty thoughts and impressive plans.
      But we use this play as training for the realities of life. We learn to select from superfluous
      wisdom.
      In practical life we are able to distinguish other forms of thinking, dependent on the special
      adjustment of the individual. We distinguish dogmatic thinking, wishful thinking, labeling
      thinking, juridical thinking, political thinking, modish thinking. All these speak for themselves.

      Labeling Thinking

      Only two forms of thinking, dangerous to everyday practice, are mentioned here. Labeling
      thinking is that which attaches labels to all thinking human beings. If one once belonged to a
      certain school, class, or race one’s opinions and language are forever regarded as part of this
      school, class, or race. Once labeled, the label can never be lost. Forever, we have to belong to a
      certain rubric. What lives behind the label doesn’t matter.

      Juridical Thinking

      Juridical thinking is another rigid form of interpreting life and its habits. Because men require
      rules and laws for the limitation of each other’s instincts, the man of law seeks to reduce all
      spontaneous life to similar rules and laws. He thinks in a codified world and views people as its
      codified inhabitants. It was this form of anti-psychological thinking which ruled international
      relations between the two world wars. The United Nations are still in danger of viewing peace as
      a purely codified Valhallah.

       

       

      SECTION SEVEN

      Normal Delusions

       

       

      Francis Bacon (2) in his Novum Organum was the first to view delusions of the spirit and errors
      of thinking from a psychological standpoint. He rejected all rigid philosophical abstractions.
      Because of its rigidity theory can become the wrong object of thinking rather than reality. Bacon
      reproached his predecessors for living too much in theory and not enough in reality. Our
      thoughts are representatives of ourselves, rather than of reality.
      Theory aims at subjecting reality to its own dictatorship. Human intellect is no pure instrument
      of research but is bound to influences of feeling and will; what man would like to see as true, he
      believes as true. Hence, Bacon advises us to approach with suspicion all that which the spirit
      accepts greedily. Fantasy is the greatest enemy of the intellect. This conceit of thought Bacon
      refers to as general delusion, the “idola generis”.
      He calls special delusion, “idola specus”, that type of human thought which is colored by man’s
      special characteristics, by his temperament, his mood, his yearning.
      Language, the unstable vehicle of thought, also leads to delusion and error. Don’t the phrases and
      definitions of philosophers serve to disguise their nude irresolution? Bacon calls this delusion of
      words and labels “idola theatri”. Catchword and label accomplish their greatest triumph in
      establishing a mass-delusion. The famous English statesman and philosopher was referring
      especially to the dogmas and theatrical parading of philosophers which only served to justify the
      creations of their own imagination. They were thought-plays detached from reality and
      representative only of the mind of their conceited creator. A person’s cherished dogmas reveal
      his personality. The manifold systems of philosophers describe more adequately the philosophers
      themselves than the world of realities, according to Bacon. Can we add anything better to this
      concept of delusion and conceit? Bacon’s ideas are as valid today as they were three centuries
      ago.

      Seductive Stupidity

      When intellect can no longer contribute to the knowledge of the world, when our spirit is no
      longer potent enough to struggle with the facts of the day, we take recourse to the stupidity and
      “innocence of childhood”.

      We experienced this regressive behavior and escape from consciousness most pointedly during
      the years of occupation and terror, and understood it as a natural defense against pain and
      sorrow. But there is another more seductive way of flirting with superficiality and playing with
      stupidity. There is a yearning to return to the land of morons. We are relaxed and gay when we
      hear the radio voices carry us back to a realm which does not require our brain. Gradually we
      become more and more infected with silliness and escapism. Why should we think? Why should
      we fight to understand this world? Why not remain in comfortable stupidity?

      Superfluous Thinking

      Thinking often has a firmer grasp on some of us than we expect. Thoughts often remain rooted in
      our mind; we are possessed with a problem and we cannot escape its answer and the consequent
      presentation of newly aroused problems. We would prefer to idle away and yet a cogitating fury
      lives in us. We destroy things by thinking and destroy ourselves with it in the delusion that only
      thinking solves our problems. The self-temptation of superfluous thought and the restless
      overestimation of our own brain makes us suspicious. This is reminiscent of the baby’s strategy.
      The repetition of the same gruesome tale helps him to conquer his vague, bigger fear. Similarly
      the adult tries to free himself from “the great fear of being in the world” by compulsively
      torturing his own brain.

      Obsessional Thinking

       

      This form of obsessional thinking exercises a narcotic influence. Gradually unconscious drives
      take possession of our thought. Thoughts arise which cannot be mastered. They are feared and
      alien to us, yet we cannot rid ourselves of them. They are absurd yet they possess us. There is a
      tragic relation between cogitating, ruminating and meditating. Vague thoughts may become
      rooted in our mind as symbols of suppressed unconscious drives.

      The Autonomy of Ideas

       

      Every thought as such has a growth-potential. It can expand to an allembracing image that
      suppresses all other ideas. He who creates ideas may become possessed by them. The idea may
      become detached from him, subdue all other ideas and precipitate unwilled actions. In reality
      every new thought leaves its creator and lives its own life. It may stimulate the imagination of
      other people. Dostoiewski describes Raskolnikov as one who was dragged away by one pure
      idea. Fascinated by an isolated thought the hero justifies the crime in the service of his lust for
      power.

      It is as if in every idea some mystic archaic powers remained alive. With one simple idea, with
      one catchword, one can sow poison and hate as well as blessings for many people. Think, for
      instance, of the treatment by Coue, who tried to heal neurotics by the monotonous repetition of
      one simple idea and image. All these phenomena can occur because thinking is a biological
      function, comparable to other motor and sensory functions. Every thought is an unconscious
      action.

      The Delusion of Certainty

       

      Only the reflexive animal is instinctively certain. Man is and remains unsteady in his thinking.
      His world is neither ready, nor fixed, nor limited, but must grow. From one uncertainty he must
      move on to others. The nineteenth century was too much preoccupied with constant norms and
      evaluations and too insensitive to the dynamics of its own system of thought.
      He who firmly asserts his certainty is often surpressing his doubt and evading the vacuum of his
      ignorance. Every delusion is endowed with the same inner certainty we find in primitive
      thinking. It does not create problems. Delusion is a regression, a theatrical disguise of inner
      impotence. This process does not refer to pathology only. It occurs in everyday thinking.
      The scientists of the last century were possessed by the delusion of hasty declaration and
      explanation. Many theories preceded the facts. Many scientists wrote off as understandable and
      transparent that which remained secret and obscure. By atomization of the infinite they tried to
      profane unsolved mysteries.

      Thinking is the equalization of chaos, the reduction of single accidental occurrences to
      generalized happenings. Every theoretical reduction, however, omits the secret of the unique
      historical accident, the mystery of the individual event.

      Man overestimates his instinctual certainties. Thinking extinguishes the certainty of innate
      knowledge. Recall the story of the thousandfooted insect who was interrogated by the cunning
      fox. From the day he was asked which foot he set in motion first, he could no longer walk; he
      was paralyzed by the new problem. Instinctual certainties disappear as soon as they reach the
      domain of reflection and thought. Feeling alone can give certainty. Thinking and reflection
      create doubt. That is why art provides straighter insight into truth than philosophy.
      It is the tragedy of man that thought has brought him to new uncertainties. He has partaken of the
      tree of knowledge and is expelled from the paradise of instinctual life. This does not mean,
      however, that his thinking is always striving toward reason and logic. Rationalism and
      irrationalism, mature and archaic thinking develop side by side. Proverbial and Patterned
      Thinking

       

      Most thinking processes take place outside our consciousness. It is thinking in usual patterns.
      These patterns are lifted from popular wisdom, proverbs and the manifold crystallizations of
      collective knowledge. The proverb, above all, is suggestive of a philosophy of acquiescence.
      Collective knowledge continuously builds and stimulates our individual thinking. In all our
      arguments we must fight against inadmissible generalizations. Popular psychology embraces
      those generalizations.

      Mass knowledge is inert.
      The patterning of thought is enhanced by the industrialization and standardization of life. Our
      brain is a maze of fixed patterns, slogans and cliches. It has become a bad camera for recording
      reality.

      Through continuous facing of reality man must conquer it gradually. In youth he learns to see
      reality through special colored glasses, in special patterns. Gradually, however, he must change
      those patterns and relate them to reality. It is as if through the growing process of thinking a kind
      of reality organ develops in man.

      The Subject Thinks

      In all thought concerned with reality, the thinking and creating subject remains the greatest riddle
      to himself. The self, the ego, the focal point of every world view, remains its own greatest source
      of confusion. Every world picture is a subjective creation, no matter how minutely the subject
      thinks he has copied the world. The most objective copy still contains a subjective view. The
      graphologist will tell us that every handwriting, originally a fixed pattern of letters, is different.
      Children, in copying the simplest pictures, distort them in accordance with their own character.
      How varied our subjective thinking is! Some overflow with original ideas, while others remain
      content with simple imitations.

      The Unconscious as Creator of Our Thinking

       

      Why do subjects think so differently? For the psychoanalyst the answer is not difficult. In every
      hour with his patients, he is aware not especially of his patient’s thinking but of his confused
      reactions to unconsciously formed ideas. Thinking is the constant struggle against the
      preconceived patterns of our mind. The unconscious guides the willing conscious mind, which
      accepts, justifies or rationalizes the deeper notions.
      Men’s thoughts are propelled by the creative forces of their unconscious. Through special
      technique the ego can grow aware of these unconscious motives. Our desire for clarity, our fight
      to gain new insights gives us a partial conception of structural relations. The deepest levels,
      however, remain hidden.

      The unconscious sees with a philosophical eye. The conscious justifies the limitations of its own
      understanding. What is new insight? It is a sudden release of tension. The unconscious suddenly
      clarifies our mind and we can either defy or acknowledge it. The road we choose depends on the
      degree of our self-knowledge.

      Fashionable Thinking

       

      There is a fashion of ideas and arguments similar to that of hats and dresses. Out of tradition one
      can incorporate certain fashionable ideas. Man is possessed by more lust for imitation and
      tradition than for creation of original ideas. It is as if several instincts clashed in the process of
      thinking. There is a social instinct which induces imitation and identification. Simultaneously
      there is an individualistic instinct which demands distinction and the formulation of a personal
      vision as opposed to that of collectivity.

      Some ideas have a pandemic character and work like an infectious agent the individual is unable
      to resist. The idea finds such deep resonance that man is dragged away by it. Forty years ago the
      word “socialist” was applied as a nickname to people. Today, socialism is an ideal for those who
      not long ago spoke of it disapprovingly. In our time, “communism” is the catchword for all that
      is taboo.

      Scapegoating

       

       

      Scapegoating grows out of normal attitudes, normal biases and ordinary prejudices. Its most
      famous example is found in the rituals of the Hebrews and is depicted in the Book of Leviticus.
      On the Day of Atonement, a live goat was chosen. The high priest, attired in linen garments, laid
      both hands on the goat’s head and confessed over it the iniquities of the children of Israel. The
      sins of the people having thus been symbolically transferred onto the beast, it was taken out into
      the wilderness and let loose. The people felt purged, and for the time being, guiltless. (1).
      The tendency to revert to this primitive level of thinking has persisted. People are forever
      seeking scapegoats, most often in human form, whom they can saddle with their misfortunes and
      misdeeds. “Civilized people” remain primitive in their thinking.
      Such events have occurred throughout history. The victims have always been small minority
      groups who, because of conspicuousness and tradition, became the bearers of the burden of
      blame.

      Nominative Thinking

       

      In his thinking the simple man is fixated to names. By naming things he feels that he has
      explained them. Primitive languages are characterized by vast numbers of names and words with
      fine nuances of meaning. The king of the Middle Ages was surrounded by innumerable pages,
      lackeys, grooms, etc. Every royal function called for another servant with another name. Every
      function was named. The same happens in the mind; all that remains incomprehensible acquires
      names. Our modern bureaucratic system maintains this name-giving tendency when confronted
      with a difficult problem. Things are better understood when they are filed.
      Fixed Thought Values

       

      In different circles of society different values are attached to thoughts. Every member of a given
      society unconsciously accepts this hierarchy of thinking. He shows little appreciation for the
      thought systems and logic of other circles. Just as the followers of Hegel detected the dialectic
      triangle in all situations, so the hyper-orthodox Freudian is forever seeing the Master’s patterns
      without looking for new ones and the Communist is eternally searching for Marxist explanations.
      These fixed thought values are most pointed among our common citizens. Their thinking is
      primarily formulated by professional interests. Butchers think in meat values, dairy-men in
      cheese values, psychologists in mind values, and so forth.
      Private interests, especially, rule the laws of thinking. The nonsensical delusion or the illogical
      thought system is more often than not the justification for personal gain or material profit.
      “Whose bread one eats, his word one speaks” (Dutch proverb).
      The delusion clearly relates to the size of the purse or the extent of political power of its
      propagator. As James indicated, “Truth is the cash value of ideas.” (g).

      The Readiness for Truth

       

      The inner resistance to real thinking is often a violent one. Many prefer to stay in the childish
      dreamland of ignorance to escape the responsibility of wrong knowledge and wrong actions.
      Psychotherapy has taught us how unsteady our readiness to accept truth can be. The subject
      defends himself continuously against painful truths. Most people have a blind spot for truths
      which relate to their own life and personality. This unwillingness to know disappears only after
      the subject is trained in self-knowledge. Such awareness causes many a painful conflict. Its
      avoidance, therefore, is understandable. With diabolic dialectic and ceaseless rationalizations any
      truth can be disguised. Only in the depth of unhappiness, in which delusion and illusion are more
      painful than reality, does the preparedness to accept the truth about oneself come about.
      Personal relations toward truth vary. Some change their personal truths constantly. Imagination
      and myth are often stronger than truth. Archaic images are forever regaining possession of
      reality.

      Knowledge-A Dangerous Game

       

      People with too many arguments should always be approached with suspicion. Dialectic and
      endless reasoning are usually used as resistance against disagreeable truths. Knowledge and
      insight can be dangerous. The adept may be persecuted when he knows more than his teacher. In
      scientific circles, students who try to free themselves from scientific tradition are treated with
      much aggression.

      Wherever doubt arises, compulsive thinking is used as a defense against hard truths. People lose
      themselves in the great problems of life to avoid facing problems of their own; they become
      pseudophilosophers in order to escape the activities at home.

      Synthetic and Analytic Thinking

      There is a cry for synthetic thinking, especially among certain psychological schools. Those who
      did not dare to accept analysis as a therapy, used “synthesis” as a catchword. Analysis and
      synthesis, however, can never be separated in living thinking. Wherever psychoanalysis dissects
      arising thoughts, spontaneous synthesis takes place simultaneously. The surgeon dissects and
      analyzes living organisms, but the “vis medicatrix naturae” synthesizes and regenerates the
      tissues.
      Whatever human beings divide, nature brings together again. Good analysis stimulates
      spontaneous regeneration. Life as such is always wiser than the human being who thinks about
      life.

      Autistic Thinking

      The phrase, “autistic thinking” is lifted from psychopathology (Bleuler). It was known that
      thinking could serve as a means of escape into fantasy, into the inner world which was neglectful
      of all outer contacts. Obstacles are fantasied away. Longings and strivings assume the aspect of
      reality. The subject no longer verifies reality; he surrenders to the dream. We speak of
      pathological autism where the escape into phantasy and dream life violates all contact with
      reality.

      Autism is due to a lack of identification. Human sympathy and feeling for somebody are
      dependent on identification, so necessary for social relations. The autist abandons the instinctual
      roots of his existence, the common roots with other people.
      All intellect and pure thinking tends to become cold and isolated, devoid of feelings and drives.
      Isolated intelligence creates hesitancy. The danger of the break-through of the isolated instinctual
      impulse is greater. A healthy character requires the integration of thinking and feeling.
      Primitive thinking, on the other hand, although constantly directed toward the material world, is
      enslaved to that world. It is bent to the dictatorship of the sensual impulse; it does not think but
      acts in shortcuts. Autistic thinking is inwardly directed thinking, thinking which lacks the
      awareness of reality.

       

      Thinking seems to move between two extremes: the archaic thinking, which is slave to the
      impulse of reality and autistic thinking, which is dependent only on impulses of the subject.
      Archaic thinking is introjective thinking, autistic thinking is projective thinking. In the latter, the
      outer world is burdened with the fictions of the subject. Both extremes lack the agile contact with
      and facing of reality.

       

      Thinking can be overstrained. It cannot function without stimulation from the unconscious.
      Without relaxation and rest it breaks down. The mind wants sleep, it has to retreat from reality to
      dream life in order to regain new strength for confrontation on awakening.

       

       

       

      SECTION EIGHT
      Delusion and the Subjective Feeling of Power

       

       

      Delusion gives the subject an inner certainty of omnipotence and strength. Normal thinking
      about reality is never as secure about itself. The rigid thought is stronger than man. The deluded
      man likes to suffer for his delusions. The quarrelsome, especially, never stop exciting and
      moving the world in the service of their overburdened feelings of justice. He who is possessed by
      delusion is forever running his head against a stone wall; the realities of logic and physical
      relations are of no consequence to him as he searches for the perpetuum mobile and the square of
      the circle. Scientific thought is irrelevant. The deluded goes his own way, growing within the
      delusion and anxious only to live for the peculiar aberration of his thoughts.
      Thinking is the constantly expanding function of accounting for and being responsible for the
      subject in relation to the world. Where this process of growing consciousness stops, delusion
      begins. Every fixation in growth gives rise to abnormal phenomena in thinking. Real thinking,
      real adequatio cum re, requires perpetual conversion and renewal.
      Delusion and the Subjective Feeling of Certainty

      The more primitive man is, the younger he is, the more keenly he feels his opinions and notions.
      His experiences are for him of great reality value. Characteristic of growing consciousness is its
      grasp of the relativity of personal insight. It experiences doubt and hesitation, becomes familiar
      with the various phases and levels of thinking, with the eternal need for correction and evolution
      from old to new insight.

      The delusion, however, is certain of itself. Regressive thinking knows no doubt; it does not see
      the conflict between its own opinions and reality since it is incapable of a critical self-corrective
      attitude.

      The Incomprehensibility of the Delusion

       

      Medical theories assumed that the delusion was intangible in terms of understanding and
      comprehension. Understanding is a subjective process and its degree is dependent on the
      individual student. The deeper the regression, however, the less contact and communication
      takes place, for Delusion speaks another language. Its archaic language is rooted in the period
      when no verbal communication between human beings existed, as we experience in the
      psychoanalysis of schizophrenics. A deluded man is essentially a lonely man.
      Gaining insight into a delusion demands of the analyst the same temporary degree of regression
      the patient has undergone. But usually the intuitive artist alone is able to turn back that far.

       

      SECTION NINE

      Thinking-The Overstepping of Limits

       

      In daily life, thinking moves on very different levels. Most people do not like the cataloging of
      reality. The road from random, disorganized thinking, to patterned thinking, to free intuitive
      thinking is not a simple straight line. Man must always struggle for a new world outlook.
      Thinking is a challenge and a daring feat. When we assay to leave traditional paths and step into
      the obscure, reality suddenly assumes new aspects. It is impossible to grasp these with old modes
      of thinking. Gaining consciousness implies the shedding of old realities through expanding
      freedom and conquering new realities.
      Growth from infantile to adult thinking is bound to the laws of physical power and matter which
      set limits on growth possibilities. To live is to create. The creative living subject develops to a
      thinking subject. The comprehension of the thinking subject includes some knowledge of his
      limitations. The psychology of thinking and deluded thinking must indicate the limitations of
      human thought in any given period of its evolution. It must indicate the origin and extent of these
      limitations and the means for surpassing and conquering them.

      Living thought must always bypass these limitations.

      How much truth can man bear? How much truth about himself can he bear? Does he have the
      courage to penetrate ever more deeply into reality? Can he free himself, if he so desires, from it?
      Thinking must undergo a continuous process of renewal. Unless it does so, man remains only
      “wise”. Being wise in the vulgar sense of the word means being prudent and neutral, means
      hesitation and keeping to the middle of the road. Man, however, must step beyond this.

       

      Dimensional Thinking

       

      Many thought images cannot penetrate the thought world of our fellow beings. As the rainworm
      lives in a world of rainworms, and a child in a world of children, so the man lives within his own
      thought world. His thought organs are attuned only to a special wave length. The thought
      pictures received are translated into his own language. Man cannot grasp dimensions which are
      not commensurate with his own mental capacity.

      Primitive ideas cannot absorb more complex ones. Advanced thinking can, however, absorb less
      differentiated thinking. These differences in terms of thinking constitute the major source of
      misunderstanding. Human beings live in different thought worlds.

      Those who live on a higher level detect the delusions of those on a lower one, but remain
      unaware of their own. Lower, less differentiated levels of thinking regard the higher ones as
      exaggerated nonsense and an incomprehensible “secret cult”. Higher levels view the lower ones
      as regressions, delusions or disturbances of growth. Let us not forget, however, that every higher
      form of thinking, every truth, is the end process of the integration of more primitive modes of
      thinking and partial truths.

      The world is full of misunderstood thought. Isolated thinking can refine itself and reach new
      truth; it can also, however, regress and deteriorate. In an isolated culture thinking ultimately
      regresses. (See section on collective psychosis.) Thoughts need intermarriage and opposition.
      He who abandons a higher culture for an isolated lower culture also reverts to primitive archaic
      thinking. Many examples can be cited of natives who studied at western universities and
      embraced our form of thinking, but on returning to their former tribes shed their newly
      conquered fields of thought.

      Nearly all of us are encased in our own world of thought and find it difficult to move beyond.
      We maintain the illusion of understanding a higher world but remain hemmed in by our
      traditions. However, all of a sudden we experience momentary flashes of insight and higher
      clarity and then the struggle for a new way of knowledge may start.

      The Conceit of Thinking

       

       

      People are hard to convince of the incorrectness of their thinking. The majority are fixated to
      their own thoughts to such a degree that they are unable to listen to those of others. They fear
      doubt and close their ears. They approach their ideas as doting parents approach their children.
      They fight for their ideas as Don Quixote did; they will follow a doctor’s prescription quite
      passively but will deny the logic of his argument. Pedantic thinking is unable to correct itself. Its
      conception of state, society and leader are unassailable, inspired by the infantile assumption of
      the magic power of thought.

       

      Chaotic and difficult thoughts are easily accepted if they bear a semblance of learning and
      sophistication. The incomprehensible has a strong magic influence. People are very receptive to
      quasi-profound ideas and abstruse demonstrations. They suspect the clear and simple. Some
      people enjoy the weekly sermon only when it is obscure and incomprehensible.
      Our age is ready to embrace the highest truth with the smallest brain, unaware of the
      impossibility of the task. This constitutes the exalted delusion of technical man.

      Over-Strained Thinking

       

      It is dangerous to overestimate the capacity of our brain. When it attempts too much it
      overstrains itself. It does not dare to confess to its ignorance and limitations. The strained thinker
      not only claims to understand all that is illogical and inimical to his culture but out of his fear of
      misunderstanding begins to court and love what he cannot grasp. He identifies himself with
      absurdity. Many traitors and turncoats in wartime were themselves victims of this treacherous
      attitude of the intellect.

      The incomprehensible, the chaotic and abstruse holds a strange fascination for many.
      Identification with powerful psychopaths and chaotic fanatics may result in a complete surrender
      of personal insights. The most abhorrent theories are proclaimed as understood and accepted.
      Vague fear, especially, causes this passive surrender. A similar process occurs in the primitive:
      he always attaches more importance to the obscure than to the clearly observed. Less
      differentiated thinking never can grasp more differentiated ideas. A broad abyss separates these
      worlds of thinking. In the Middle Ages the more differentiated way of thinking was called heresy
      and black magic and many clear thinkers finished their lives on the burning stake. Even now
      there exists a tremendous suspicion in the world toward clarification of ideas.

      The Delusion of Justification

       

      Such passive acceptance of ideas gives rise to the delusion of justification. “Look,” one calls, “I
      think so objectively and righteously that I
      even plead against my old friends and fatherland.” Cowardly opportunism is always destructive.
      It is the cause of much disloyalty and treason.

      Everyone can prove with abundance of pseudo-arguments that the immoral is moral. This inner
      treason begins with the vague acceptance of the small percentage of truth which shields a big lie.
      Thoughts can have a narcotic effect. They can sweeten every sorrow. There are philosophies for
      periods of success and periods of failure. The liberation of one’s thinking from archaic chains is a
      hazardous process. The path of the spirit is narrow; the fear of a vast vacuum tempts many to
      throw themselves into the abyss and to surrender to the dark drives of the unconscious.
      A philosophical system can be justification and delusion. There is a tendency to escape into ivory
      tower philosophy and empty theorizing out of impotence. That is why so many philosophers in
      Germany became easy prey to authoritarian suggestions. Those who referred to themselves as
      lovers of wisdom turned easily into philosophers of the mailed fist.

       

      The Treason of Our Thoughts

       

      Let us go back to the treacherous delusion of justification. What is this curious need to betray the
      father and teacher? Is it only the mental reaching beyond the own being and the own period? Or
      is it always mingled with hate and resentment?
      In times when our soul is empty, we sell ourselves for a couple of poor ideals and we become
      traitors, too. Much treason and crime arise out of shame, guilt and powerless reproach for our
      own inadequacy. We heap coals of fire on our own head. Out of an inner shame of ourselves and
      others we destroy what we love and honor.

      There are other forms of disloyalty, however. Deep in our soul lives that other form of selfbetrayal,
      the regression, the tendency to revert to more primitive opinions. Regression of
      thinking and advancement of thinking are both considered betrayals of the conventional systems.
      There is high treason and cowardly treason.

      Real treason, however, can only be a self-betrayal. The problem is that of the potential traitor in
      all men. It is the process of justification of the fundamental dissatisfaction with oneself. People
      who like power politics can misuse their insight. When one’s existence becomes vulnerable, one’s
      thoughts follow suit. Thought control is the new technique of suppression of the authoritarian
      state.

      The danger of a huge corps of civil servants is that a highly intelligent group becomes dependent
      on a salary. Their thinking is gullible and much too conscious of their dependence on
      governmental power. The Mania for Objectivity

      Thinking that is strained-and in times of chaos all thinking isbecomes receptive to relativism.
      Spiritual values are no longer accepted and the personality is not involved fully in evaluations.
      The thinkers begin to schematize. They are unaware of the tensions of life. The rigid thinker
      begins to hate what he does not understand. He argues more than he acts and loses himself in
      senseless dialectic. He betrays himself. Through talk he sets the wrong right.

      Many people suffer from an objectivity disease. Objectivity assumes the proportion of a
      compulsion neurosis. They refuse to choose between contradictory ideas. They lack the passion
      for further and better thinking. Beware of those who remain objective and dispassionate. They
      betray the ever-developing continuity of life. This pseudo-objectivity may also be treason. Life is
      a constant choice between right and wrong, between going backward and going forward,
      between the primitive and the civilized in us. Those who insist on objectivity do not dare to
      chose and betray the good action that had to be chosen. In a world which suffers, to remain a
      spectator is a luxury and a shirking of responsibility. “Objectivity is to expose and to lose
      oneself.” (Bolland).

       

      The last war taught us well how many a so-called objective thinker became a collaborator of the
      enemy. There is a form of intellectualism which is sterile, which surrenders easily to power.
      Intellectualism differs from intelligent productivity. It is imitation without creation. Our world
      pays too much homage to such unproductive learnedness. Real intellect is a potential apart from
      knowledge and pedantry.

       

      Every man, for fear of becoming a consequential thinking being, is a potential traitor. He often
      talks and argues for fear of expressing himself and coming into conflict with reality.
      Thinking demands patience, attention and the gradual development of consciousness. The
      destruction of old wisdom and productivity is not always free productivity. Not every rebellion is
      a sacred revelation. Wisdom grows in the weak as well as in the strong, in silence as well as in
      conversation. But silence may be treason when there is a need for the thinker to speak.

      Delusion and Resentment

       

      The greatest disappointment in thinking may be when there is lack of energy to express itself.
      Ideas are too often tired. The danger then arises that the disappointment becomes dogma, that the half wisdom is seen as a final product.
      The disappointed thinkers compensate for their impotence by erecting immature theories. The
      uncultured myth is then launched on mankind with the help of the fist, if necessary.
      Much rancor and resentment motivate thinking. It constitutes a kind of mental auto-intoxication.
      When there is no energy for coming to terms with the world, the compulsive stream of thought is
      directed inward and destroys the own mind. Hate and resentment grows in the mind and directs
      all thinking and action.

       

      Nietzsche in his “Genealogy der Moral” explains that this becomes the way in which the weak
      and the slaves obtain the means for the moral and mental oppression of others. Resentment
      denies all that is different. Resentment causes prejudice, persecution and revolutionary chaos.
      Through nihilism and stupidity it masters the thoughts and exercises thought control over others.
      Yet it survives with the delusion of creating a higher culture.
      Resentment destroys all that is spiritual. The failures in life, those who feel ignored, revolt
      against the thoughts of their time and turn hate and rancor into the highest wisdom. When the fist
      of the enemy lay heavily on our occupied country many unsuccessful thinkers used the situation
      for spreading their weird opinions with the help of the guiding hand of the conqueror. There was
      no freedom and argument was forbidden. Idealistic catchwords disguised the thinkers’
      resentment. The thinker with the fist will long be remembered in the memory of occupied
      nations.

       

      Pathological Delusion

       

      In the nineteenth century there was a tendency among psychiatrists to explain pathological
      delusions in a mechanical way as an unclear electric current, a short-circuit of the brain, or as an
      intoxication of the normal stream of thoughts. Delusion and thinking, however, are integral parts
      of the living organism and the function of coming to terms with reality. Every thinking process is
      rooted in a primary vital process. Those who refer to the delusion as a partial reconstitution of
      disturbed thinking are correct. In every living function we find regression and progression beside
      each other.
      The important problem in reference to delusion is why normal man is able to correct the slight
      delusions of everyday life while the mentally ill are unable to do so. Delusions as such are
      normal symptoms as long as they are subject to correction. The primary delusion among
      psychotics is incorrigible and the same is true of the affective delusion among depressives.
      This raises difficult questions in psychopathology, namely the “why” and “how” of delusions.
      They may be the result of tiredness or vital debility, of intoxication, of putting out of circuit
      certain nervous centers and elements, of repression of drives, of general regression, of
      unbearable conflict, and so forth. This etiological approach, however, does not explain delusion
      as such.

       

      Delusion is a disturbance in reality confrontation and in the continuous alert function of
      consciousness. Delusion is an isolated thought development. Delusion is an idea that is split from
      the continuous process of thought-integration. That is why normal contact with reality and the
      environment is disturbed. There is no longer any growth, reciprocity or dialectic development.
      There is only a convulsive congealing of archaic thought processes. Thinking means living;
      losing and finding oneself. The deluded is incapable of that. He regresses to archaic thinking
      processes, to magic, projective and autistic thinking. The deluded has given up the struggle for a
      common world picture. He is unable to participate in social thinking.
      Normal thinking, too, forms illusions and delusions, but these dream pictures remain in contact
      with reality. The rigid delusion has lost this integrating contact.
      Because the delusion is incapable of integral and agile thinking, it gives rise to a subjective
      feeling of certainty. The delusion is not subject to discussion. The delusion has lost the attempt at
      self-correction.

       

      Being alive means maintaining contact with reality. Delusions are not alive, for they lack the
      vital doubt which raises life to a higher level of consciousness.
      The delusion does not only originate from within ourselves but also comes as a suggestion from
      outside, as we will see in the chapter on massdelusion.

      Thinking Needs Harmony

       

      When thinking becomes detached from man, when feelings no longer impregnate the thoughts,
      then thought processes arise which take hold of man and drag him into obscure depths. When
      knowledge does not go hand in hand with love it acts against man. It becomes a weapon in the
      service of the beloved ego and a murderer of others.
      Correction is possible through conflict and crises. A slight delusion is at times necessary to
      arouse people out of apathy and inactivity.
      Every delusion starts as a form of expansion. When the delusion becomes fixed, however, it is a
      pathological process.

      The value of thought is dependent on the personality behind it. Propaganda of a criminal with
      ethical formulas is worthless. The same words can disguise different hearts. For some, they may
      be a delusion; for others, the expression of a harmonious, well-integrated personality. The one
      idea may hide the most destructive drive; another idea may be the expression of a personality
      who stands by his words. This is the only criteria we have for evaluating delusions.

       

      II. MASS AND DELUSION SECTION ONE

       

       

      The Problem of the Mass

       

       

      Following the first World War much interest was devoted to the problem of mass thinking and
      public opinion. The fighting powers had taken great pains to influence the masses and involve
      them in the armed struggle. Mass propaganda, press censorship and thought control became
      important areas of concern.

      Until then, only a select group of sociologists had devoted attention to the problem of mass
      psychology (Le Bon, (11) Sighele). After Versailles this interest spread among literate peoples.
      Books on the subject began to appear. The general public had experienced the ecstasy of war and
      the decline of civilization and now turned to reflection. The politicos, now familiar with the
      notion of mass-psychology, also began to raise certain questions.
      Before 1914, one could not really speak in terms of mass opinion. People remained aloof from
      world politics and most were taken by surprise when the war broke out. The preceding years of
      peace had established a deep belief in the stability and essentially peaceful nature of twentiethcentury
      man.

      By 1918, all this had changed. Simultaneously there arose an ardent idealism and belief in new
      world peace, and a cynical view of mankind and its problems.
      The realization that people’s thoughts and beliefs were significant was a sudden one after the
      war. The masses had fought the war and were ready to play a role in the shaping of the future.
      Even the dictatorships became concerned with the nature of public reaction. A respect developed
      for mass opinion.

      Mass psychology has the potentiality for becoming a dangerous science. Like mass technology,
      it may be used as an instrument in the service of criminal powers. That is what happened under
      the Nazi regime. Nazi psychology strove for the most effective utilization of social organization
      in the service of evil and anti-social powers. Nevertheless, no government can function without
      some knowledge of masspsychology.

      The science of the masses was further enhanced by the closing of the
      world’s frontiers. Mankind can no longer escape into uninhabited or unexplored areas. This is
      why the problem of mass grouping is increasingly coming to the fore.
      Catchwords such as “herd-animals” and “mob rule” only serve to obscure the problem of the
      mass. Since the science of mass-psychology can so easily become a political weapon, it is
      difficult to keep it free of catchwords. For this reason we speak of a dual trend in masspsychology:
      on one hand, there is a positive mass-psychology concerned with the evolution and
      progress of different social formations; on the other hand, there is a negative one, concerned only
      with the regression and corruption of the masses. (German psychological warfare was a good
      example of that perverted application of psychology).

       

      The Molding of the Masses

      Mass is derived from the latin word “massa”, “that which can be molded and kneaded.”
      Improved techniques of communication make the mass more subject to influences than ever
      before. People are in closer contact with world events. They cannot be shut out from the world of
      politics, when kings and presidents appeal to them over the radio.
      A study of mass delusions need not necessarily concern itself with specific mass-devisions and
      formations. The psychologist is primarily concerned with the identificatory tendencies in every
      individual, that which lives as “mass” in every individual. Man, like all animals, leads a double
      existence. He is at once a unit, an individual and a part of the world that influences him. The
      world of his fellow-beings assumes a major role in his existence. There is individual closeness
      and collective communication. The individual grows as part of his community. The most
      adamant individualist cannot withdraw from collective influences. One is mass even when one is
      alone, through identification with different collective phenomena. One may identify with a leader
      or with its humblest members, with its symbols or its written rules; one always becomes a virtual
      part of them. One becomes part of the mass by reading a newspaper or listening to the radio, or
      even by preparing a speech for a meeting. Mass means a state of collective relationship and
      interaction.

      Mass is not only a horizontal concept-a relationship with one’s contemporaries-but also a vertical
      and historical relationship with one’s ancestors and kin. We identify with parents and ancestors,
      with the history and tradition of our country and race.
      The collectivity has tremendous convincing power. Our arguments are unconsciously fortified by
      joining a fictitious majority. We swear by the “communis opinio”. Especially during periods of emotional *tress we feel the need to be
      part of a majority and to lose ourselves in its anonymity. By so doing, we compensate for
      personal wants. “If we can’t do it alone, perhaps the mass will succeed.” The collectivity as such
      has more elan vital.

      Mass Thinking

       

       

       

      Public opinion has always been molded in the service of special minis. A lie repeated ten times
      becomes believable, and one repeated a hundred times exerts a hypnotic effect. All propaganda
      utilizes this psychological experience to imbue the masses with subjective truths or lies.
      Intelligent reasoning does not carry much influence with the masses. The unorganized masses
      think in terms of their simplest members. Organization and training gradually raise the level of
      isolated collectivities and formations. Mutual and collective training in thinking advance a group
      beyond its own limitations. A mass ideal can inspire the individual to achieve beyond his own
      capabilities, since the feeling of unity with others gives a sense of greater power.

       

      Every individual is simultaneously subject to different and often opposing communal forces; the
      one retards; the other advances him. Although no generalization is possible, individual creativity
      occurs in the interrelationship with the collectivity. Man, however, is not entirely the product of
      the mass. He is a distinct unit, reacting in a differentiated way. Through working and thinking
      with other people, through a joint search for truth, genius begins to flower. This requires
      organization, however. Such groups, for instance, as clerical orders or study groups, have
      evolved the kind of social-thinking which refines and civilizes itself through patient training and
      cooperation. Where people work and think together, a democratic atmosphere develops which
      stimulates the individual, and every form of conscious organization of the mass brings about
      through its affective ties a gradually maturing intellectual relationship.

       

      The mass as a crowd, as an accidental formation, however, does not undergo a similar process.
      The reaction of the mass depends on its organization, its formative ties and its cultural level.
      Where there is no seeking and thinking on a communal level and mutual relationship, thoughts
      regress to the stage of collective primitive thinking.

       

      The formation of “mass man” as such results in decreased individual fear and lowering of the
      mental level. A mechanization of the soul takes place. All men are partly mass, that means:
      object of collective influences.

      The mass binds individuals and equalizes them by exerting an
      archaic authoritarian influence on their critical faculties. When the mass becomes more selfconscious,
      as in a democracy, that unconscious authoritarian attitude disappears.
      The uniform reactions of people toward collective symbols, similar to the common symbolism in
      dream life, permits us to speak of common unconscious emotional ties between the individual
      and the collectivity. With Jung, (io) we can speak of a collective unconscious and collective
      thinking. Collective thinking has unlimited memory. It is easily influenced by suggestion and
      lacks all critical capacity. Collective thinking wields tremendous power and influence. The
      unorganized masses make the same affective adjustment as natives in the jungle. Words and
      thoughts assume a magic significance. They become catchwords which evoke mass-feelings.
      They are meaningless and unverified but act as emotional signals which arouse hate and
      aggression.

       

       

      The collectivity also has its unconscious life and dreams. Every revolution, every war evokes
      that collective dream. Certain collectivities forever cherish the dream of revenge or power.
      Alongside their conscious display of power lives their magic-mythical state. Some collectivities
      eternally stimulate and arouse memories of something great, of a hidden kingdom of dreams. It is
      curious that in the mass soul as well, there exists a polarity: the conscious wish for order and
      planning stands in opposition to chaotic dreams and ideals. There are people (and nations) who
      lose themselves in this tragic split.

      As individuals we are moved at the deepest level by the elan of the collective unconscious. The
      mass as such does not create, but it provides vital energy for the creating individual. Man often
      loses value when separated from the collectivity, when he lacks what he can introject and
      assimilate from the group.

       

      Mass thinking is a living reality within us. It bears more resemblance to feeling than to thinking.
      Real thinking, real coping with reality takes place in isolation, but the collectivity delivers the
      emotional energy to it.

       

      When a native comes into contact with our civilization he learns to think in accordance with our
      mores. When, however, he returns to his tribe, the old collective concepts again take hold of his
      mind. When a German meets a German, the German myth begins to work with him; when two
      Dutchmen meet each other, the consciousness of their past is revived; when two boys from
      Arizona get together the spirit of the Western border becomes aroused.

       

      SECTION TWO
      The Craving for Catchwords

       

       

      The constant repetition of an emotional symbol makes the masses ripe for government by
      catchword. The catchword can precipitate the discharge of a specific collective explosion.
      After the Germans had conquered Europe by arms, they tried to conquer its spirit by catchwords.
      Their friends the traitors and turncoats knew the trick well. Whenever they had the opportunity,
      they coined new catchwords to obscure the old ones. They were fighting for the most beautiful
      ideals. Such phrases as “The New World” and “Fighting for a New Europe” were common ones.
      “Renewal” became a particularly dangerous catchword. Whenever the fallacious implication of a
      catchword was exposed, a new one was coined to justify the old ones. Aggressive catchwords
      enabled the masses to express and discharge their feelings of hate, and each man could project
      his private angers on the mass-invective.

      The Equalization of the Masses

       

       

      The mass leaves no room for particularity and individuality. The individual must learn to howl
      with the wolves. Mass thinking intimidates the individual. Only a very few are able to withdraw
      in critical isolation. The mass challenges this withdrawal; especially when a general feeling of
      fear prevails is all non-conformist thinking forbidden. The equality of mood acts as a narcotic;
      the individual is finally dragged away by the feelings of the mass. The catchword and the spirit is
      assimilated. One is forced to scold with one’s fellow-members at the official scapegoats. The
      excited mass demands substitute objects on which it can discharge its disappointment and fury.
      These serve as cathartic agents.

       

      Almost instinctually man is forced to cooperate with and yield to the mass. It becomes
      impossible to evade mass-thinking and mass action. The first impression will determine whether
      we will conform or not. The need for direct evaluation forces us to give in to conformity.

      Traditional Mass-Thinking

      We develop as an organic part of the collectivity. During our development a process of mental
      assimilation takes place in which habits and traditions of our environment are unconsciously
      absorbed. They grow within us and we cannot rid ourselves of them. Adolescence engenders a
      certain intellectual opposition which evaluates old patterns of thought and action and which may
      even lead to non-conformism. Nevertheless, the traditional idea, intellectually and critically
      conquered, suddenly comes to the fore.
      Man is bound to different social circles and formations. Sometimes those different influences
      may clash in the individual. Everyone who enters a certain group or social formation assumes,
      consciously or unconsciously, its rules and traditions. Against his will he assimilates the
      language, the gestures, the prejudices of the group. He takes over, too, the archaic forms of
      thinking, the superstitions, the taboos, the delusions of the group. Jung referred to these
      unconscious assimilations as archaic engrams and innate ideas.
      Conformism and Submissiveness in the Masses

      Among certain groups of animals, leadership is determined by the animal’s physical prowess.
      The animal who, by force or accident, wins the struggle establishes its position of leadership.
      The champion assures not only his leading place in the group but also the submissiveness of the
      others.

       

      We all submit to certain forms of supremacy and leadership. The tyrant fascinates us into
      obedience. Subconsciously we follow him even if our mind revolts. In every community a
      continual struggle for precedence takes place.
      Especially when a mass is on the move, we must obey, as if in panic. Following and obeying
      provides a comforting satisfaction. This is particularly evident among children and soldiers.
      The last decades have demonstrated how the masses, under the influence of criminal propaganda,
      can become criminal and primitive. Medieval witch-hunting is revived. Minorities are persecuted
      and slaughtered in gas-chambers. Injustice is tolerated, accepted and even justified. Mass
      delusion converts every member of the mass to a criminal. This form of mass-universality, as
      imitation of the leader, still fosters shame and guilt-feeling. It is the minor “criminal vanguard”,
      however, which fascinates the mass and changes its moral laws. A pseudounity is formed
      through fear and fascination which must always be perpetuated with further fear and fascination.
      The Paradox of Censorship on Public Opinion

      When, after 1918, the science of influencing the public became more systematized, the chaotic
      attempts at psychological warfare during the first world war were studied. Governments established departments of press and propaganda.
      Napoleon already had recognized the importance of taking such measures when he established a
      “Bureau de l’Opinion Publique”. Following his time, the interest waned.
      One of the chief problems centered about the means of methodically deepening the unconscious
      docility of the public and deriving the utmost profit out of this submissiveness. Propaganda and
      influence always carry an authoritarian connotation. Public opinion becomes a keyboard which
      may be played on ad libitum. The soundness of this psychological technique, however, still
      remains an open question. Propaganda techniques utilize sentimental methods of expression
      which play upon the emotional resonance of large masses. The pretense of tears makes others
      cry. Every psychologist, however, is aware that these expressions disguise other feelings and
      other intentions. The pretense of conformity is not equivalent to thinking in conformity.
      The first propaganda attack leaves the public rather unsteady but continual suggestive pressure
      brings about certain immunizing processes. The individual is able to build up his mental defense.
      Gradually people retrieve their critical faculties. Popular character and previous collective
      training decide the sensitivity of a population to propaganda. When the propaganda has a
      flattering effect on the minds, when it provides justification without hurting the self-esteem of
      the mass, then it exerts a great influence. Propaganda for war, for instance, has to discharge the
      conscience of the people. Intellectual motivation in such instances is subordinate to emotional
      justification.

       

       

      Finally, however, a general critical attitude comes to the fore’. The alien propaganda, the nerve
      war launched by the enemy, has little effect. The suggestive armor of the enemy never reaches
      the people. Only under terror will it temporarily have its effect. During the first World War,
      Germany paid millions to purchase the pro-German opinion of the world. Public opinion,
      however, is much more independent of propaganda than one supposes it to be, as may be seen in
      political contests where a free voting public rejects candidates backed by powerful and
      influential forces.

      Not only do controlled press and propaganda lose full contact with public opinion, but they also
      achieve a paradoxical result. The greater the censorship and the more. suggestive the
      dictatorship, the more the people will seek other means of verification. The broad mass is well
      aware-though not always consciously-whether its information is dictated or free. Dictated
      illusions are often accepted because they conform to the wishes of the mass. When, however, this conformity is absent, even truth is
      interpreted as lie. During the last two years of the second World War, German propaganda artists
      had to fight constantly against the catastrophic interpretation of their “victories.”
      As early as 1936, unsuspected Nazis were attempting to obtain foreign uncensored newspapers.
      They borrowed the papers of foreign visitors, asked their opinions, listened to radio broadcasts
      from abroad. During the war, when the first ecstasy of European conquest came to an end, this
      attitude became especially pronounced. The desire to be cheated diminished in the horrible
      reality of bombing raids.

       

      The danger of all propaganda is its potential power to convince all those who must deal with it
      daily. The propagandists themselves are most susceptible, and believe, in the end, in their own
      cheating. Real public opinion maintains its skepticism. In periods of censorship and dictated
      thought rumor and whispering campaigns flourish. People become confused by their own fearful
      imagination. They believe nothing and they believe all. The most improbable rumor becomes
      truth. All news from official sources is interpreted by means of a secret formula. During the
      German occupation,. I assisted at several sessions in which Nazi newspapers were investigated
      as cryptic reports which had to be explained by special formula, giving new meaning to the
      words.

      Man cannot accept thought control. He must express himself. He demands the right to free
      conversation. He is like the barber of the fairytale who was compelled to whisper his deadly
      secret into the ground: “King Midas has the ears of a donkey.” Criticism can never be
      extinguished because criticism in one’s own soul is not extinguishable.
      Suggestive Weapons

       

      There are, however, suggestive weapons, fascinating catchwords and penetrating formulas,
      which inoculate the masses so effectively that hardly anyone can escape mass-infection. Some
      thoughts can be hammered in with great suggestiveness. Their effects depend on the
      preparedness and vulnerability of the masses to mental infection. The need to yield to suggestion
      is all-pervasive, even in the so-called democratic countries. Democracy is easily tired and lazy
      and there are few who offer mental resistance. We are not trained to be individualists.
      Recent historical events have taught us the results of several suggestive press campaigns. We
      know how radio commentators can influence the population and arouse panic. We have
      experienced how lies of fictitious invasions are used to make the people ready for war. The
      catchword “holy hate” fascinates. The construction of an acceptable casus belli is not difficult.
      Even “test-rumors” are made use of to gauge the mood and reaction of a population. The dictator
      must forever flatter the public and test its love for him. Hitler knew how to feed the people with
      dream-pictures. He erected huge palaces and monuments to fascinate and flatter the masses.
      Propaganda, the technical application of suggestion, contains much magic. The constant
      repetition of “I win” and the repeated inscription of that phrase convinces the primitive soul that
      victory is near. The streets and walls of occupied countries were plastered with magic posters
      announcing the German’s final victory. The gods are induced to bring about victory by magic
      action. In this way, the archaic man of the glacial period conquered the bison, and twentieth
      century man pursues the same strategy.

      Independence of Public Opinion

      It is a well known rule of the science of hypnosis that suggestion can never draw more out of a
      man than is already in him. That is, we cannot direct the masses to war without a latent desire for
      war.

      Experiences of the presidential elections in this country in 1936 and 1940 indicated that very
      suggestive anti-Roosevelt press campaigns could not sway public opinion. The same resistance
      to pressure operated in the 1948 election. Suggestion plus intimidation may have results. But
      America is still a democratic country and no large scale mental terrorism has been utilized. What
      superficially is referred to as public opinion is rarely anything but wishful thinking by the
      formulators of leading editorial policies. Even the so-called “will of the people” is little more
      than the successful results of propaganda techniques. Genuine public opinion is much more
      difficult to test. Sample polls also cannot reflect real opinion since in reality individuals may be
      temporarily spellhound by given influences, which are later dissipated.

      Pseudo- and Real Public Opinion

       

      There seems to be an apparent and a real public opinion. Even at election-time, when public
      opinion is freely expressed, real opinions *Later analysis in postwar Germany indicated that not
      all of these influences were effective. Suggestions from the leader-even under terror-don’t always
      sway the masses. Dictated suggestions are followed, not, however, without latent opposition and
      resistance.

      are often disguised for security reasons or out of a herd instinct. A kind of mass-sympathy easily
      results in abandonment of one’s own opinion. Fear devaluates self-awareness. Who has the
      courage to be the oneman opposition in a large meeting? Public opinion becomes little more than
      a dictatorial suggestion burning on every tongue if there is no chance for free expression.
      May we speak of a mass or people’s will? The tendency to reach a personal goal can be broken
      by mass influence. There is no real mass will but there exists an inhibition of the individual will
      by mass influence. There exists a mass-paralysis as we all experienced in the Low Countries
      during the first months of Nazi terror. The individual can be dragged away by the mass. But the
      mass can also inspire him to courageous acts far beyond his original power.
      Mass-opinion polls only indicate how the individual opinions vary from day to day. The
      egocentricity of the public in viewing major problems is almost incredible. A wastebasket fire in
      the next office is more significant than an outbreak of war on another continent. When Japan
      invaded China in 1932 and the first rumors of an impending world catastrophe circled the globe
      the American press was preoccupied exclusively with the stolen Lindbergh baby. The press was
      unable (or unwilling) to launch a campaign for international intervention. The public did not
      want to see it. The same happened in 1939- It was as if the vast public tried to frustrate the
      impending catastrophe. In July, 1939, a British poll indicated that the public of Great Britain
      apparently gave little thought to war. One of its main concerns was astrology. (6).

       

      The Formation of Public Opinion

      We can look at the problem of public opinion from the point of view of the public relations
      expert or the politician and ask ourselves how to imbue the public with appreciation of the
      importance of a particular opinion or the wish for a special commercial article. Demagogic
      formulas and catchwords bring the masses in contact with general ideas, with special names and
      special attitudes. Even illogicality is a form of power. The aphorism need not be proven,
      provided the formula is repeated often and brilliantly enough.
      Public opinion is ready to accept, first of all, all that is emotional and touching. Criticism does
      not come until later. First flatter the public and arouse its emotions. This was the strategy applied
      by Hitler (8) and Mussolini. In “Mein Kampf”, Hitler speaks of the need to “imbue” the masses
      with fanaticism in order to gain power over

       

      them. That is, mass thought must be constantly kept in a fluid state, under emotional pressure. To
      lead the masses, one must provide dynamic ideals. The big danger, according to Hitler, is apathy
      and inertia. Frustration and fascination, glamor and success, will move the masses.
      How is collective emotion formed? Psychology refers to the process of transference of feelings
      to the collectivity in which the individual projects his personal feelings on the collective
      emotion. Real opinion roots much deeper. In a community where terror and rumor reign,
      emotions are easily transferred. Personal criticism is non-existent. Because nothing is verifiable,
      affectivity increases and mass-delusions flourish.

       

      SECTION THREE
      Individual and Mass-Thinking

       

       

       

      This essay will view mass opinion and mass thinking in another way. Here, too, we take the
      individual subject as the starting point. The mass-psychologist must always and everywhere deal
      with living people. These living men and their formations make history. It is a mistake to speak
      of mass-thinking. The collectivity as such does not think; only the individual thinks in mutual
      relationship with the influences of the collectivity. The collectivity, however, inspires
      comparable thoughts in different individuals and does so to a much greater extent than the
      individual is aware of. The idea which does not find root in the nourishing soil of the group will
      wilt. Individual thinking needs some social echo or it dies. A thought is as much a means of
      communication as the word. The need for social resonators is as great for philosophical theories
      as for political fantasies. Even a meeting of philosophers has the aspect of an archaic emotional
      mass.

       

      The mass keeps thoughts alive and forces the individual to think in conformity. Even in isolation
      the individual maintains contact with the mass and keeps his thoughts within the framework of
      relationships with others. How I direct my thoughts, conformist or non-conformist, I am always
      in relation with an imaginary social formation.

      A mass meeting arouses the need for conformity and conversion. The mass has a magnetic
      attraction for the individual. The meeting and the mass emotion evoke, even in the greatest
      skeptic, an archaic need for identification and conformity. Our thinking is less immune to masseffect
      than we are aware of. In relation to this the following question poses itself: How are
      foreign opinions and ideas inoculated in the individual? How can he remain part of a collectivity
      and yet maintain his private opinions? How can he relate himself to other formations alien to his
      own thinking? How is mass delusion formed?

       

      The Effect of Suggestion

       

      The suggestibility of man is an inner attitude which is best understood through the study of its
      psychological development. An animal, though imitative, is not suggestible, because it has no
      consciousness of its own or of others’ instincts. The animal lives in an unconscious primitive
      relationship between itself and the world. The process of gaining consciousness in man caused,
      as it were, a kind of split between the subject and the world. The developing child sees itself
      placed as an observing subject, an ego, confronting an outside world with which it remains in
      affective contact. One of these affective relationships between the subject and the world is
      identification, the need for unity. Primitive psychology, the primitive conception of and thinking
      about another is simple imitation. The Malayan call it “lattah”, when as a result of fright or fear a
      person begins to imitate in an unconscious and unregulated way all that the other person is doing.
      The woman with “lattah” is completely subdued to her environment. She lives as a mechanical
      doll, a slave of all outer movements. We note the same process of servility in some psychotic
      patients.

      The animistic conception of the world is full of such identifications. Inner fears and wishes are
      projected onto the outside world. Material objects are virtually populated with spirits and gods.
      The opposite process also takes place. Man identifies with the outside world in a passive way. He
      is immobile like the rock; active like a waterfall.

      Identification and Psychological Feeling In everyone a certain amount of this identifying attitude survives. This passive identification
      develops into a capacity for psychological feeling with others, for empathy, a capacity for feeling
      pity and compassion, sympathy and feeling of social responsibility. That is why every man
      remains suggestible, bound with invisible bonds to his fellow-beings. That is why he may be
      susceptible to feelings and thoughts from outside, contrary to all logic and reasoning. The
      instinct of social identification lives in all human beings, and is perhaps the beginning of charity.
      Complete identification with the thinking, feeling and acting of others is a psychological process
      encountered everywhere. In the play of children one object serves to substitute for another, their
      toys replace the objects from the mature world. The hero or leader is imitated by adolescents in
      particular. The people of the Far East are masters of imitation and identification. A good
      example is that of the meditating man of Tibet who for so long identified with a Yak-a largehorned
      animal-that he refused to leave his house for fear of bumping his horns against the door.
      We Westerners identify with the history of our country, with our civilization, with our
      countryside. That is why we speak of the German, the Frenchman, the American. The more
      unfamiliar a stranger is, the more closely does he become identified with the vague and
      generalized knowledge of his country or race.

      Participating Feeling

       

      Through identification-also called participation-the “own” personality may be completely
      neglected in the service of the prototype. Animals and devils, saints and heroes, can be so
      thoroughly identified with and imitated that even their external form may be assimilated. This is
      referred to as stigmatization.

      Children, especially, undergo this participating thinking. They are fully possessed by the
      introjected personality. They are completely subdued and untouchable by criticism. All
      sympathy is easily converted into identification, and identification into submission and slavery.
      Through identification the own personality becomes eliminated.
      The feeling of unity with the mass stimulates a great many people. A rhythmic march can
      invigorate and touch the onlooker. The feeling of participation is an overwhelming one.
      Identification is at work everywhere and at all times.

       

      Not even the most critical philosopher is exempt. At the University in Leyden, a very intelligent
      student of my well-known teacher in philosophy (Bolland) continued the lectures of her master
      after the latter’s death. She had not only assimilated the philosophy of her teacher, but his voice,
      his attitude and gestures as well.
      We all undergo identification and participation, especially if we feel enthusiastic about someone
      or his thinking. The process of identification and participation weakens our critical attitude. That
      is the price we pay for living in a social community.

      The Social Value of Suggestibility

       

      This infantile suggestible attitude prevails among the mass. It is as if men withdraw their critical
      rational feelers. Those who aim at protecting others and becoming less vulnerable themselves by
      avoiding suggestibility, disregard and overlook the social value of suggestibility. The first
      principles of human love and charity are related to such participation. Through the process of
      identification and equalization the individual becomes less vulnerable. In the mass, we are
      dealing with people of various mental attributes. When a mass opinion, a “communis opinio” is
      formulated, mutual aggression is forestalled. Every individual gradually becomes part of a
      community and takes over its moral norms and valuations. The mass is comprised of passive
      onlookers who await suggestive, positive leadership to which they can conform.
      Anonymity

      There is danger, however, behind identification and participation. The free development of the
      individual may be jeopardized. Too much attachment to a collectivity inhibits personal growth.
      Man becomes a passive and unintelligent follower. He acquires the habit of thinking behind the
      pretext of anonymity. He no longer formulates individual opinions but becomes the interpreter of
      the thoughts of others. He is no longer responsible for his own search of truth. The collectivity
      has assumed that responsibility.
      Mental terror of long duration ultimately reduces all people to this phase of anonymity and
      thought-slavery.

      As mentioned above, modern techniques of communication are well able to “de-individualize”
      man. Modern techniques can bring about thought discipline more effectively and are also better
      able to control it. Man can become a thinking slave in a powerful technological organism.
      Technique means power and mass. Technique depersonalizes man, technique makes him
      anonymous. The personality always experiences resistance in the mass. Individual peculiarities
      are regarded with hostility.
      This feeling of unison with a powerful technical will is felt by many as a liberation from
      individual responsibility.

       

      Lability of Mass-Opinion

       

      When we speak of mass, then, the mass of people with an opinion, we must have primitive and
      childish evaluations. We must reject all reasonable norms and think in terms of myth and
      suggestion, lability of opinion and primitive optimism. The mass-affect is nearly always directed
      against the intellectual function. The mass is suspicious of critical intelligence. It tolerates only
      affective relations and rejects all critical control. Even in scientific meetings, we may be
      subjected to the same psychological laws. The adept speaks; the audience listens in a magic
      spell; the fathers criticize; the critical outsider is banned.

       

      It is impossible to generalize about mass or public opinion. Our experiences are constantly
      changing and constantly dependent on fear or mental terror. Every public opinion poll reveals
      only the cross-section of a mood or a certain mental spell.

       

      The mass lacks all real motives or justifications. Its only value is success. It prefers to assimilate
      tentatively the opinion of the conqueror. The mass requires heroes and traitors for the projection
      of its emotions. Unconsciously, these satisfy the individual’s inner desire to betray or his need for
      heroism.

       

      This lability changes in character during wartime, when excesses are much more evident. Rumor
      and terror wield greater influence. Out of a need for self-justification the mass is very prone to
      follow threatening suggestions. As long as public opinion is paralyzed by fear and terror it
      constitutes a weak defense against terror and injustice. People are forced to sacrifice their moral
      norms.
      A good example is the changing opinion the Germans held toward Chamberlain, England’s
      Prime Minister before the war. Prior to the Munich betrayal of 1938, the public showed no
      interest in him. After Munich, he was hailed as savior of the peace; in 1939, he was regarded as a
      plutocratic satan. All these opinions were inoculated in the German people by the Nazi
      propaganda machine.

       

       

      Through mechanization of the mind-a symptom of Western civilization-the mass can live a long
      time without any consciousness of its problems. Only crisis and suffering may arouse the minds.
      That is why the mass is intellectually lazy and spoiled. Patriotic ceremonials, confession, the
      servile press, often appease the deeper conscience and lull the people into a pseudo-peaceful
      sleep. After the shock of the second World War, there is more interest in general affairs. But
      every propaganda for noble aims has to fight against the peoples’ eternal wish for sleep.
      The unreal optimism of the masses during the year 1939 was indicated in a number of opinion
      polls. In July 1939 hardly anyone believed sincerely in war. The personal wish was the father of
      general insight. The bleak representations of the European press were not accepted. The German
      people reacted similarly. The armies, nevertheless, were gradually mobilized. Although writing
      about social psychological subjects, I, too, tried to negate my melancholy expectations of an
      impending war. I started my vacation trip in 1939 with a careless feeling of elation. Only much
      later I realized, through all kinds of symptomatic actions, how much I had been prepared for war
      and disaster.

      The public and the individual as such always attempt to suppress bad experiences and
      melancholy expectation. During the long years of German occupation, peace festivals were
      repeatedly celebrated as a reaction to rumors. Even the enemy soldier was often infected with the
      festive spirit of peace.

      In a mood of panic, especially, every suggestion is imbued with tremendous power. The wish
      and the fear determine all opinions. Our allies, the British, were forced to bomb our houses and
      towns, but the population refused to believe that its homes were smashed by British bombs. They
      interpreted the devastation as a cowardly revenge of the occupier.
      Historical evidence of the instability of public opinion is given by the German people. Toward
      the end of 1932, the Nazi minority strength was waning. From March 1933 on, under the impact
      of Hitler’s reign of terror, more than go per cent of the stated public opinion seemed to support
      Hitler.

       

       

      SECTION FOUR
      The Effect of Fear and Terror

       

       

       

      The psychology of observation and the analysis of witnesses before the court teach us that in
      moments of emotional tension all objectivity is lost. How distorted the reports on a minor
      accident can be! In a fearful state every peculiar event is interpreted as an omen, and even the
      most common occurrences cannot be described accurately. Fear demoralizes the witnesses. They
      act primitively and eliminate all logic and self-criticism; they are confused and do not know how
      to think. They become hypersensitive to new threats of danger. If one wants to get across a
      particularly aggressive point of view to a country or community, it can best be done by
      suggesting that there is danger. The people must be frightened by rumors and threats of an
      enemy. Vague fear paralyzes all criticism. What the press prescribes to believe is readily
      accepted under the spell of fear. Suspicions toward neighboring countries increase. The vicious
      circle of hate, suspicion and heightened suggestibility arises.

       

      We live in an era of suspicion. Man is weakened by fear, fright and terror. He readily accepts any
      catchwords and opinions which promise security. At the same time, the mass experiences a need
      to become familiar with fears in order to master them.
      Induction Psychosis and Mental Epidemic

      If the above symptoms are well understood they will be found to have a broader application than
      to political happenings alone. The best examples are seen in small isolated communities where a
      pathological fanatic, driven by exaggerated religious zeal, fascinates his fellowcitizens and
      makes them fearful. He injects them with his delusions, as, for instance, in the perpetration of a
      sanctioned religious murder. Religious murders precipitated by a collective psychosis are still not
      too rare. They occur in isolated villages or on small fishing boats. The threat of hell and doom by
      a fanatic make it difficult for an isolated community to confront reality. The collective delusion
      finds fertile ground for growth. The population of the ship or of the village follows the
      psychotic’s contagious behavior, and assimilates the same delusion. Recognition of this tendency
      may well explain the ancient practice-in protracted periods of ill-fortune-for the group to seek
      out the individual possessed of the evil spirit and condemn him to death.

       

      Mass-Delusion

      When the pathological leader is removed the pathological spell seems to disappear. Every mass
      delusion, however intense, disappears once its cause is eliminated. As soon as an armistice is
      signed the former hated enemy is already seen in a more normal light. War as the deluding
      element is eliminated. Often the reversion takes placeall kinds of delusions of justification arise
      about the behavior of the criminal enemy.
      Among huge masses, especially, reason can easily turn into delusion. A mass can easily become
      panicky and querulous. It is as if unconscious material exploded. Minor causes can ignite the
      intuitive flame of mass delusion through what Hitler referred to as a “fanal”-a token or signal.
      Collective phenomena are less sensitive to correction than individual phenomena. Because it is
      widely shared by identification, collective delusion is less amendable to correction than
      individual self-deceit.

       

      Contagious Mass-Delusion

       

       

      Apathy, rigidity and the feeling of paralysis are likewise contagious. After natural catastrophes
      and war we experience collective mental paralysis. The process is the same as with primitive
      people who, paralyzed by hunger, become more and more passive and finally surrender
      completely to famine and death, even when food is not far away. They no longer make use of
      active defenses. Among more civilized people as well, mental epidemics are connected with
      exhaustion and famine. This partially accounts for the general depressive hangover in Western
      Europe which followed the second World War (15).
      Various religious sects practice fasting and systematic bodily exhaustion to induce a state of
      mental sensibility and ecstasy in their followers. Ascetism furthers the formation of
      hallucinations; mass ascetism paves the way for mass delusion. Hungry people are dangerous.
      The hallucinations of one spread easily to others. The mass imagines more and more.
      All these processes are dependent on cultural factors. When civilization becomes limited, tired
      and decadent, archaic forms of thinking revive.

       

      Diffusion and interaction between cultures prevent mass delusion. Short-Cuts and Mass-
      Delusion

      In mass delusion all coming to terms with reality is lost. Argumentation is inverted because of
      the intellectual laziness of the masses. “Because Negroes are lynched, something must be wrong
      with them. Because witches are burned, their souls are sold to the devil. Because Jews are
      persecuted, they must be evil.” Pity the wolf that has a bad smell! Very few will be willing to
      free him of that smell.

       

      The study of mass mental epidemics explains the changeability of the masses. Perhaps it is more
      difficult to cause mass contagion among more civilized people. Yet, on a ship it is only necessary
      to call “shipwreck” to cause collective hallucinations of drownings and wrecks.
      As with the neurotic, the collectivity, too, has its unconscious complexes which may be
      stimulated and brought to the fore. The mass is highly affective and is governed by rather simple
      feelings. Only minor justifications are necessary to evoke mass explosions and mass murder.
      These are brought about particularly easily when a state of fear already exists. Mass delusion
      provides more emotional satisfaction than logical criticism. The collective delusion is the
      common catchword, the token, on which all private longings and needs are projected
      temporarily.

       

      The collective symbol provides everyone with the necessary satisfaction. Paradoxically, mass
      delusion, rather than being an impersonal phenomena, provides everyone with an opportunity to
      abreact his private wishes and phantasies.

      Historical Delusions

       

      Mass delusion and collective psychoses were already clearly observed by the Romans and
      Greeks. Think of the mystery-cults whose members assumed all kinds of ecstatic attitudes which
      climaxed in epileptic convulsions. Similar orgiastic dances are still found among members of
      certain tribes. The Greeks sometimes referred to these as contagious satyr-delusions. The
      possessed suddenly began a dance which culminated in an epileptic fit. One possessed dancer
      influenced another until the entire mass was involved in the orgiastic dance. Thus, it was
      believed that the satyrs in them awoke. At the end, people fell down exhausted; some even died.
      Mass-Delusion and Rite
      Every rite restores men to the magic realm of infancy. As soon as a club is formed, such rites are
      performed by its members. The cheer of u football club, the ritualistic gesture of a political
      group, the masonic rite-all these signify the magic longing for a dream country, for returning to a
      blessed state that has passed.
      In the mass, where one’s anonymity is preserved, unconscious drives are much more easily
      discharged. The cult and ceremonial are merely justification for this deeper process. Token forms
      of similar regressions can be observed at a masked ball, for instance, where the mask and
      anonymity facilitate regressive behavior.
      Chorea-Major, St. Vitus Dance

       

       

      The mass epidemic of dance fury during and after the first World War is still fresh in our
      memory. The same phenomenon could be experienced during the second World War. The dance
      is of tremendous importance as a simultaneously binding and freeing element for primitive mass
      groupings. Through dancing and orgiastic behavior the masses tried to escape their primitive
      fears of the gods. Plutarchus described such an epidemic among the girls of Milete. When
      rumors of the Black Death (plague) reached them, they burst into furious dancing, showed all
      kinds of ecstatic attitudes and finally committed suicide. The therapy for such behavior was
      curious; when these girls were threatened with being dragged naked through the streets-dead or
      alive-the mass-psychosis disappeared.

       

      Toward the end of the 14th century a contagious epidemic of dance fury swept Germany and
      spread to all of Europe (St. Vitus Dance – Chorea Major). It followed the Black Plague. The
      victims of the epidemic broke into dancing and were unable to stop. Many cloisters were infected
      with this so-called “chorea Germanicorum”. In Italy the same process was referred to as
      “Tarantism” and explained as the result of a toxic bite of a spider, the tarantula. The exalted
      dance cast a mysterious spell. The spectators were carried away by ecstasy. It was generally
      believed that the dance had a cathartic effect. It could heal and liberate from depressive and
      angry moods. Special melodies were composed to influence and soothe Tarantism. The melodies
      as such caused ecstasy and exercised a hypnotic effect.

       

       

      History records many similar motile mass-psychoses as reactions to fear, war and persecution. In
      individual pathology the same form of abnormal defense reaction is known as “fear mania”.
      Following a frightening experience the patient shows an apparently cheerful exaltation combined
      with hallucinations. Toward the end of the 16th century-the period of reformation and religious
      persecution-a similar mass reaction is reported for children. Following a dance, these children
      assumed the delusion that they were cats, climbed trees and began to meow. Driven by mass
      contagion, they identified completely with cats. The same is valid for the “werewolf” delusion,
      which the Nazis tried to arouse anew in their youth movement (14).

      A well-known sect given to ecstatic convulsions were the so-called “Tremblers of the Avennes”
      in France during the 16th century. They were unmercifully persecuted. The same kind of motile
      fury could be observed later in all kinds of religious sects-the drum-dance of the Shamans, the
      sect of the jumpers in Pennsylvania. Even now many a “pardoned sinner”, when confessing in
      open meeting, shows symptoms of chorea and convulsions. The emotion is too great for the mass
      and among some the mass emotion precipitates an explosion.

      Modern Chorea

       

      Modern chorea has assumed another aspect. Fear still evokes restless movement among men.
      Modern man tries to escape his fears in the raving frenzy of automobiles and airplanes. Men does
      not dare to relax but is on a constant lookout for movement and diversion. Jazz and other
      rhythms lure people to archaic depths, to become part of a chaotic mass of sound and movement.
      Intoxication and ecstasy turn them into wild dancing children.
      Wild auto races along the highways conducted by the Nazis in occupied territory were typical of
      such an attitude. The participants seemed like children trying to escape their guilt. One officer
      admitted that he performed dangerous racing feats to escape the tension of previous war-days.
      He was unable to remain quiet and seemed compelled to drive around. Catapulting along the
      road, playing with wheels and controls, imbued him with a feeling of power. The technical
      sorcerer is again alive within us. Aviators, too, know this intoxication. Ancient chorea has
      become the raving frenzy of the highways.

      Mass-Ecstasy

      Rhythmical sound and motion, especially, are contagious. A rhythmical call to the crowd easily
      foments mass ecstasy. “Duce, Duce, Duce!” The call repeats itself into the infinite and liberates
      the mind of all reasonable inhibitions.
      In collective contagion the unconscious means of communication also play an important role.
      Certain emotional movements can be easily suggested to the mass. Think, for instance, of the
      contagious yawning, coughing and laughing in a theater.

      The Suicidal Thinking of the Mass

       

      There is something destructive, masochistic in mass thinking. The archaic instinct wins out.
      Action is preferred to judgment. It is not victory that is aimed for but the suppression of certain
      feelings. Heroism is chosen as a kind of self-punishment; the daring and the bold throw
      themselves into battle out of hidden feelings of guilt.
      It is as if the mass simultaneously feared and loved panic and explosion. Some masses even long
      masochistically-though unconsciously -for slavery. Man in fear does not like freedom. The
      submissiveness of the masses is much greater than is usually supposed. National differences do,
      of course, help to determine the difference in degree of masochistic mass-feeling.

       

       

      Mass-Suicide

       

      Individual and collective suicide is frequent during periods of collective psychoses.* In Milete,
      as already described, suicides were committed after the convulsive ecstasy of the victims. In
      Russia, during the 19th century, religious sects existed with suicide as a special aim. Hidden
      collective fears stimulated such suicidal behavior. The suicidal epidemic is familiar as an
      adolescent symptom and is especially fre*See the second essay of this book.
      quent in boarding schools, where it serves as an escape and revenge toward parents and teachers.
      Following the invasion of Western Europe by the Germans a suicide epidemic appeared.
      Intellectuals and aesthetes, especially, were unable to defend themselves against the contagious
      delusion of world doom. When all living is dominated by fear and compulsion, then suicide may
      be regarded as a final expression of free will.

      During the Middle Ages suicidal tendencies and preoccupations were exceedingly common.
      About the year 1000 the arrival of the Antichrist was expected everywhere with great fear. The
      entire world was infected with this magic fear, which led to all forms of self-torment,
      flagellantism and suicide-and simultaneous persecution of Witches and Jews.
      The children’s crusade in the Middle Ages offers the best example of mass delusion. This
      religious ideal provided the pretext and justification for mass orgiastic behavior, mass regression
      and aggression.

       

      The Delusion of Metamorphosis and the Delusion of Witches The delusion of being someone
      else is a curious one. It stems from the phase of mental development in which ego and world are
      inseparable and undifferentiated. The archaic thoughts stemming from that period are persistent
      and indestructible. The feeling of mystic participation reappears and man believes himself bound
      to other beings and metaphysical forces. The images of the group assume more reality than man’s
      own critical confrontation of reality. This form of archaic thinking is still in evidence in our
      times. I am not I. My own value is of no significance. I am part of a crowd, a race, a soil, a
      school, a scientific clan. The label I wear is of greater importance than real value. I must have
      papers with rubber stamps and not a soul. And when I do not wear a special label I am found to
      be guilty of some unknown crime. This is what actually happens to our displaced people. This
      means, psychologically, that in such spheres the ego is not liberated from its family history or
      environment.

       

      In a primitive way we find the metamorphic delusion in the fear of being transformed into an
      animal, for instance. The fear of one’s own animal instinct stimulates that delusion. One does not
      dare to eat meat through fear of acquiring bestial qualities. The Middle Ages saw the rise of
      werewolf epidemics-the collective fear of being transformed into angry werewolves.
      Once the werewolf delusion was fixed, all drives and instincts were permitted to come to the
      fore. The delusion became a justification for devilish disorderliness. Hitler tried to form such
      werewolf organizations to take over after his death. It is the artificial delusion which prepares for
      the outbreak of bestial instincts.

      Among people with strong inner tensions, especially, the fear of an outbreak of their own hidden
      drives grows steadily. The cause of the fear is projected onto others, who are then accused of
      being changed, cursed and possessed by a magic spell. This gave rise-and still doesto the horrible
      delusion of witches. The witch is the recipient of our projections of lust and bestiality. Modern
      times have substituted other invectives for “witch”.

      Toward the end of the Middle Ages the burning-piles were lit everywhere to receive the witches
      expiating their devilish metamorphoses. A collective delusion of persecution reigned throughout
      Europe. Even the best were not exempt from the delusion. Cattle were believed to be poisoned
      by witches. Citizens were cursed with a spell by the followers of the devil. Children were
      slaughtered. The judges took part in the same delusion. Few could escape the mental masscontagion.
      In Holland-thanks to the influence of the psychiatrist Joannis Wier-the last capital
      punishment of a witch took place in 1597-two hundred years before many other countries. Where
      the phenomenon of delusion becomes better known, the persecution of witches and other
      “possessed” victims is stemmed.

      None of these delusions are too far removed in history. Until late in the 19th century the deluded
      man brought his human offering to the altar of his primitive gods. In 20th century Germany these
      delusions were again revived. The burning-piles were lit again, the gas chambers set in motion,
      God Moloch and other tokens of human delusion again assumed their human flesh. The Jews
      became the new witches.

       

      The Delusion of the Ritual Murder

       

       

      The Romans accused the Christians of drinking the blood of slaughtered children at their ritual
      suppers. Confessions were extorted under torture. In the Middle Ages the same ritual murder was
      projected onto the Jews, and in Russia the ritual murder myth persisted until the Revolution of
      1917. The Chinese, too, accused Christian missionaries of fabricating magic ointments out of
      children’s organs. Over and over again we find that unconscious primitive habits are projected
      onto scapegoats in various parts of the world. Projection of one’s own criminality takes place
      everywhere, as though the accusation partly satisfied personal bloodthirsty longings. The best
      example of these primitive projections are found in the Nazi publication “Der Sturmer” in which
      the Nazis consistently stimulated and encouraged primitive urges.
      Criminal fantasy prefers to accuse other people.

       

      Collective Conceit

      Primitive mentality enhances the feeling of personal worth and conceit. Slight delusions in
      relation to others are very common in man; he is forever trying to shape reality in accordance
      with his wishes.

      A higher sense of reality furthers the awareness of one’s place in the universe, in the community
      and in the family. The primitive tendency to make oneself more important, however, is a difficult
      one to conquer. All primitive tribes have gods which are more powerful than neighboring gods.
      They consider themselves chosen and preferred by their gods, and this sweet delusion makes
      them love their own importance.

      The collective delusion of being a chosen people is not characteristic of the Jews alone. Every
      people believe in their own superiority; when they are powerful they accept it as a matter of fact,
      and when they are weak they must needs proclaim it. Some psychologists refer to the collective
      delusion of superiority. It seems as if this delusion enables a collectivity to be creative and to
      reach a higher stage of civilization. Collective cohesion as such stimulates feelings of
      superiority. A feeling of inferiority makes the collective passive and defeatist. The colored races,
      as well, have their theories and delusions of superiority (more vital, more musical, more longsuffering).
      All people know this delusion of superiority. Success is suggestive. Men bow to
      success and make it the yardstick of their moral evaluations.
      The same conceit is found among Mohammedans. The British, too, have a strong feeling of
      superiority-“right or wrong, my country.” Patriotic attitudes concerning the American way of life
      also express this general feeling of superiority. Let us never forget the horrible implication of the
      quite naturally accepted myth of the Aryan race. Here the feeling of superiority becomes a
      delusion of greatness which has already precipitated collective madness.
      Scientists, too, may be infected with feelings of conceit. They may not be aware that even
      science is weighted with affectivity and emotion. How many new discoveries are scoffed at in
      the beginning because they run contrary to the “official” school of thought. The relation between
      the will to power and science, especially, leads easily to feelings of scientific superiority. Just as
      in the Middle Ages, this may result in the prohibition of free research.
      Take; for instance, social research, a science so near to political in
      terests and power politics. No social scientist lacks prejudice or is free of preconceived feelings
      and intentions. It is easy to make social science the servant of power politics in a non-democratic
      state.

      The Readiness for Collective Delusion

       

      If a leader or a party tries to alleviate collective feelings of inferiority and if the leader is not a
      sound personality, he can graft nearly every mass delusion into the group. If one eulogizes the
      glory of one’s own people or race, the humiliated immediately feels himself raised. The
      envisioned glory of the proletariat raises the poor to new action but also to new delusion.
      It is significant to note that the Semitic group, with the most persistently maintained delusion of
      greatness, became, because of its persecution, the champion of law and justice. The weak always
      revolts against the strong under the banner of justice. However, the idea of justice is already a
      correction of the delusion of superiority (15). The passion for justice can correct the idea of
      superiority and teach the people more national and racial modesty.

       

      Collective Symbols

      When primitive mechanisms come into play and mass-thinking penetrates our thoughts our
      thinking becomes impoverished. Talk and argument are substituted for thinking. Primitive mass
      attitudes always have an authoritative effect. They prescribe what has to be thought, while the
      fear of the spiritual and soundly intelligent gradually grows.
      In times of chaos and diffusion, especially, everyone hopes for the satisfaction of his own private
      instincts. The claims of the unconscious drives, which were previously placed under censorship,
      are transferred to the generally accepted symbols-the State, the Army, the Leader. These must
      satisfy the unconscious longings of the masses.
      All are eager to accept new symbols and tokens, keys to the fulfillment of their secret wishes. A
      new mass delusion is born out of the meeting of unconscious wishes. Everyone projects what he
      personally longs for most.
      The Germans were careful to formulate such symbols and phrases for the populations of the
      occupied countries. The word “new” was used with particular effectiveness and therefore,
      became immediately a suspect word. The “new epoch . . . new future . . . new blessing for
      mankind” were suggested as symbols of a fulfillment of hidden childish expectations.
      Propaganda for the “new” does little beyond offering old wine in new barrels. Real new thoughts
      do not announce themselves as such; new ideas first grow in hiding. They reach the light through
      the warmth of our burning need for truth and insight. New thoughts and new feelings cannot be
      imposed.

      The Power of the Masses

       

       

      In the midst of all kinds of fearful, magic imaginations the masses long for greatness, for
      symbolic fathers, capable of furnishing security. The masses demand powerful fetishes and
      powerful kings. They want to be subjects of a powerful state, which can praise and punish, hate
      and revenge.
      The lust for power is always a primitive fear symbol. It is the fear of another’s greatness. It
      reflects the primitive alertness of the herd. Thinking man learns to understand that life as such
      can be powerfuleven more powerful than death. He does not long for external power but for the
      essentials of life. He has learned to relinquish power in exchange for civilization. Modern want
      for power and might is still a regressive symptom of a fearful mass, frightened by the economic
      struggle and by insecurity.

      The Urge for Equality in the Mass

       

      The mass demands equality of feeling in its members. Those who deviate are not accepted.
      Chauvinism rejects the anti-chauvinists, and a collective evaluation of beliefs is sought.
      Symbols, too, express this collectivity of feeling. The symbol works as a deceiving sedative,
      which affects even the outsider. Everyone learns to run with the pack. The collective cry
      awakens something in men, of which they were hitherto unaware.
      It is not the idea, the original thought, which affect the mass, but the catchword, the token, the
      symbol. The idea is converted into a catchword and mass delusion through constant repetition.
      The catchword becomes a psychological weapon of power, as many general elections have
      shown us.

       

       

      SECTION FIVE
      Word-Sensuality

       

      The word has taken possession of the mass. It has converted the amorphous mass into a fixed
      formation. Not the idea, not reality, but the formalized word, the phrase, reigns supreme. The
      word “fascist”, for instance, does not suggest a human being. For one man, it is a label for an
      ideal for which he must die or murder; for the other man, the quintessence of all that is detested.
      The word serves to hide personalities and theories behind indices and empty names. The words
      are treated as objects rather than experiences. I am often asked for my political label or my
      scientific beliefs. What and who I am does not matter. People want to know the school I
      attended; the books I quoted or the way I voted, never what I really think.
      When the word is expressed energetically, its power is enhanced. Quantity overwhelms quality.
      The word becomes loaded but loses meaning. We all make use of loaded words, of “blab” words,
      with such broad meaning that they no longer convey anything. It is one of the diseases of
      intellectuals that they are more concerned with words than with real concepts.
      When the word loses in real content it gains in magic and acquires the mysterious ambivalence
      of primitive words. Like the words in primitive languages, catchwords connote either
      confirmation or denial. Ministries of propaganda-factories of opinions-are masters in the
      fabrication of sweet justifying words. They can create-as Goebbels did -beautiful phrases for the
      most horrible crimes. If the mass is ready to accept these, it becomes invincible and impervious
      to moral opposition.

       

      Mass-affect is often proof of a deep valuation. In mass-affect the ego and its environment are not
      separated. One scolds the plutocrat because secretly one longs to imitate him. Respect and
      jealously are discharged in a new catchword. In every word lives such an ambivalent root. Every
      conscious expression of a word has unconsciously an opposite meaning. In this precipitation of
      opposite unconscious motivations lies the deceiving power of the catchword.
      This is particularly true of generalizations. Words such as “freedom” and “justice” seduce us to a
      pseudo-exactitude, while unconsciously we have completely different associations. The
      emotional significance in the background is often more influential than the real significance of
      the word. After the rape of the Low Lands the Nazis overwhelmed us with the word “justice”; we
      became sick of it.

      Twenty years ago, the word “socialist” was a nickname, while today it is the catchword for an
      ideal world order. “Communist and anarchist” still are, for a great many, derogatory symbols; for
      others, symbols of liberty. No one is concerned with the political and economic theory behind
      the word.

      A good catchword can explain all that is inexplicable. Recently, the phrase “historical task and
      duty” has served as justification for all manner of immoral deeds. The suggestion of historical
      root finds unlimited approval, especially with the non-historically minded-and that is the vast
      majority.

      The Dictatorship of the Printed Word

       

      As young children, we are already overwhelmed by the printed word. We learn to believe
      unconditionally what is printed in books. The critical attitude is developed gradually, but the first
      infantile impression persists. The delusion of the printed word takes possession of us. During the
      occupation, the enemy flooded the occupied nations with an avalanche of printed matter. He
      sought to drown the evidence of his injustice in ink.
      The word wields unlimited influence in the community. Preachers, lawyers, teachers, and
      politicians thrive on the word. To oppose an opinion or fight an idea one constructs a critical
      phrase, a slogan, or a scapegoat word designed to reach and stir the mass. During election time in
      particular, one makes acquaintance with the suggestive power of empty words. The mass
      demands more than reality; it clamors for the emotionality of the word and the feelings that it
      stimulates. Politicians make use of political fetishism. Recall, for instance, all the touching
      catchwords and slogans of past wars. What remains of them? -“Mare nostrum”, “War of
      revenge”, “War to end Wars”, “Atlantic Charter”, “Asiatic Monroe-Doctrine”, “The Four
      Freedoms”, “Holy historical rights”, “The Allied Nations”, “the New Europe”, etc., etc.

       

      Mass-Hypnosis

       

      The masses are rather easy to hypnotize because of the action of suggestive words, the
      cooperation of common unconscious longings and the increased suggestibility of a group. If the
      leader is a good hypnotist he can play with the masses. There is in the group an increased
      tendency to identify with the leader which makes it even easier for him to hold people in his grip.
      His word is our word, his “yes” is our “yes”. That is why there is also an increased tendency to
      follow uncritically. The leader can count on increasing submissiveness of the masses, as Hitler
      mentions in his book (“Eine Erhohung der Hingabebereitschaft der Masse”). Because the mass is
      receptible to hypnotic influence it tolerates all kinds of excesses by the hypnotist. The easiest
      technique b to work with special suggestive words, repeating them monotonously and boringly.
      From time to time one has to add a few jokes. People want to laugh. The macabre, especially,
      attracts the masses. Tell them horrors and let them gather together in sensational tension.
      When the hypnotic effect weakens, the mass can easily act against the• leader. However, we
      must be aware of the fact that we cannot stimulate in the masses what was not latent within them.
      It is difficult to immunize people against mass-seduction; they sleep too much even when they
      pretend to be awake. They are not clearly (onscious but think circularly, jumping from one
      opinion to the other. This is why it is so much easier to hypnotize them than to give them u
      critical approach. Repeat again and again your simple motto and the many half-sleeping beings
      follow you passively.

       

      Especially in times of crisis or approaching war every conversation is a repetition of a previous
      one. Inspired by fear and rumor, the same theme is repeated with many variations. People make
      themselves more and more suggestible and finally surrender to the feared idea.
      They all act like sleepwalkers. I would like to make critical searchers out of them, people who
      are awake, but they prefer sleeping, the pure vegetative life of the embryonic mind. The Nazi
      conqueror wanted to inoculate us with a new philosophy, with a new conception of the world. He
      knew that for all these mental sleepers he offered a better sedative, which would make them even
      better followers. In Germany, only a small minority resisted. They recaptured their own mind
      after a long period of hesitation and after defeat of their fatherland.
      Mass hypnosis lulls people into a deeper mental sleep than ever before. Mass hypnosis can
      convert the civilized being into a criminal sleepwalker.
      There is no intrinsic difference between individual- and mass-hypnosis. The more the individual
      feels himself part of the mass, the more easily can he be hypnotized by individual treatment.
      Primitive people and primitive communities are particularly sensitive to hypnosis. Everyone
      knows how select individuals-sorcerers and magicians-wield a hypnotic influence on the entire
      community. A parallel situation prevails in religious sects where the leader can arouse at will a
      state of mass-ecstasy in his followers.

      Hypnosis as such is comparable with cataleptic trance in the individual, the archaic form of
      paralysis, in which the individual builds powerful defenses against fear and other external
      influences. This defense reaction-occurring outside consciousness-is a general biological defense
      comparable with camouflage reactions in animals. The more primitive the organism is the more
      easily the state of catalepsy is brought about. Hypnosis makes the individual more archaic in his
      reactions and more sensitive to influences from without. Among Malayan people we have shown
      some excesses of this fear reaction known as Lattah. The frightened person is compelled to
      imitate all that other people are doing.

       

      Suggestive Association

       

      Mass hypnosis tries to penetrate the minds through the association of pleasant feelings with
      simple slogans. This is the secret of all propaganda. A war picture displays flowers on rifles. A
      cigarette brand is put across with pictures of attractive girls smoking and smiling. The enemy is
      labeled with dishonorable adjectives.
      The masses are caught in fixed suggestive associations. The acceptance of one such suggestive
      association leads to another. Every struggle against delusion must first be directed against
      authoritarian suggestions, against propaganda, against the fear of criticism.

       

      The Spread of Hypnotism

       

      The success of hypnosis among highly developed people is due to the imperfect separation of
      ego and environment. No matter how high the civilization and individualization, the ego and the
      non-ego are never completely differentiated. Only in our clearest moments of consciousness do
      ego and reality stand in opposition to each other. Partial identification is forever taking place.
      In everyday life all kinds of human qualities are unconsciously influenced by animate and
      inanimate objects. Our minds are full of songs and melodies, of movie stars and sport heroes.
      Suggestive epidemics are constantly exercising an influence. The critical ego doesn’t find its
      place anymore. When the mechanism of identification is functioning effectively, man surrenders
      more and more to all kinds of collective ecstasies and their seductive influences. The good
      hypnotist, therefore, must himself have some archaic capacities which he transfers to whomever
      he wishes to lead.
      Most people are easily seduced by welcome suggestions. In states of collective fear they search
      for the most acceptable suggestion.

      In addition to those who are so sensitive to outside suggestion there are active individuals who
      are only sensitive to suggestion from within. We can differentiate between allo-suggestive and
      auto-suggestive people. Yet the latter group aims to transfer its thoughts onto others. The autosuggestive
      individual first searches for a seductive dogma, an acceptable philosophical
      conception of the world, before accepting other influences. The allo-suggestive individual does
      not need to undergo the same initial process of justification.

       

      Hypnotizing Noises

       

      One can learn the technique of mass hypnosis through the study of individual hypnosis. Sudden
      fright, fear and terror was the old hypnotic method utilized by dictators. The fearful fixation on a
      symbol, the flag, the mass regulations, places the mass under the spell. Certain archaic noises
      fascinate men and keep them enthralled-the tom-tom, jazz rhythms, the military march, the
      intonation of a celebrated orator, the national anthem. These are seductive and fascinating and
      deeply moving. There exist revolutionary and erotizing sounds, captivating the audience in their
      spell. Rhythm has always exercised a seductive influence on the mass. It stimulates and unites,
      and transfers all kinds of mass-emotions.

      Sound and word are good vehicles for transference. The word, especially, can make a mass-man
      out of us. The radio has enhanced the power of the word. Even when I am alone with my talking
      radio I am united with the huge mass of other listeners. Modern mind-its unconscious portion in
      particular-is molded by radio and advertising, by the slogans which are constantly reiterated.

      Hypnophilia

      Mass meetings exercise a magic influence. Music, noises, applause, speeches-all these cast a
      spell over the mass.
      Most people are hypnophiles, anxious to daydream and sleep through their lives. That is why
      they easily fall prey to mass hypnosis. Archaic longings are aroused in them. The lengthy oration
      or the boring sermon weakens the listener and makes him ripe for mass hypnosis.
      The same effect is brought about through monotony-the monotony of marching and singing.
      Hypnophilia arises in all those who are subject to drilling and training “en masse”. We find it
      among soldiers, students, officers, and religious dogmatists. Even the fine arts are usually
      enlisted in the propaganda machine.

      The mental terror and hypnosis caused by fear is tremendous. A terrorizing minority is able to
      keep the mass caught in suggestions which cannot withstand scientific criticism. Argumentation,
      nevertheless, does not help. Delusion is an archaic, malignant growth, which continues to
      flourish despite operations. It has its own destructive power.
      Wartime teaches us the, paralyzing effect of fear on human opinion. Soldiers living in constant
      expectancy and fear are easily infected with delusion and hallucination. We have many examples
      of fire panics, in which an imagined attack touched off a real counter-attack against the black
      empty space.

      All of Europe was in a similar state of panic throughout the duration of the war. The fearful
      masses were ready to accept any and all suggestions. A state of uncritical vulnerability to
      delusion and rumor existed. The mass has still failed to recover from this inner confusion to
      formulate its own opinions. (I5).

      The War of Nerves

       

      Wars of nerves or mental wars serve to weaken mass opinion through fear and fright. First the
      enemy is brought into a state of latent panic. One’s own country is, meanwhile, injected with
      suspicion toward the enemy. As a result, the war itself is experienced by the population as
      something tangible, a delivery from fear and delusion. Fearful expectation is felt as more
      frightful than the horrible reality itself. The war of nerves paralyzes the mass. This is why the
      mass tolerates so many evils in the world. This paralysis of the people occurred following the
      German invasion. After a period of three months, however, resistance began to materialize. Inner
      defenses began to function again. The underground and the resistance movement sprang into
      motion.

       

      The war of nerves exploits the fact that man is the animal who can suffer most, who can tolerate
      most, with death as the only limit. Collective Paralysis
      Collective paralysis in reaction to fright and terror warrants further analysis. The pathology of
      war offers the best examples. Front-line fighting penetrates the mind very deeply. No soldier can
      escape it. We speak of shell-shock, anxiety neuroses or combat-fatigue in the extreme cases. In
      reality, however, all who have experienced the horror of war are changed by it. In one way or
      another, everyone builds a defense against the frightening experiences. (I6).
      Fear and terror, before penetrating deeply into the mind, require an incubation phase before they
      cause inner explosion and neurotic reactions. People are at first rather passive in battle. They can
      fight like automatons before the inner rebellion begins. At that moment the shock reaction comes
      suddenly to the fore. The incubation period may last from months to years. The fear penetrates
      even while defenses are built. Years after the war, the battle neurosis may come to the fore.
      We all know the rather emotional silence of the veteran who is reluctant to divulge his battle
      experiences. In the field of literature it was only after 1927 that authors began to write about their
      real war experiences as a last liberation from the horrors. Years after the armistice, extensive war
      writing made its appearance.

      Restitution of Free Opinion

       

      Fear, fright and intimidation may pass through a long incubation period and have extensive aftereffects
      on human thinking. The human brain is heavily burdened, and much time elapses before
      the personality again finds itself.
      As members of the mass, people initially accept the maddest conceptions. Unless they do so they
      feel themselves banished, isolated, shut out from the love and praise of their companions. If the
      terror is great enough, many a technical philosopher will hasten to conform to mass-thinking.
      The mass does not tolerate outsiders who confront it with a mirror of primitive pictures. The
      voice of freedom has to be strong in order to start again free independent thinking. In wartime,
      the Allied radio propaganda took very good care of that.

       

       

      SECTION SIX
      The Sense of Mass-Delusion

       

       

      Throughout history we have experienced waves of mass delusion which threatened more mature
      forms of mental life. It would be incorrect to interpret these delusions as solely “pathological”.
      Even disease as such has sense. Disease furthers new defenses and may cause a complete change
      in the physical and mental structure. That is why the physician uses artificial disease to overcome
      the fixed defenses in chronic diseases, to renew the resistance of the organism.
      Much mass delusion is caused by the mental convulsions of the community. It is as if the culture
      has to pass through a delusional stage in order to reach new possibilities and to shed old fixed
      forms. Civilization can be destroyed by delusion, but it may also renew itself through it. That is
      the revolutionary implication of all that is pathological.

      In the true sense of the word there exists no isolated individual thinking. The individual himself
      is mortal, but throughout his life he is the recipient of immortality in the form of cultural
      concepts. Man lives in and through culture; he is both a historical and an immediate being. He
      gathers his knowledge from the past and adds to it. Through the mental relationship and
      communication with his fellowbeings he becomes part of a growing culture. Mass-thinking, then,
      is the passing on of civilization to the individual and his simultaneous contribution to it.
      A strange nostalgia and unchecked archaic drives continue to live deeply imbedded in everyone.
      The man of the twentieth century worships the rough beast in himself. He values power more
      than culture. The mass-man of Germany declared: “I draw my gun when I hear the word
      `culture’.” At times, civilization bows to brute force.

      Years later, free opinions wins out over the terrorizing opinion. No matter how complete the
      terror, the paralysis is eventually broken. How quickly this is accomplished depends on the
      particular character of the people. Submissiveness is more characteristic of one than of another
      culture complex. Mass suggestion deals with people of completely different character structures.
      One is more susceptible to hypnosis than another.

       

       

      The Stability of the Mass

      Alongside the labile thoughts, there exists a stable opinion, a special pattern of living which is
      rooted in unconscious drives. The pseudopublic opinion becomes superimposed on the real one.
      Rebellious and revolutionary ideas are the pendular movements of a stable mass.
      Through intensive contact, as happens, for instance, in psychoanalysis, one learns how
      differentiated the thinking of common man is. There are many common patterns, taken over from
      the environment, but there are many original ideas as well. The individual leans to differentiate
      between suggested and real insight, between advertised and self-conquered opinion.
      The opinion of the common man is unanimously directed against terror and dictatorship but also
      against the political anarchy that rules the world. Nearly everyone recognizes that human reason
      and experience will have to build the new foundations of the world. Peace talks are preferred to
      wordless war and battle. War, however, also brings doubts of logic and law and justice. Very
      quickly, however, many reassume their old beliefs. During fright and terror the group with
      deeply-rooted religious dogmas thinks more stably, as we experienced (luring the period of
      occupation. Although the dogma defends against lesions from without, danger and confusion
      from within are still possible. Such was the experience with puritanical religious groups. The
      light for freedom in the underground aroused dogmatic doubts and initiated new inner struggles.
      The forced influence on public opinion, the mass propaganda, advertising, the attacks with terror
      and delusion, appear to be paradoxical weapons. Short-lived, straw-fire enthusiasm is easy to
      arouse. Public opinion, however, is a weak and unstable possession. Those who are swept away
      by delusion can turn very quickly against the hypnotizer. Only those who are converted in a
      deeper sense go through the fire of their own freewill.

       

      People can be temporarily educated to an apparent mass opinion. Such education will only be
      effective until the rebellion against the oppression of free thought has concretized. Thinking and
      stable thought patterns which are conquered after long struggle become immune to suggestive
      and aggressive propaganda. However, the individual must be repeatedly mobilized and
      immunized against his suggestive lability and weakness, in order to counteract receptivity to
      delusion and mass-delusion. This we may call the quintessence of democratic action. The wisest
      government is one which defends man and the collective against its own stupidities and
      mistakes. A free man builds barriers against his mistakes. His ideal is self-control.
      To free oneself from delusion means self-knowledge, knowledge not only of one’s active deeds
      but also of one’s hidden motives.

       

      Every man is mass. Delusion and archaic thinking can therefore take possession of his mind.
      Human thinking is never completed. It must always reformulate its conception of reality; it must
      always expand. Man must grow together with changing reality. In this evolutionary process, he
      must offer resistance to the archaic remnants in his soul. He must become aware of the creative
      unconscious forces which form his thought patterns.

      Objectivity toward the world can only come about through a certain degree of inward objectivity.
      Man is the mediator between two spheres-between the objective world and the subjective inner
      experiences.

      When any one of these spheres acquires too firm a hold over his mind, man becomes prey to
      error and delusion. He is no longer himself and his hands act apart from his real individual being.

       

      PART TWO
      Mass-Suicide and Atomic Fear

       

       

      Is there any imminent danger of mankind exterminating itself? Is there such a thing as a hidden
      desire for the doom of the world? Among ants, in the insect world, mass reactions of this type do
      exist. When they are forced by great danger, ants surrender to their fate. The same insect reaction
      may occur among human beings. If this burden of fear becomes too great, man passively gives
      himself up to the danger feared. In war and famine, this form of apathy and massparalysis is very
      well known. We have all heard about such fatalistic and suicidal reactions, occurring in the more
      emotional mass-panics. Examples were reported from the front in Flanders in 1917, from
      Caporetto in 1 91 8, when huge armies in chaotic panic surrendered themselves to fear and death.
      And from the battlefields of World War II come numerous examples of mass-suicide. For
      example, a report on the taking of Saipan’* describes a Japanese officer cutting off the heads of
      his kneeling men with his Samurai sword; crowds of soldiers and civilians jumping off the cliffs
      or wading into the ocean. Others were said to have blown themselves up with grenades after first
      playing ring games with them. “Three women sat on the rocks leisurely and deliberately combing
      their long, black hair. Finally they joined hands and walked slowly into the sea.” A hundred
      sailors on the rocks at Marpi Point bowed to the Marines from the cliff-tops, spread a large
      Japanese flag on the rocks, then pulled the pins from the grenades that the leader handed out.
      We have a tendency to dismiss this “mass hara kiri” with the explanation that it belongs
      especially to Japanese rites. Yet the same tendencies-although they are more concealed-do exist
      wherever there are masses of people.

      Latent Suicidal Thoughts of the Masses

       

       

      In all unorganized mass-action and mass-thinking, there is something destructive, something
      masochistic-a hidden drive towards defeat and doom. In general, in every sudden mass action,
      primitive instincts begin to dominate; primitive aggression and destruction are preferred
      *Reported by Lindsay in Tribune, London, August 1944.
      over civilized judgment. The individual within the mass at war wants not only victory; he also
      wants to suppress certain disagreeable feelings which his burden of civilization has created in
      him. He chooses heroism and aggression not because he is aware of the higher cultural aims he
      must defend, but because he wants to escape the dissatisfaction of a civilization which frustrates
      him. That is why becoming a warrior holds such appeal.

       

      It is as if the masses love and fear war at the same time. They like panic and explosion, because
      these explosions fortify certain heroic and ecstatic herd-feelings which people still possess.
      Man in fear does not like freedom. In men and among masses of people there exists a
      submissiveness which reaches much deeper than is generally supposed. Great national
      differences, of course, do exist; but the basic tendency to yield is universal in our culture. We
      have seen many examples recently of how submissive and cowardly masses of people may
      become in different dictatorial countries. There was nearly no rebellion in Germany against
      Hitler’s criminal tyranny.

       

      The Children’s Crusades afford the best example of mass-delusion and mass-possession. During
      the Crusades, when the knights of Christendom flocked to Palestine to save the Holy Land from
      the infidels, there was also a curious parallel phenomenon. Bands of ragged youngsters marched
      through town after town declaring that they too were on their way to the Holy Wars. And
      wherever they appeared, children, infused with their hysteria and ecstasy, ran to join them. The
      story goes that they accumulated an army in this strange manner, boarded a ship-and were never
      heard of again.

      Here the religious ideal was mostly a pretense and a justification for mass-orgiastic behavior, for
      mass-regression, and for releasing urges towards aggression and destruction. Behind all this lay
      the tremendous urge for self-destruction, which arose out of unrecognized feelings of guilt. The
      religious ecstasy was discharged in chaos and self-destruction.
      In nineteenth century Russia there were several peculiar sects, e.g. the Skopts, whose special aim
      was suicide. All forms of rebellious ideas and hidden religious fears stimulated this suicidal
      behavior.

       

      Suicide is known, too, as a symptom of puberty. Epidemics of suicide have been reported, for
      example, in boarding schools as a means of escape or revenge towards parents or teachers. This
      theme has been dealt with in fiction. In Hatter’s Castle the little girl hangs herself to avoid
      confronting her father with what she considers her own failure.
      After the Germans invaded Western Europe in 1940, something like an epidemic of suicide took
      place. Particularly hyper-intellectual types (not only the threatened Jews) were unable to defend themselves against the contagious delusion
      of the world’s doom. When all of living is possibly only on the basis of fear and compulsion-thus
      they thought suicide is our last freedom.

       

      In cultures known to history, these suicidal epidemics crop up from time to time as abnormal
      expressions. But among many primitive peoples suicide is a normal expression of an accepted
      cultural pattern. In certain Polynesian groups, a standard method of punishing a person who has
      wronged one, is to destroy oneself. In other societies, suicide is so common a behavior that a
      tribal member who breaks a taboo may not even have to kill himself. He merely goes off by
      himself and dies, as if automatically. In such cultures the suicidal tendency becomes strong when
      the failure of aggression and attack fortifies feelings of guilt. Primitives believe that their failure
      is caused by a magic punishing power. Fear of the unknown and mysterious punisher forces a
      passive surrender to the mighty, a surrender to death.

       

      These same feelings of guilt exist in our own society, especially during and after a war. One who
      feels his own responsibility for the evil in himself, and for all the evil in the world, feels
      essentially guilty. This intense feeling of guilt may explain the many unexpected cases of suicide
      that were observed among Nazi soldiers after the occupation of innocent, peaceful countries. I
      lived that time in occupied Holland and could describe such reactions in my war report. (16).
      Among his democratic enemies, many a soldier suddenly became aware of his guilt.
      Mass-suicide, however, is more than a passive surrender to fate because of a guilt reaction; it is
      also a primitive, mystical means of escaping into the comfort of death, in order to find a new and
      better life. To accept death destroys the evil and vindicates the righteous. A nation full of guilt
      feelings, full of unsolved aggression, escapes collapse only by exploding into war…… But if the
      war fails to keep up its furious pace and thus provide this outlet, the citizens are left with an
      insoluble problem. They are in the same position as the neurotic whose personality is split
      beyond the hope of effective action, actions related to the realities of his environment. They are
      totally unstable, and they are lost in the primitive confusion in which, at the ultimate point of
      pressure and degeneration, life and death become one. In neurotic exaltation the sufferer dies to
      escape death.”*

       

      The same neurotic trends and patterns exist to some degree in all *Lindsay, loc. cit.
      men: projection of fear, introjection of guilt, and ensuing self-punishment. And war activates
      these hidden primitive patterns which every man possesses. The same suicidal tendencies
      develop even further in the post-war world: neurosis, suicide, alcoholism, morphinism, the
      craving for a new war-in short, the post-war hangover.

      The resulting guilt-feelings are tremendous. One explosion of the atom bomb killed one hundred
      thousand people. There is an aftermath of this explosion. Even though people may not realize it,
      hidden guilt feelings about mass killing on this scale are intense. For here our conscious
      imagination stops. One hundred people burned in a hotel fire shocks us; but one hundred
      thousand is beyond our imagination.

       

      The paradoxical reaction to these guilt-feelings may be suicidal surrender to a new war, to death.
      These mental reactions are fortified by the world in which we live-a world full of unknown
      future dangers. “Does the potential enemy have atom bombs?” we ask ourselves. “Can their
      rockets reach us? Are they preparing for war?”

      Dangerous mass-infection of these hidden emotions is spreading. All such questions and rumors
      keep our attitudes on a primitive level: Hitler’s War of Nerves brought about the same reaction. It
      is the unknown danger which is weakening us–and that is why we prefer the known danger, a
      new war. We cannot escape the vicious circle. “Two fighting armies form one suicidal mass.”
      (Barbusse)

      Atomic Fear

       

      The mysterious secret of atomic power excites archaic feelings among men. Are people aware
      how deep the thought of a future atomic war has penetrated their dreams and nightmares? Are
      they also aware what paradoxical action may be the result of such an uncomprehended fear?
      During the hectic days when the Germans were successfully executing their “war of nerves” I
      held a post with an Allied Psychological Warfare group. In those days we mapped our strategy to
      combat those attacks against the public nerve centers as carefully as our generals mapped their
      battles with planes and guns. I thought then that I had seen some pretty capable psychological
      attacks on the public, but none, I now feel, could outdo the postwar “atomic war of nerves” to
      which we are being continuously subjected.

      A picture of New York shattered by an atomic bomb, a city of toppled skyscrapers and mass
      death, is one of the examples, sketched some time ago by Major-General Leslie N. Groves, who
      headed the Army’s Manhattan district atomic project.
      Such dire forecasts are so commonplace that they no longer make
      the front pages of the newspapers. Day by day our minds are unwillingly paralyzed as the
      thought of an atomic war and catastrophe in the near future become more familiar to us.
      The general idea in the “atomic war of nerves” appears to be that fear of another war and fear of
      the bomb’s tremendous destruction will force mankind nearer to a productive plan for peace.
      Daily, therefore, we are served tasty morsels on the bomb’s technical and political implicationsand
      the results if international control does “not only effectively outlaw the use of atomic bombs,
      but … prevents any other nation from getting along the road to manufacture of the bomb.” And if
      not? Then we have the unfailing picture of man cringing under the falling Empire State Building,
      dying with the comforting thought that none of his family or friends can escape, either.
      And so we find ourselves traveling along the perilous path of peace, led by mysterious fear on
      the one hand, and speculation about the unknown on the other-two notoriously bad leaders of
      mankind. For fear paralyzes men, and when men are afraid they hope that the thing threatening
      will happen to liberate them from their tension. Sooner or later, like the criminal who gives
      himself up, rather than bear the tension of fearful expectations, we will be inspired by fear and
      speculation not to walk peacefully, but to cast the first bomb at those whom we fear.
      I want to represent to you the example of a suicidal reaction under influence of fear. Man
      surrenders to fate when he has lost all self confidence.

       

      A soldier under treatment for an anxiety neurosis after an awful battle experience, is in a nursing
      home which is hit by the blast of a flying bomb. It may be that he suffered a slight cerebral
      concussion, but after a few days he feels well again. There are repeated alerts for new flying
      bombs but he no longer goes to the shelter as military rules prescribe. He says he feels too
      paralyzed, he just wishes to die, he does not have the power any more to escape from death.
      “Why should we try to escape in this doomed world?”

       

      Jittery citizens often write “Letters to the Editors” in various newspaper columns, insisting that
      we drop a few atomic bombs on the heads of some of our dangerous former allies, and, only
      recently, prominent public leaders suggested that we take care of the veto right problem in
      similar manner.

      However, these suggestions not only occur to our citizens because of fear, but also because there
      still exists, under the shining armor of our souls, the archaic, primitive desire for war-and for
      destruction as well. Men say (and believe) that the idea of atomic destruction repels them, but
      inwardly they enjoy the thought of the bomb’s tremendous power. We repeatedly find this idea in
      dreams, especially in dreams of patients suffering from anxiety. Didn’t our reporters express their
      regret that the results of the atomic experiments on Bikini were not more tremendous and
      sensational?

       

      Yes, mankind, exquisitely dressed up in his civilized clothes, hides deep in his somewhat
      disillusioned soul the primitive dream-wish of greatness, a dream-wish that would enable him to
      destroy all the world with one almighty gesture, like the magicians in the fairy tales, or,
      translated into modern comic strip terms, like Buck Rogers who launches an electronic war with
      one push of a button.

       

      Although mankind consciously denies this eternal human dreamwish for tremendous magic
      power, every psychologist knows how deeply ingrained that wish remains. I remember well a
      soldier patient of mine who had announced himself a conscientious objector, yet he was inwardly
      fighting with such horrifying dreams of this nature that he found himself a monster. His
      objections to fighting were an attempt to escape his own destructive wishes. His neurosis was
      caused by a continual horror of himself.

       

      So the “atomic war of nerves,” which calls on fear and speculation to make us peaceful, in reality
      stimulates our aggressive tendencies. And, in addition, this “war” combines with our post-war
      fears produce a confused combination of emotions which, having no direction or guidance, can
      easily accumulate until they may be discharged in renewed aggression.

       

      First, picking our way along the prickly path of peace, we carry with us a vague but nonetheless
      heavy burden of guilt for all the killing on the battlefield, the killing in which we partook either
      directly as soldiers or indirectly as civilians. As we try to secure a foothold along that path, our
      minds-also those of the civilians-are still slightly fogged with battle neurosis. We remember
      how, as warriors, we were compelled to loosen our moral bonds on the battlefield and travel the
      earth hating, revenging and slaughtering. The defeated enemy paid a severe price for his
      foolhardiness-but we conquerors came home to celebrate. This hidden guilt reaction to war was
      found as a fixed pattern in the culture of primitive tribes. The homecoming warrior cleansed
      himself from his guilt as a killer by performing certain cathartic rites. In our modern society we
      don’t have such a ceremonial, we are less certain of our feelings of guilt, although we find these
      feelings buried in the war neurosis of veterans and civilians, in the guilt feelings that are
      converted into glorifying speeches and war memorials, and in that particular neurotic behavior in
      the post-war period, that cannot stop its aggressiveness. With this form of neurosis new aims of
      aggression are constantly sought to get even with the old guilt, derived from the old aggression.
      The peace is celebrated while unconsciously a new war is prepared.

       

      Second, we are slightly blinded on our path by a strange, eerie light that has continued to burn
      ever since it was first set off by the blast from our atomic bomb, when, in Hiroshima alone, one
      hundred thousand persons died. That light constantly reminds us that we, ourselves, unleashed
      for the first time the tremendous destructive power of the atomic bomb-not the vicious Huns, nor
      the tricky Japs, but Americans did it. We feel that it was beyond the pale of the laws of war, even
      though we want to believe, as former Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson (18) pointed out in his
      article, “The Decision to Use the Atomic Bomb”, that “This deliberate premeditated destruction
      was our least abhorrent choice.” This hidden guilt feeling is probably the reason for the
      tremendous interest in John Hersey’s account on Hiroshima. An example of this fear I found in
      the following dream image:

       

      A member of a bomber crew in World War II repeatedly has the same dream. He dreamt he was
      flying on a mission during which he must throw atomic bombs on his own home town because
      the enemy had secured himself in the huge skyscrapers.

       

      He saw himself flying; the sun was going down; he reached his target, dropped the bomb and
      started his return trip. But on the way back there was turmoil. He saw suddenly a huge mountain
      rising in front of him. Instead of trying to get away from it, he directed his bomber toward the
      black mass. A crash followed and then he awoke … knowing that in his dream he had attempted
      to commit suicide and that he had wanted to escape from this foolish and guilty world.
      Third, we are looking fearfully into the mysterious shadows that beset our path, shadows of that
      Great Unknown-the destructive possibilities of a future atomic war. Playing with these shadows
      are our vague fears of our own bestial and destructive tendencies. We are confused and
      befuddled when we acknowledge these aggressive and destructive tendencies, for we like to
      consider ourselves peaceful, noble and constructive human beings. These are the nightmares we
      not only find in neurotics but in nearly everybody who tries to become aware
      of the tendencies of his own epoch. I am sure that many diplomats and representatives are teased
      by the same nightmares.

       

      Fourth, we are hearing in our ears the distant rumble of war drums as the fear grows that the
      United Nations will fail to prevent a new war. And should war come, there is the disturbing
      thought that future enemies will avenge themselves on us by dropping atomic bombs on our own
      shores.

       

      The confused state of mind, resulting from this combination of our post-war fears and the
      “atomic war of nerves,” resembles that of the already mentioned ancient, just-as-paralyzing
      period, when people waited for the world’s doom because of an undefined magic spell and
      mysterious fear based on some general anxiety with which the world of those days was infected.
      So strong is the suicidal tendency in us that we can easily turn our technological tools and toys
      against ourselves. The atomic bomb means either a world government, or world suicide. Another
      global war with atomic missiles-and our over-technical world will be doomed!
      We must realize the great danger which lies in this world-wide vague fear. For this fear will
      operate among us just as the strange fear of magic operates in primitive societies. Unrecognized
      and uncomprehended fear paralyzes the human mind, hypnotizes it, makes it passive. In this
      paralyzed stupor man conjures up the evil he fears; it leads him to surrender passively to fate.
      Inwardly he is already prepared to accept death and destruction.

      The great danger for the future lies in the fact that our burden of guilt and fear may undermine
      our mature thinking. It is this hidden fear which motivates the newspapers to publish daily
      articles on the coming catastrophe; and, in fearing, they unconsciously accept the destruction of
      the future.

       

      Let us be realistic! There is no adequate defense against the atom bomb. It creates limitless
      destruction in the target area. The only counter-action is to use the same weapon; and that means
      mutual suicide. One bomb only, properly placed-as in Hiroshima-is all that is required to
      paralyze an entire metropolis. Only a relatively small amount of material and equipment,
      smuggled somewhere into an enemy country, is needed to assemble such a bomb. And the next
      atomic war will last until the last man awaits death from exposure to the deadly X-rays.
      Atomic warfare is not a war of useful strategy. The greatest and the least developed country are
      equally vulnerable. Technologically advanced countries are even more vulnerable. But already
      the weapon is capitalizing upon the ignorance and the fear of the masses.
      There is another side to this problem: the infectious example of Germany’s self-destruction. For
      what one fights against infects one’s own soul. Even after this war we are still not rid of Nazi
      attitudes. Under the ascetic megalomaniac, Shicklgruber, Germany committed suicide in an orgy
      of brutality and criminal ecstasy. More than nine million civilians were cold-bloodedly killed in
      concentration camps and behind the fronts. Too many victims were sacrificed on the altar of
      madness. Not only the guilt feelings of the Germans, but the guilt feelings of the whole world
      were aroused by these tremendous mass murders. And it is this widespread feeling of guilt that
      arouses the hidden wish for self-destruction. The idea of death fascinated the Germans. The
      stimulation of their instinctual and animal-drives prepared them to accept their own death. Their
      pessimistic fatalism asked for a final upheaval before the “Goetterdaemmerung.” Nordic
      mythology is deeply imbued with the idea of pessimistic surrender to fate, and this laid a fertile
      groundwork among the Germans for the tendency to suicide which spread so easily among them.
      They were inwardly prepared; if they failed in life, the solution lay in death. Here was more
      fatalism than heroism, more passivity than activity. Even though defeat be inevitable, they must
      die for Germany – “Und Deutschland soll leben, wenn wir auch sterben werden!” (Germany will
      live, though we have to die!)

       

      The suicidal tendencies of former enemies still endanger the world. In their graves they exercise
      a more fatal fascination than when they were actually attacking us.
      Are we to accept the challenge of technology and fight to the last being on earth? Forel wrote of
      the ants: “If the two adversaries are approximately equal in strength, they exterminate each other
      without any definite result.” Are we, like the insects, bound to our mechanical instincts?
      Self-destruction

       

      We have spoken of the masses passively surrendering to their fate, of their hidden urge for
      destruction. What are the manifold psychological equivalents of this death-instinct?
      Self-destruction is the final expression of power. It is the last way of maintaining a feeling of
      being valuable and potent. Think in this connection of all the ways in which spontaneity is
      blocked in this world, of how growth and expression are hindered; think of all the threatening
      and bullying and bossing, the innumerable ways in which people

      *Julian Huxley, New York Times Magazine, February 10, 1946.
      exploit each other and push each other around. Think of all the suicides as reactions to an
      unfavorable environment, of all the prejudices, of interracial aggressions, of lynchings. Think of
      all the aggressive and destructive reformisms, the riots, the street fights, the high rate of
      criminality, people’s wildness, their eagerness to dominate. And remember the value we place
      upon satirical humor; how familiar we are with fatalistic ways of thinking. All these are other
      manifestations -psychological equivalents-of the aggressive and destructive instinct, the deathinstinct.
      The more life’s vital impulses are thwarted, the more are self-destructive tendencies
      uncovered.

      In the war which has just been finished, unconscious tendencies to death were repeatedly
      revealed. In the face of the imminent threat of death, the victims passively waited for the great
      destruction, as though hypnotized by their fate. Many underground and resistance workers in
      Nazi-occupied countries clearly surrendered to death, as it were. They became reckless in spite
      of all warnings. To them the enemy had become an ambivalent father figure, and for waging war
      against him they had to be destroyed by his hands. Even more incredible was the passivity of
      those who had to escape because they knew that death was near. It was as if terror and death held
      an attraction for them.

      The Urge for Catastrophe

       

      Man in our modern world is suffering from deep shock. He is constantly on the alert, continually
      waiting for an approaching catastrophe; he even wishes the catastrophe would come so that his
      fearful expectations might be ended. His existence is shattered-and philosophers may write
      philosophies on “existence” as justification for their fatalism.
      Again, in the Middle Ages, this kind of mood spread along with the pandemics of the epoch (the
      Black Death, Plague, etc.). Fear and speculation about the unknown have always had a stirring
      influence on the human mind, making people suspicious, anxious and willing to surrender to the
      danger they fear. Men in general prefer the actual dangers of war to the nervous tensions of an
      uncertain peace which looks like a verbose diplomatic war. In psychology we call it passive
      surrender to the thing feared: in practice we saw that people enjoyed the big show at Bikini, in
      spite of its threat for the future. Many people have surrendered to their nightmares and are
      prepared for the new explosion because they feel too weak for a constructive solution.
      The urge for catastrophe does not have to take the form of longing

      for a fatal shock; it may be in the form of a deep craving for a momentous change in one’s life, a
      desire to be transported to a higher and better existence. Every personal experience of death may
      be the door to a revival-a catharsis and a purification. This is what happens in shock therapy-the
      patient is permitted partially to die and to revive again. And this is effective with many mental
      patients.

       

      However-and this is the imminent danger-behind most expectations of catastrophe lurks the
      primitive thought that the end of the world is approaching, that the world is doomed and the
      apocalypse is on the way.
      And man, caught by this dangerous delusion, leans passively and unwittingly towards downfall
      and destruction.

       

      Once before, around the year 1000, the masses awaited the great doom, and then mystical ecstasy
      and aggressive chaos reigned in Europe. Today we are at the same point. The notion of
      catastrophe leads men to self-destruction and delusion. The suicidal urge has mankind in its grip.
      Even the mind is participating in killing and destruction when it condones a sneering and cynical
      attitude. People are unable to behave because they sincerely admire and venerate something; they
      kill their emotions and worship mechanical idols.
      It is for these reasons that so great a danger lies in the fear that is connected with the current
      “atomic war of nerves”; for it may work as primitive fear did in the ancient world-preparing new
      explosions of aggression. Too great a fear can end in suicidal reactions in a world carried away
      by the sweep of its dark emotions. Of course then we would cheer about the new fight: “We are
      liberating the world . . .” we would say again, while, in reality, we would only be liberating
      ourselves from the nerve-racking tensions of peace.

      Such is the paradoxical result of fear: it never defends the human being against the feared event.
      However, our intelligence is still able to build a positive world, not against an atomic war and
      future electronic enemies, but for peace, which is always a complicated but positive construction
      of the mind. Destruction is not the only thing which moves and attracts human beings: we are
      still able to use our common sense to conquer fear.

      The future danger lies, not so much in the atom bomb and the mysterious potentiality of a future
      enemy, as in the fact that our burden of guilt and fear and nightmares may undermine our mature
      thinking. It is especially this fear within us that votes for more and better armaments, that pleads
      for more and better bombs until the eplosion comes. One of the most destructive ideas in the
      world today is the repeated suggestion that the coming catastrophe is inevitable. This is a
      negative suggestion arousing and reinforcing a primitive and magic fear, which only prepares
      new forms of aggression.

      The world needs positive, constructive suggestions: We have to agitate not against the use of
      useful atomic power, but against the “atomic war of nerves”, against the suggested nightmares
      and rumors that have, to some extent, made us blind and paralyzed mature thinking. Freedom
      from Fear was one of the Four Freedoms. Freedom from primitive and atomic Fear needs to
      become one of our principal aims for the mental structure of the future.
      During the war years the best science of the age was utilized in combating the German “war of
      nerves”. Surely, now that peace is with us, we have to use our knowledge to prevent fear and
      destructive speculation about the unknown future. For undermining our reason and frightening
      our souls leads us into another war.

      This is the need of our times: we have to die and to be revived again. We have gone through
      death, for the recent war was a tremendous dying.
      Mankind’s urge for catastrophe and the suicidal tendencies of the masses, are the great
      hindrances to a revival. Statesmen and psychologists must acknowledge these drives in the
      character of all people and direct their attention to combating them. Otherwise the world will
      continue to wait with resignation and acquiescence for what it fears and abhors but wishes at the
      same time.

       

       

      PART THREE
      Some Mental Aspects of the Human Animal
      (Remaining Young, Walking Erect and Playing Continually)

      A Picture of the Human Animal

       

      Only the human animal wants to draw a picture of himself and to abide by his own reflection. No
      animal ever described or painted himself. Why do we want to look so much at ourself and to take
      distance from our own problems? The second world war has just finished, people walk about
      with long faces talking about the atomic era and the possibility of a future world war.
      Melancholy philosophers speak of the end of the world and we all feel a bit perplexed by the
      mechanical monstrosities which ended World War II. What will our portrait be in a couple of
      years?

      Are we capable of imagining ourselves beyond this present mood? We must get to know the
      strange human animal, and perhaps if we know him well we will lose our pessimistic views
      fabricated by physicists and moralists full of guilt feelings. In this essay we will try to look at the
      human being in a certain exhilarated state, for only in a phase of ecstasy can we get an essential
      picture of man and his future. We will use as a basis some of the biological qualities of man: his
      long period of youth, his special art of walking upright through the world and the implications of
      his continual play.

      If we wish to look at the human being in the midst of his fellowanimals, we must go back to
      prehistoric times. From an animal he gradually becomes a primitive man with simple tools. Later
      on he lives in a more complicated society and very slowly evolves from a primitive into a more
      or less self-aware modern being. But even as an uncivilized animal, man was already different
      from all other animals. What are the essentials of these differences?
      We can answer immediately: His intelligence and his peculiar mental structure. You may even
      prefer to speak of his highly developed consciousness or, like theologians, of his undefinable
      soul, received from higher spheres. However, I am not a philosopher; I prefer to see man as a
      being still belonging to the large kingdom of animals, one of the peculiar mammalia. This
      accepted, we ask ourselves how he became such a special kind of animal being, capable of
      perpetuating human civilization further and further through history.

      Man Walks Erect

      If we examine man’s material form we see many of the same anatomical features as in his fellowmammalia,
      but we observe that he walks, strangely enough, on his hind legs. Man walks erect;
      he differs from all other animals in the fact that he uses only two of his legs. There is a short,
      four-footed, baby period when his balance is unstable, as in monkeys, but after which he
      becomes the upright walking king of the animals.
      What does such a simple change in posture imply? What does the change from a four-footed
      animal into a two-legged human being mean to us? The mechanical result is that the tactical
      mobility and manoeuverability of the body increases. Man is the only mammal able to look all
      around without the need of turning and shifting his position; this is why he is able to escape
      rapidly in any direction. His anatomy allows him to be constantly on the alert. In archaic times
      this tremendous mobility and alert adjustment was of great help to him in his struggle with other
      animals. He had acquired a more agile strategy. In those days, man had only very primitive
      weapons. Especially in his struggle against the big and clumsy four-footed creatures he was the
      stronger because of his alertness. But his respect for the faster reactions of lions and tigers has
      continued up to the present. We find this respect in all kinds of tales and myths.

      Man Is An Escapist

       

      Some psychologists oddly assume that his two legs and man’s ability to turn about instantly
      created human escapism and cowardice and the tendency to evade difficulties. Human power lies
      in fleeing quickly from danger. Archaic man was constantly on the alert and remnants of his
      archaic fear still live in us. How paradoxical it sounds … that man can escape (e. g., his instincts)
      is typical of man. A man can be a prime ascetic; an animal, never.

       

      Man Has Instruments

       

      A more important result of his use of only two legs is the liberation of the forelegs from the
      function of locomotion. In his free hands, man obtained two very convenient biological
      instruments. Hands and fingers are the pliable tools whose adjustability has never been
      duplicated by mechanical devices. Through the ingenuity of the human hand technical tools were
      created as extensions of arm and hand. Opposite himself man places tools and machines, he
      builds new images. With his hands free for gesturing, man becomes a creative animal.
      However, it is not only the instrumental function of the hands that
      Some Mental Aspects of the Human Animal log became so important. Beside the eyes, the hand
      became the human being’s most important organ of sense. The liberation of the hands gave man
      two hypersensitive antennae which no other vertebrate possesses. With his hands he is able to
      investigate the world. This world which up to now forced on him pure visual images in a rather
      passive way, can from now on be brought actively inside his own mind. Hence his world grows
      bigger and richer, and a new universe of emotions enters his consciousness. Most of the other
      animals are adapted to their world rather passively, though a certain form of adjustment and
      modification is possible. But only the human being verifies his world and adjusts himself
      actively. With touching hand he begins to conquer his world; his hand verifies the visual
      impressions. Only the touching hand may replace the eye of the blind. Seeing far into the world
      is touching virtually with the muscles of the eye; eye and hand are two senses predestined to
      cooperate in building the proper human image of reality. As a scientific formulation expresses it,
      “no observation and no perception can be registered in the brain without motor verification”,
      with the result that in play and handicraft man enriches his brain still more with a continually
      growing field of perception.

       

      The world in which an animal lives has a close relation to his specific biological organization.
      There is a continuous and mutual relationship between the design of the animal and his
      environment. Every being lives in a very special world, corresponding directly to his form and
      function. We see this best in the insect world, where the insect is limited by his innate capacities
      and possibilities. Depending on his momentary function, he lives in different, unrelated worlds.
      A hungry insect lives only in a world of prey. The rutting animal lives only in a mating world. It
      is like the story of the three dimensional cube in a two dimensional flat world. At the moment of
      intensified functioning no world outside that particular function exist. The earthworm lives in an
      earthworm world, without sun and stars; the mosquito lives in a mosquito world. In one there are
      only earthworm things; in the other, only mosquito things. In the same way, the human being
      lives in a human world with human things. But unlike the animal, man can vary and change his
      world thanks to his hands and instruments. Man does not only live in his world, but he confronts
      the world at the same time; he takes opposition. Man makes his own world.

      Man Lives Opposite Things

       

      Because of man’s erect attitude, he not only lives with things, but he also lives opposite them.
      Only man is observer of his own life. Only man has a notion of his own body separate from the
      world. With his ands and eyes and controlling mind he confronts reality. That is why he is able to
      deny his biological habits; his own body becomes an instrument whose drives he may accept or
      reject. The scientist says that his biological reflexes change into psychological conditions. Only
      man may see his own drives and instincts as danger. Man not only knows an externally-imposed
      fear, but he knows an inner fear; his own impulses may become an estranged world with which
      he has to cope. With arms and hands he reaches out not only toward an outside world in order to
      conquer this piece of reality with his magic gestures (as babies do), but he also reaches out
      toward an inside world; he tries to change his inner longings and satisfactions. Man lives
      between an inner and outer world.

      Every living relationship consists of a center-the being himself in a certain function or action-and
      his environment. There exists a dual relationship. The center receives stimuli from the
      environment and reacts on the environment in order to change it. For the central being there is a
      “perceived world” and a “manipulated” or “cultivated world” which together form “his” world.
      These two worlds are not always one and the same. An ichneumon fly, by some stimuli of her
      senses, pierces through a layer of wood into the larva of a wasp she has never seen before.
      Another wasp pierces with deadly certainty into the neuroganglia of a spider although she was
      never taught about the anatomy of spiders. The manipulated world changes for the animal when
      his biological aim changes. During copulation, his reflex behavior differs completely from his
      conduct during the oral incorporation of food. As the biologist expresses it: “His functions
      develop in different fields of action.” The actions of different animals, however, become more
      nearly the same the closer they approach their real biological aim. The last movements during
      copulation, or during the incorporation of food, or during the defense against enemies, take place
      by innate reflexes without variety, just as we saw in the ichneumons. Such innate instincts direct
      most of the actions and behavior of the lower animals. However, we find the same monoform
      pattern of actions in the primitive reactions of men.

       

      The Tyranny of Instincts

       

       

      A nice example of instinctual fatality is seen in the behavior of procession-caterpillars. They
      move through the woods in long lines, the forepart of one instinctually attracted by the tail of
      another-hence the name, procession-caterpillar. If the first one is moved so that it touches the tail
      of the last one, and a circle of caterpillars is formed, they are then doomed to walk in the circle.
      Their instinct forces them to do so until they are liberated from this spell of reflexes. Such may
      be the mechanical dictatorship of innate reflexes, of innate patterns. The insect-world has nearly
      no variable adjustment. Man has the most varied forms of adjustment. He is the animal who can
      suffer and tolerate more than any other animal.

      We must now consider how the human world is a function of the special human organization of
      innate habits and reflexes. This is an important question, especially in pathology. We can, for
      instance, easily conclude that only in human beings do “perceived” and “cultivated” worlds meet.
      Man has notion of only one universal world. However, we experience repeatedly the fact that in
      some forms of neuroses and mental diseases those worlds again diverge. In schizophrenia, for
      example, the virtual motile world of ideas no longer corresponds to the world of sensory
      impressions. It is as if man regressed to the old insectual split world. We cannot speak then of a
      perceived reality, but of a world of delusions and hallucinations. In man may appear a tragic split
      in different worlds-tragic because the old archaic longing, a tremendous longing for biological
      unity, remains.

       

      To return to the point, we can split the perceived world of man into a far away visible world and
      a much nearer touchable world. We find the same division in animals, too; but in human beings
      we see that these worlds overlap each other almost entirely. The visual images have to
      correspond to motoric verifications. It seems, however, that we cannot entirely comprehend our
      special world through our senses of touch and our motoric verification; only when it is combined
      with the touching antennae of the eye does our world achieve the connotation of unity.
      There is a difference between our visible and our touched world. The visible world is a far bigger
      and wider world. However, without the control of the touching hand and the virtual movements
      of looking around, it tends to be too fantastic. What one cannot touch and verify remains a little
      uncertain. The sun and moon and stars, the clouds and rainbow and the distant mountains
      become gods or the homes of gods. Until technique becomes the lengthening piece in our
      touching hand and we can grasp more and more our universe.

      The same rule applies to pathological cases; the vision that escapes the virtual motor control, the
      memory of the senses that cannot be verified (for example, as a result of intoxication) becomes a
      hallucination, an impression cut off from reality.

      Far more magic and free of reality is the world of that other human sensory organ: the world of
      things heard. Here we know no direct cooperation
      with other senses, unless we interpret in this way the cooperation between sound and
      muscles, as we detect it in word and rhythm and dance. By means of sound and word, a
      metaphysical world enters our ears. As soon as the separate worlds of the individuals try to
      communicate, word and speech are born in order to bridge the abyss between the human beings.
      Sounds, music and speech help to ‘ build a higher united world, the specific spiritual world of the
      human being. The sounds move along a completely different dimension, not in space, but along
      the line of time. Rhythm and music give man notion of time and eternity. Only man can look
      experimentally into the future; an animal never does.

       

      Man Grasps the Opportunity For Speech

       

       

      But also, the development of sounds and speech and words has to do with our walking erect and
      the liberation of our forepaws. The breathing animal is able to transform the expirational air into
      miraculous symbols. He transmits his sound through the air to other people. That is the
      beginning of animal communication. But only in human beings do the larynx and pharynx
      transform the air in such manifold ways. That is because the human larynx is situated differently
      from that of other mammalia; it stands perpendicular on the base of the skull and is farther away
      from it. This is a necessary condition for speech, for the varied sounds and the consonants are
      formed by the now bigger mouth and its motile walls. Man’s first language is a gestural language
      of the eyes and cheeks. The larynx serves as an initial source of sound under the constantly
      changing musical qualities that assume such manifold forms and, as an end-result, produce the
      rich modulation of speech.

       

      Speech and language come to us through the ear. The old belief: “The spirit enters the human
      being through the ear,” seems to be quite true. Without our ears we are spiritually isolated. A
      blind man would be isolated from the world if he did not have a sense of touch instead. Also, it is
      much more difficult to find a substitute for the sense of hearing. Hence, the deaf are much more
      isolated from society. There is even danger that his perceived world (from earlier days) will get
      beyond control; the deaf man hallucinates sooner. In the blind we never find any lack of reality
      confrontation.

      For the touching hand, the “perceived” world and the “cultivated” world merge in a threedimensional
      world. Sense and instrument are united. That is one of the reasons for the reality of
      the touched world, and is also why a man can look outside and inside. Only man has
      introspection; the notion of a perceived world and a world of inner drives. With the touching,
      transforming, separating and assembling hands, under supervision of the eye, man builds in
      space his world of things. This was made possible for him by his erect posture.

       

      An Eager Learning Animal

      Let us accept that walking upright is one of the fundamental functions of the human being. This
      two-legged animal, who has become more intensely acquainted with the world and with reality
      than any of his fellow animals, must, however, be able to make use of this opportunity. Certain
      conditions must be fulfilled before man can learn about that world of real things. What we call
      learning is the building of one’s “Own world” as a result of verified experiences and innate
      habits. The human being is well developed in verifying his experiences. Without doubt he is the
      most studious animal and the most eager to learn, always busy regulating and coordinating things
      into his own world. This manner of conquering objects virtually and bringing them within his
      own horizon is one of the first cultural deeds of man. Later, this becomes his scientific method of
      research into reality. The human being is eager to learn, eager to grasp things into his own world,
      eager to annex reality. Man becomes the librarian of reality.

      According to John Locke the human intellect is an empty vessel which has to be filled with
      experiences. It is only a potential power; nothing is acquired by the intellect, which is not gained
      by experience. Man, as an intellectual being, has no innate ideas and almost no innate patterns of
      action. His world is an experienced world.

      One of the best examples of this is language and human communication. The organs of speech
      are ready when the child is born; the possibilities are there. Nevertheless it speaks only the native
      language. If one had taken the child somewhere else, it would have spoken another language and
      conquered another spiritual world. Perhaps this all sounds too simple, but we have to realize that
      man is the bearer of the civilization into which he is born. There is no heredity of culture, no
      innate knowledge of morals and habits. There is only a greater or lesser innate power or
      potentiality to grasp these things. The culture and civilization passed from one generation to
      another have to be learned. This is especially what Locke, who had no notion of an archaic
      insectual pattern of reactions behind the civilized ones, meant.

      The newborn human being is without civilization but he has various means of grasping the
      culture of his time. We must realize that man is animal and human at the same time. As an
      animal he is born with innate reflexes, with innate instincts, patterns and biological tendencies.
      These biological patterns of behavior can introduce many disturbances in his civilized life. When
      he is not satisfied sexually or when he is starved, he does not continue to act as a civilized being;
      his inborn biological patterns win over all his learned habits. Freud taught us how the innate
      instinctual pattern is the deep-rooted basis of human action and that the civilized patterns are the
      instincts changed as the result of education and experience. Jung adds a more mystical
      explanation. He sees man as still rooted in a collective unconscious, as part of an archaic
      instinctual collective being. The pattern of action which man has learned is only the upper layer;
      beneath this reigns a pre-logical instinctual form of thought, feeling and action, just as they reign
      in the world of insects.

      Innate patterns of action are multifarious in the world of animals. What would we think of a child
      being born a completely equipped toreador, acquainted with all the qualities of the bull and the
      art of plunging his sword with unfailing certainty into the right spot? This is the norm for every
      digger wasp. It knows how to paralyze its victims by one sting in the head ganglia, so that they
      do not die and will remain fresh for future use as supper. Nobody taught them to build their
      complicated breeding places. Their mother died long before they saw the light of day; their father
      was a brainless insect used by their mother only for copulation. They had no school, only a
      breeding hole with the paralyzed spiders as food supply where their mother’s eggs had been laid.
      Beyond this the mother wasp has no further interest in her descendants.

      Birds are also equipped with many “innate ideas”. All varieties of birds know how to build their
      nests without architectural education. Every bird seems to be born equipped with a map. When
      birds of passage begin to migrate, the youngsters often form the outposts and advance guard, so
      that they cannot have learned the path of flight from their parents.

      Man has almost none of this innate knowledge which he likes to call “instinct”. Even in the
      satisfaction of his most archaic instincts only the final reflexes are innate. He has to learn how to
      ingest his food, and only swallowing is an inborn reflex. During copulation, only the last motor
      act of orgasm is reflexive; only’then is he pure action and reflex, feeling the ecstasy of an innate
      action. But even this ecstatic instinctual act is lost in many impotent neurotics.
      How can we explain the transition from a reflexive animal to the hesitating and delaying
      “learning” human being? This new cultural process begins at that point in biological evolution
      when the senses cease to serve only as receivers of stimuli, which they turn into active automatic
      reflexes. When for the first time the stimulus results in the formation of a new adjustment, of a
      new pattern of action, something new develops in the organism. We call these newly-formed
      patterns conditioned reflexes (Pavlov). They open the way for new associations and new chains
      of reflexes in the animal brain, enabling it to learn. The new reflexes form new nervous impulses
      along new tracts in the brain and in the end those new associations form a more differentiated
      human brain (Neurobiotactic theory of Arriens Kappers). This experienced nervous apparatus is
      well formed only when the eye, hand and ear are used conjointly to build an experience, when
      together they form a fresh image of reality which in turn changes the form and action of the
      nervous apparatus.

       

      Only Man Is Surprised

       

       

      There is a moment during man’s evolution when a new excited astonishment appears, a feeling of
      surprise at all those things which until now were accepted as normal without any reflection. This
      new astonished approach to reality begins to control and to verify all the materials of experience.
      This surprise spreads continually and the human being enjoys his expanding universe more and
      more. All that stimulates the senses is looked at as new and as more beautiful! The astonished
      caveman drew a design of a rnammouth on a rock, and “caught” him with his magic creation.
      Out of fear and astonishment, man begins to create his own world outside the control of his
      senses. The child begins already to project his vague impressions (hallucinations) on the world.
      Hallucination and reality cover each other gradually.

       

      Man tries to catch the world. Out of his new experiences he builds his own world. The human
      being is beginning to learn and to create. Man has to learn about his own life; an animal never
      can. Man, because he opposes the world, has to create his own spiritual world. Man’s learning is
      a learning of mankind. Through learning man acquires a social heritage, a knowledge and
      science he transmits to the next generation. A man has culture and history. He can not only learn
      from his experiences-as animals can-but he can learn from history, from the experiences of early
      ancestors. He even learns from the animals, but animals do not learn much from him.
      It must be said that insects also pass on certain social patterns to the next generation but only
      through a biological and genetic evolution. Their learning process is stereotyped and is limited
      to the individual and to the given situation. Its learning dies with it. Man, alas, tends to fall back
      into those stereotyped actions.
      Through collective learning, man grows dependent on his fellow beings; he only is a psychosocial
      being. The individual does not die; his notions and knowledge add experiences to the
      group. Man not only has a biological heredity, but he also has a cultural heredity.

      Prejudice-The Enemy of Learning

       

      The greatest enemy of learning in man, is the conviction of knowing already. There is no greater
      hindrance to teaching someone than his conceit about knowing already and the delusion that he
      is already able to do all the things he wants to do. Prejudice is the enemy of adequate ideas, and
      those acquired in early youth from environment and tradition are so dangerous because of their
      tenacity and overvaluation. We may compare them to the innate reflexes and ideas of insects.
      The historical pattern of action and the inborn knowledge which resides in a group or in masses
      form such a tenacious prejudice. They keep the spontaneity of life bound and hinder new forms
      of creation. The human being as a member of the masses is in such a way bound to his fellow
      beings. Mankind is one huge plant with many roots, many sections and many joints. No social
      action is possible without many members having a share in it. In the individual, awareness that a
      man is a joint in such a superhuman “mass-being”, is often expressed in illogical racial feelings,
      which from time to time supplant his rational thinking. When he has to explain these archaic
      feelings, he appeals to a biological matrix to which he and his kind belong. Such rudiments of
      collective archaic feeling still exist in every human being and are kept alive by traditionalism.
      They are always ready to vibrate when certain political sounds come through the air. When these
      obscure ideas move the human being they destroy all logic, and the archaic insectual animal is
      reborn. The psychologist speaks soberly of regressions and the revival of archaic thinking;
      seductive politicians speak of blood and soil and race and our infallible way of life.
      Under the impact of such suggestions man may throw overboard all he has learned; he reverts to
      the innate world of ideas of the insect in him. The human insects may govern the world.

      Man, The Eternal Baby

       

      We are now acquainted with a few of the biological conditions of becoming a man. To fulfill
      these conditions, however, the human being needs still another present from nature. The
      impressiveness of his modifiable brain, the use of hand, eye and tongue would all be use less if
      he did not have time enough to build his world out of his experiences and verifications. Human
      life seems short, but the fact that more than a quarter of its duration belongs to youth and that his
      youth, strictly speaking, never disappears, gives the human being the opportunity to learn and to
      experience all kinds of things. Among animals, man has the longest youth.

      The Dutch anatomist Bolk (g) proved in his theory of human fetalization that the typical
      peculiarities of human biological organization was its fetal aspect. This he formulated in what
      sounds like a paradox: Man is an unripened and retarded monkey-fetus. As we shall see it is as
      compensation for this biological fetal and helpless status, that man acquires the ability to develop
      his mental capacities. Human fetus and monkey fetus are born the same, but while the monkey
      fetus (and monkey baby) develop and differentiate rapidly into a mature animal, man remains a
      suckling with too large a head. Comparing the biological development of man with that of
      monkeys, we see that human growth is much more retarded. Man remains in an anatomical phase
      which the monkey soon outgrows. This is called by Bolk the fetalization of form. Several
      hormonal glands-all under apparent control of the pituitary gland-cause this retardation of
      anatomical differentiation. The juvenile form of many human organs verifies Bolk’s theory of
      fetalization-the shape of the jaw, the fetal eyebrows, the local growth of hair, the hairless body,
      the shedding of the first teeth. This retarded development leads to a lengthening of the period
      before adolescence. It is well known that in this early period the basis is laid for the later world
      of ideas, images and attitudes. The experiences of childhood are necessary for the development
      of adult mental life and it is extraordinarily difficult to fix anything into the human brain of
      which the primary forms are not present in early childhood and prepuberty. The great wealth of
      the outside world comes to us between our first and fourteenth years, when we are most open to
      impressions. These years compensate us for our lack of innate ideas. The impressions of that age
      still have the power of innate ideas. They sometimes have the same mechanical effect as the
      training and drilling of animals. In many lives this unconscious drilling recurs unexpectedly just
      as innate ideas do in animals. A peculiar urge to repeat the early infantile patterns develop in
      man. In the last decades we experienced full well what governmental drilling of the mind is able
      to do. Thought control returns mankind to the mechanical patterns of insectual life.
      We are now touching on a very curious chapter in psychology, the formation of ideas during
      infancy, school-age and the period of emotional latency. All that is established in the infantile
      brain grows in this period deep into the fundamentals of future patterns of behavior. Group
      behavior especially is conditioned through this process. In the post-war period we still have an
      opportunity to study the causes of psychopathic behavior as a result of demoralization, fear,
      tension, and paradoxical education through war habits.

      Man walks erect, he is born naked and he is a fetus. He exposes all his organs, unprotected by fur
      or other armament. He is very conscious of his lack of defense and his nakedness. Man is the
      only animal with clothes, with shame and with the exhibitionist urge. Man became especially
      vulnerable in his sex organs; the opportunity of hurting them is greater than in other animals
      while his impulse to sex life is much more frequent and random. In no other animal do we
      experience this frequency of sexual activity-one of the reasons, perhaps, why so many myths
      have arisen dealing with man’s sexual life. Greater vulnerability and greater capacity always lead
      to greater tension. Greater tension must lead to greater social suppression. The continual
      limitation of his increased sexual urge must have transformed all kinds of aggressive fantasies
      into action. Because of man’s early and unquenchable sexual urges, because of his continual
      longing for unity, he undergoes a continual inhibition from outside. This may stimulate the most
      beautiful creative fantasies but it may arouse the most cruel destructive wishes towards the
      frustrating forces. Man is a homo eroticus. Erotic defense and exposure alternate. His earliest
      aggressive fantasies are related to the loving action or rejection by the parents. Many later forms
      of aggression and cruelty depend on those early imaginations. Frustrated sex and too much
      exposed sex-both breed aggression.

      The Dreamer-Fighter

       

       

      Man is not a real fighter. He is a dreamer-fighter without the biological tools. However, he is
      able to canalize his urges and instincts. Man can fight against his own instincts. He is the only
      animal who limits from within his instinctual drives. Some domestic animals can do likewise,
      when their love for man comes into conflict with their animal drives. Neurotic people can breed
      neurotic dogs, with all their drives caught in the dog’s basket.
      For naked undefended man, the outer fight became an inner fight. His fighting became partly a
      fight against inner urges, partly against
      the inhibiting forces from outside. There is always a confusion of oppositely directed struggles in
      man.

       

      When man has overcome sexual fear and aggression, he will be able to direct his love, that
      higher form of libidinous development toward the world. But when he feels defeated inwardly,
      through loss of love, loss of paternal defense, loss of inner capacity, he wishes to hide himself
      behind his aggressive fantasies. Or worse; he retakes the pattern of the insectual warrior, in order
      to rid himself of his depression in a primitive way. He laughs and is furious and aggressive
      because he is sad.
      However, man is not a real fighter, or he would not have invented the perversion of destructive
      tools.

       

      Homo Ludens-The Playing Man

       

      A long youth and an eagerness to learn are not enough to transform the human animal into a
      civilized being. His youth must be relatively safe, so that he may learn by playing.
      We already observe this pedagogical play in the higher animals. The larvae of the wasp must
      catch its prey by innate reflex, but most of the vertebrate animals exercise and train their
      reflexes. They create a secondary motility, which gives them greater variety in stalking and
      conquering their prey. The infant-phase of the animal at home in the parental nest makes this
      training in motor variety possible.

      However, we must distinguish between playing and learning. Every higher animal experiences
      and learns; he finds a new exercise in every new experience. That is why many animals can be
      drilled so very well. In terms of biological aim, we may say that the motor patterns become more
      and more useful. Specific training in the parental nest is directed toward the service of a specific
      biological aim and satisfaction. But there is another form of movement beside that which fulfills
      the biological aim. Some animals are capable of “aimless play”. Many baby animals play in the
      parental nest, though prey or enemy are not present. My dog does the same. “Come, come,” I
      say, and he comes head over heels, bringing me the stockings he has in his corner. No archaic
      instinct leads him; it is the play of movement, of repetition and new movement, which gives him
      all kinds of satisfaction. But this is only possible when he is not attacking his competitor or
      eating his meal. In his play the animal is without direct biological aim, his motility is
      independent of innate reflexes. Human beings have the same tendency in thousand-fold varieties.
      Here, too, man’s fetal nakedness invites him to play. Man is born naked without natural claws
      and weapons. He has to learn his own defenses by playing his play of strategy with artificial
      tools. Man has to discharge his innate aggression, because he is a naked fetus; and he has to learn
      to defend, because there is still danger in the world. In games and sports he finds a partial
      solution of this human paradox of aggression.

      The motile function as such has value as we learned already. It helps to form private virtual
      worlds. Every movement is conducted by virtual movements, and virtual movements help to
      form ideas. That is why one wishes to repeat a game; it is not the aim, but the joy of motor
      function itself. The psychologists call it “Wiederholungszwang”, the compulsion to repeat. We
      find it, for example, in the ornamental play of primitive peoples. Some of the roots of creative art
      lie in the playful repetition of a primary simple symbolic figure. Play becomes .style, and style
      becomes an idea.

      Play, handed on by the parents to the next generation, is the beginning of culture: It seeks an
      active motor function, seeks a joy in action quite different from the training of inborn reflex
      motility, which is pure “reactive” movement.

      Scientific language is too dry and barren for describing the fluent crossings, from one problem to
      another, which arise in the beginning of play and civilization. Nearly all the essential problems
      of culture have their roots in these primitive attempts to overcome the rules of animal life.
      As soon as mere reflexive life ceases to exist, as soon as the life which reacts only to stimuli
      from outside is turned toward play, with an aim of its own, a conflict arises with the outside
      world. In any case the new “ludicrous” attitude can only then be developed if the biological aims
      are secure. In this craving for security we find the roots of civilized fear, namely the fear of
      insecurity. All freedom to play contains a vague fear of the period of non-playing when we are
      again bound to our instincts. Our homesickness, our “Weltschmerz”, our tendency to preserve
      eternally the secure nest of father and mother is part of the eternal oedipal tragedy. However, we
      can escape our human fear and hesitations in the highest ecstasy of creation or in the most boring
      game of cards!

       

      The Quest For Safety

       

      Civilized man is not able to hunt for his prey every day; he cannot be constantly on the alert. He
      has a tendency to make life safer and safer and to eternalize the infantile situation. This is one of
      the roots of fear inherent in every cultural being. Because man removes himself from his
      biological aim and makes his own laws and his own rules, there is always the risk of falling back
      into the old insectual attitude. Of course, it is also possible to use our play in the service of the
      instincts. The choice between free play and instinctual satisfaction is an ancient tragedy. Look at
      my dog. I call him and, wagging his tail, he is ready to play. But at the same time outside the
      door barks his eternal enemy and competitor in sex life. He pricks up his ears. And now his
      internal struggle begins-here the play and there the instinct. With a deep human sigh he goes
      back to his boss-tomorrow, perhaps, he will rush outdoors and follow his innate instincts.
      In the choice between instinct and play lies the idea of biological freedom, the determined
      freedom of option between regression or progression. We see it in the play between cat and
      mouse. At any moment the decision can move in either of two ways: the oral instinct can be
      satisfied and the mouse incorporated, or the game is played and creates a new kind of
      satisfaction. Next day the boss finds a dead mouse on the floor.

       

      Human beings, too, always have the freedom of this primary and archaic choice. In his table
      manners man plays the old game, up to the moment of the swallowing reflex. Have you forgotten
      how you have tried to delay swallowing when some food was wonderfully tasty? But the most
      beautiful game is played by the human being in the elaborate play of Eros which grew to a
      thousand-fold cultural pattern of its own. And behind the erotic culture always remains the
      sexual reflex. The archaic choice between cat and mouse is turned into man’s chaotic problems of
      love. The culture of love, the repeated play of Eros in our society is conducted in the safe harbor
      of marriage. Here again, the repetition creates a culture. Until the moment comes when the cat
      eats the mouse. This is the moment when the old aggression and destruction trouble civilization
      and culture. The love of Eros cannot compete with the aggression of sex.

      I like this picture of the human animal, who plays continually in a safe world. This tendency
      toward safety is the beginning of social life. Play is only insured when the archaic instincts can
      be safely satisfied. This insurance policy is the protector of our culture.

      In all play, there is a magic function-the recognition of the player himself, of his ego. First life
      acted on him; now he lives actively and places himself opposite life. Man through his play
      becomes aware of his errors; he is the only animal who rearranges his life again and again
      according to plan, or play, or emergency. Play for him is a continual challenge; he tries, he errs,
      he corrects and tries again.

      Play is adventure; it is freedom. We never know in advance what
      will happen. Play is anti-instinct, for instinct is limited. As I have said, there are several ways in
      which play degenerates when it serves the instincts. Then it turns into routine, into destructive
      technique. Sport and fair play may develop into ambitious competitiveness-decent interhuman
      competition turn into destructive war with perfidious instruments. Insectual patterns-with help of
      the technique-dominate the irrational aim of fair play.
      The human being is able to play and to create his own civilized world out of his play, because he
      has a long youth.

      The Sclerotized Student

       

       

      Most of us end our student days when we are less than 25 years old. Then we must develop the
      film which was photographed from reality. We think over and over again about the things we
      discovered up to then. We see that the brain without innate ideas has been filled in part with a
      traditional and in part with a self-discovered world. The body walks erect; it has tasted new
      things and has brought them into its picture of the world. For most people real play stops when
      they imagine themselves to be adult. Their eyes no longer look; their hands no longer feel; their
      ears no longer hear. Youth has passed, no verification occurs any longer. One still speaks of play,
      but it is only imitation. Play has turned into a pastime or a sensation or a tournament with fate (as
      in roulette) or a poisoned state which imitates the real ecstasy of creation or shows one’s pseudosuperiority.
      The risk of growing and maturing is that we lose pure human functions, that we lose
      possibilities of expression and creation. We grow rigid and get culturally atrophic.
      Psychosclerosis may begin in youth. Play for the sake of play, play full of cultural tension and
      cultural relaxation seems too difficult for many people. Nevertheless, only this active play keeps
      the spirit high and the human being young. Only in highest regions of the arts and sciences does
      one dare to play, till in old age one arrives at that free creative play of thinking and correcting
      and thinking again, and the relaxed laughter, which follows when one realizes the nonsense one
      has created before. In spite of dictatorship and power politics, culture is only born in these
      regions.

       

      In remodeling reality, in repeating its forms in a playful way, man learns to create his own world
      outside himself. Only man possesses an ideal world, a pure image, made only inside his own
      mind. He never realizes that ideal, he is always dissatisfied in his creative artistic play, but he is
      sure of his projected dream world as a stronger one than reality.
      We have walked rather quickly past a few biological views. The human animal has valuable
      gifts: his ability to walk erect and his long youth. That is why his body became a precious
      instrument, with which he comes into contact with the miracles of the world and is able to carry
      that world into his own brain.

      Straight and erect, man walks over the earth building his own world. He had to be trained to use
      his instruments, that is why he needed time to learn. Man has a long youth, during whichprotected
      by his parents-he can learn most of his cultural play.
      Open to all impressions, man is permitted to see the world and to experience the miracle of
      everything on earth. He is allowed to revel in all aspects of reality. Thus the human being
      matures, and life matures in him.
      To remain young means to remain a student. To walk erect means to search for truth. To
      continue to play means to remain surprised and astonished and to revel in the developing human
      mind.

       

      Man is an inquisitive animal, a persistent student, who learns by playing.
      References

       

       

      1. Allport, Gordon W. A.B.C.’s of Scapegoating. Chicago: Central Y.M.C.A. College, 1944.
      2. Bacon, Francis. Novum Organon. In: Bacon’s Works. London: George Newness Ltd., 1892.
      3. Bleuler. Lehrbuch der Psychiatric. Berlin: Springer Verlag, 1920.
      4. Bolk, L. Brain and Culture. Amsterdam, 1925.
      5. Bolk, L. Das Problem der Menschwerdung. Jena, 1926.
      6. Charles Madge & Tom Harrison. Britain by Mass Observation. London: Penguin Books, Ltd.,
      1939.
      7. Ferenczi, S. Stages in the Development of the Sense of Reality, in Outline of Psychoanalysis.
      New York: The New Library, 1924
      8. Hitler, A. Mein Kampf, New York: Stackpole Sons, 1939
      9. James, William. The Varieties of Religious Experience. New York: The New Library, 1902.
      10. Jung, C. G. The Relations Between the Ego and the Unconscious. The Hague: N. V. Servire,
      1937.
      11.Psychology of the Unconscious. New York: Moffat, Yard and Company, 1916. 11. Le Bon,
      Gustave. The Psychology of Peoples. Paris: F. Alcan, 1923.
      12. Levy-Bruhl. Primitive Mentality. London: G. Allen and Unwin, Ltd., 1923. 13. Meerloo, A.
      M.
      13. Uber Das Halluzinieren. Z. Neur. 152. Berlin: Springer, 1935.
      14. Meerloo, A. M. Blacksheep, Scapegoats and Werewolves. Review ¢6. London, 1946.
      15. Meerloo, A. M. Aftermath of Peace. New York: Intern. Universities Press, 1947.
      16. Meerloo, A. M. Psychological Experiences in a Small Army. Psychiatric Quarterly. Vol. 21.
      Part I, 1947.
      17. Scheler, Max. Die Stellung des Menschen im Kosmos. Darmstadt, 1928.
      18. Stimson, H. L. On Active Service. New York: Harper & Bros., 1948.
      19. Von Monakow, C. and Mourgue, A. Neurobiologie de l’Hallucination. Brussels, 1932.
      20. Werner, Heinz. Comparative Psychology of Mental Development. New York: Harper &
      Bros. 1940.
      21. Van der Hoop. Bewusztseinstypen. Bern: Huber Verlag, 1937.

      ADDITIONAL REFERENCES ON THE SUBJECT

      Alexander, Franz. Our Age of Unreason. New York: J. B. Lippincott Company, 1942.
      Bally, G. Die Fruhkindliche Motorik. Imago. 1933.
      Baschwitz, Kurt. Der Massenwahn. Munchen, 1924.
      Du und die Masse. Feikema, Coardson & Co. Amsterdam, 1938.
      Benedict, Ruth. Patterns of Culture. New York: Houghton Mifflin Co., 1934. Bierens, De Haan.
      Animal Language in its Relation to that of Man. Biological Review, 1930. Scientia, Vol. 55,
      1934.
      Blondel, Charles. Ch. Introduction a la Psychologie Collective. Paris: A Colin, 1941.
      Boas, Franz. The Mind of Primitive Man. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1939.
      Race, Language and Culture. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1940.
      Brend, William A. Foundations of Human Conflict. London: Kegan Paul, 1947.
      Buytendyk. Het Spel van Mensch En Dier. Amsterdam, 1932.
      Chase, Stuart. The Tyranny of Words. New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1938.
      Crawshay-Williams, R. The Comfort of Unreason. London: Kegan Paul, 1947.
      Dewey, John. How We Think. New York: D. C. Heath & Co., 1933.
      Frazer, J. G. The Golden Bough. London: Macmillan & Co., 1900
      Freud, Sigmund. A General Introduction to Psychoanalysis. Tr. by Joan Riviere. New York:
      Liveright, 1935.
      Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents. London: L. & V. Woolf, 1930.
      Freud, Sigmund. Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. London: Hogarth Press, 1922.
      Freud, Sigmund. Totem and Taboo. New York: Moffatt, Yard and Co., 1918.
      Freud, Sigmund. Beyond the Pleasure Principle. London: Hogarth Press, 1922. Friedmann, Max.
      Ueber Wahnideeen im Voelkerleben. J. F. Borgmann, 1901. Fromm, Erich. Escape from
      Freedom. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, 1941. Goldstein, Kurt. Human Nature. Cambridge,
      Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 1947.
      Groos, Karl. Die Spiele der Menschen. New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1901. Hortega, Y.
      Gasset. The Rebellion of the Masses. The Hague, Leopold, My. 1936.
      Kardiner, A. The Psychological Frontiers of Society. New York: Columbia University Press,
      1944.
      Kasanin, J. S. Language and Thought in Schizophrenia. Berkeley: University of California Press,
      1944.
      Koffka, Kurt. The Growth of the Mind. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co. Ltd., 1924.
      Kohler, Wolfgang. Intelligenzfirufungen an Menschenaffen. Berlin: Springer, 1921.
      Lasswell, Harold D. Propaganda Technique in the World War. New York: Peter Smith, 1938.
      Lasswell, Harold D. Power and Personality. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1948.
      McDougall, W. Introduction to Social Psychology. Boston: J. W. Luce Co., 1909. Meerloo, A.
      M. Total War and the Human Mind. New York: Intern. Universities Press, 1946.
      Murphy, and Newcomb, Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Harper & Bros., 1937.
      Neurath, Otto. Modern Man in the Making. New York: A. A. Knopf, i939. Petersen. Ueber die
      Biologischen Grundlagen der Stellung des Menschen. Klinische Wschr. Berlin, 1928.
      Piaget, Jean. The Language and Thought of the Child. New York: Harcourt, Brace and
      Company, 1926.
      Porteus, S. D. Primitive Intelligence and Environment. New York: Macmillan Company, 1939.
      Radin, Paul. Primitive Man as Philosopher. New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1927.
      Reik, Theodor. Ritual: Psychoanalytic Studies. London: L. & V. Woolf, 1931. Rivers, W. H. R.
      Instinct and the Unconscious. London, 1922.
      Schilder, Paul. The Psychology of Schizophrenia. The Psychoanalytic Review, Vol. 26, 1939.
      Schneirla, T. C. Problems in the Biopsychology of Social Organization. Journ. of Abu. and Soc.
      Psychology, Vol. 41, 1946.
      Stebbing, L. Susan. Thinking to Some Purpose. London: Penguin Books, Ltd., 1939,
      Thouless, R. H. Straight Thinking in War Time. London, 1942.
      Trotter, W. Instincts of the Herd in Peace and War. London: T. F. Unwin, Ltd., 1916.
      Uexkuell, J. V. Umwelt and Innenwelt der Tiere. Berlin, 192 1.
      Young, Kimball. Handbook of Social Psychology. London: Kegan Paul, 1946.

       

       

      FAIR USE NOTICE: This may contain copyrighted material the use of which has not always been specifically authorized by the
      copyright owner. We are making such material available in our efforts to advance understanding of criminal justice, political,
      human rights, economic, democracy, scientific, and social justice issues, etc. We believe this constitutes a ‘fair use’ of any such
      copyrighted material as provided for in section 107 of the US Copyright Law. In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. Section 107,
      this material is distributed without profit to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving the included information for
      research and educational purposes. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to
      use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond ‘fair use’, you must obtain permission from the
      copyright owner.

      #15974
      AvatarEK
      Keymaster

      Viewing 2 posts - 1 through 2 (of 2 total)
      • .