Playing with the shaky brain

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      [Tirade May 1970]

      Playing with the shaky brain

      Joost AM Meerloo

      I always feel like a bummer when I point out to my friends how easy it is for others to mess with their brains. In the game of opinions, they believe in the certainty and stability of their own opinion. For them, the discussion exists for the sake of the difference of opinion. But when they are alone later they know the doubt. Then they realize how they are influenced by thousands of things every day. They know about propaganda and suggestion. They know the great temptation of talking to others. ‘For the sake of the good game’ is their justification.

      But I don’t want to talk about myself and my friends, but about the official messing around with the shaky brain. We have all heard of political mind control, of brainwashing and brainwashing, and of mental rape called menticide. Has the problem been forgotten now that it no longer has political attention?

       

      Spinoza, the solitary thinker, was well aware that uncontrolled emotions – the lack of morals, as he put it – open the brain to many unreasonable thoughts. He knew some philosophical friends who talked with him, who turned fiercely against him when his thinking was officially no longer allowed to be proclaimed. Spinoza already thoroughly realized that reason can be supplanted by fear.

      History is a continuous play with shaky lives and shaky thoughts. We can learn as much from this game of history as from everyday practice and clinical trials. Describing anomalous historical phenomena is not important because of the sensational content of what happened, but because

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      in the distortion of the normal we get to know better the subtle variations of everyday life.

      Active psychological coercion and political terror have been commonplace throughout history. Every new human experience and every new insight can be used for good and for evil. The result of sophisticated political methods of coercion is that we are imperceptibly forced to review the methods and values ​​of our society. It sounds cynical that psychological and psychiatric insights have been called upon, not to help and to heal, but to learn to use the weaknesses of man, so that his brain becomes more easily manipulated and more willingly accepts certain ideologies. We may use this deliberate handling, forcing and imprinting of ideas and define this mental coercion as the political tool of mind control.called brain cleansing or menticide . I believe that the Dutch word brain purification is better chosen than ‘brainwashing’.

      The United Nations defined the systematic suppression, starvation and extermination of minorities as genocide , the extermination of populations. A new, more subtle crime is menticide , the killing of the developmental potential of the free creative mind.

      When the American public was first made aware of the facts of mind-wiping, as it had been applied to the POWs in Chinese captivity, it provoked a rather dramatic reaction. Magical fears were generated, related to hidden fears in each individual. It was, as it were, as if ‘the evil eye’ of a hostile inquisitor could just look right through you, and suddenly reveal what you wanted to keep hidden about yourself. An old fear of enforced conformity was also awakened, that old fearful feeling from early childhood of not being allowed to be a closed unit anymore – a self of one’s own – but open to every spying and controlling thought from outside.

      The mind control problem can be solved in several ways

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      being watched. One may ask: What is the political technique of psychic and spiritual terror? I could give an overview of the different variations in such a strategy of mental coercion. Different schools of psychiatry and psychology will offer different explanations of the psychic mechanisms involved. I am amazed at the many experimental studies that have already taken place in recent years in which subjects have been totally isolated, or submerged in water, or kept awake for days, to see how shaky their brains became, as if the tragic practice had not already given us enough answers.

      What can we learn from the political experiments on human animals? Those who only look for an answer in the isolated laboratory ignore the ever-changing historical reality.

      Sharp interrogation, inquisition, mental coercion and the constant attempt to persuade others is something that happens repeatedly in life, even outside official political manipulation. However, there is ample evidence that dictatorial governments have improved their techniques of spiritual terror and spiritual domination over the last thirty years.

      Psychologists were already familiar with Pavlov’s technique, which systematically tamed test animals in such a way that new, so-called conditioned reflexes and habits occurred. But they could not believe at first that such laboratory experiments could be misused to systematically reform the human mind. Yet we must not forget that the method of coercive persuasion and of inquisition by means of subtle, or not so subtle, intimidation had existed for as long as man has existed.

      Every time two people exchange ideas, a subtle, dialectical battle begins over who is the stronger in persuasion and communication skills, and who is the weaker. Who is the one who submits, and who has the better power of persuasion? When the verbal arguments are not enough, another tactic using the iron fist can often begin. Religious wars often started in

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      the service of forced persuasion and proselytizing. We could already learn the more subtle techniques of cunning, compulsive, sharp interrogation from the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Many a witch has been forced to openly confess her sinful relations with the devil. As early as the 16th century, the Dutch physician Johannes Wiers explained these allegations and false confessions as a projection of the evil in the inquisitor onto his victims.

      So what is new in the field of enforced belief, mind control and brain cleansing? Two important current developments made these ancient methods of forced conversion and forced-induced belief urgent.

      First, the modern totalitarian state developed a systematic strategy of mind control and ideological reversal in order to gain absolute control over the thinking of its subjects.

      Secondly, the technical development in our world with our machine communication means made humanity much more sensitive and subject to the influence of the mental manipulations of the political theories and of strangely absurd outside suggestions. In our technical world, we live daily in a complicated web of sounds and suggestions. I prefer to put forward the general conclusions first, because they show the meaning of all this more clearly. First I want to say something about the technique of individual mental enforcement and brain purification. Then I want to report on the technique of the mental mass coercion, the social seduction and the handling of the collective mind. I shall next discuss the problem of the unnoticed and unconscious mental compulsion,

      The Technique of Mental Coercion and Conversion
      The totalitarian brain-sanitation technique has a dual purpose: First, the victim’s mind must be confused and decomposed.

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      can be emptied as the technician puts it. Then the polished gramophone record of the shaky brain must be filled with new grooves, interpreting a new ideology.

      The methods used are quite simple. United Nations soldiers captured in Korea and China were subjected to a systematic regime of spiritual subjugation in which hunger and solitary isolation played the main role in breaking down the victims’ mental resistance.

      When such mental and sensory isolation is accompanied by constant propagandistic suggestions – night and day – most people will gradually lose their individual critical distinction and gradually follow the suggestions of their inquisitors. This happens especially when a cunning alternation of starvation and feeding is used as a kind of conditional reflex technique in the Pavlovian sense. The tasty snacks are only given when certain confessions are made. The new political ideology is, as it were, hammered in with repeated political slogans, especially when, after prolonged sharp questioning and lack of sleep, the critical barrier of the people has become weak.

      There are certain tricks that make this process easier. When the inquisitor – who is, of course, called an educating, sympathetic comrade – has the opportunity to awaken deep feelings of guilt in his victim, he becomes even more dependent on him. These perverse manipulations of man’s feelings of shame and guilt were also the old suggestive tool used by the Inquisitor in the Middle Ages. The modern brain purifier uses it all the time. The prisoners of war are very amicably invited to first write down their life history, their character flaws and where they had failed in life. That sounded rather innocent and seemed to be a sign of sympathetic interest. Moreover, it was a pleasant pastime in the days of starving boredom.

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      arguments to attack them psychologically. From now on their personal weakness and confusion was re-examined and worked through, until the victim began to feel smaller and smaller under all the interrogation. This eventually led to complete spiritual submission and confession of ideological errors. A nun, who had undergone such treatment daily for 4 years in a Chinese prison, did not know where her loyalties lay for years afterwards.

      We can also explain it this way: The brain purifier blackmails people’s inner need to get in touch with someone. He makes use of the general human urge to communicate. The need to talk and connect with other people can gradually become a need to confess – even if the confession is not true – especially in days of great loneliness and boredom. This extreme form of spiritual dependence evokes all the hidden masochistic traits in man. Through the public hearing of the trial of Eichmann – the robot – who claimed the lives of millions, we have learned how childishly dependent he too was. He got sick when he wasn’t questioned. The word not only makes the listener dependent, but also the speaker dependent on his listener.

      Official military statistics tell us that nearly 70% of POWs in Korea were unprepared for such subtle psychic assaults on their integrity and engaged in communicative communication with the enemy in a manner that was not militarily permitted. However, this does not mean that all these people should be regarded as real traitors or collaborators.

      Psychiatry and social psychology reacquainted themselves with some surprising facts through all this. How weak and subdued can the human mind become under such abnormally tense conditions! Hunger breaks the dignity and integrity of almost most people. When man is alone, without sufficient food, without his daily work and without his everyday contacts, he easily gives up his spiritual resistance and integrity. Unknowingly, he accepts the verdict of the inquisitor

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      siteur about himself, and is he even prepared to accept the new ideological image that this new ‘father image’ imposes on him.

      We now know better why the solitary and isolated man is so much more easily confused, especially in the age in which seeming togetherness is so highly praised; I am thinking here mainly of the ‘togetherness slogan’ in the United States. Man must be carefully trained to live on his own inner resources.

      The methods used in political mind control also turn our attention to the methods of interrogation of psychiatric patients. The way of interviewing influences the patient and directs the information one is trying to get. In a broader sense, this is also true of the methods of questioning used by the police and in cross-examination in court. The Supreme Court in the United States has ruled that a confession after a police questioning without the presence of a lawyer has no legal validity, nor can it be used as evidence. It is so easy to transplant our own subjective feelings into the accused. Prolonged interrogation, the, help of anesthesia with the so-called truth serum,

      This same process can go unnoticed in psychotherapy. A therapist can plant his own ideas and words in the brains of his patients without being aware of it. Psychoanalysis is very aware of this fact and tries to prevent it by first demanding a thorough psychic analysis from the doctor himself, familiarizing him with his possible dictatorial attitude and his own unresolved conflicts. Psychoanalysis draws attention to the subtle human transference and countertransference of feelings and ideas. Still, an unobtrusive suggestion from the therapist is hard to avoid; this is evidenced by the fact that many patients become ardent adherents of the particular school and denomination which the therapist represents.

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      break position. The old motto of ‘in vino veritas’ – the truth is hidden in the wine – already used alcoholic beverages to loosen the lips. It is the first historical aphorism devoted to mind control. However, the totalitarian inquisitor soon discovered that hunger and lack of sleep, that cold and dirt and loneliness much more quickly brought about the necessary regression and confusion. This is not entirely true of torment and physical torment so often practiced by the Inquisition in the Middle Ages. Pain often generates inner resistance and rebellion – until death ensues – while the ‘starvation isolation’ treatment more easily leads to serf dependence.

      The need to convince other groups and nations of the subjective truth preached by a ‘chosen’ people is as old as human history. Inner doubt always seems to have to be covered by outer boasting and violence. Many religions wanted to convert the non-believers, often even by means of the sword.

      Napoleon turned the old techniques of persuasion into a kind of military science in his ‘Bureau de l’Opinion Publique’. Meanwhile, the science of guided public opinion, with its advertising engineers and propaganda technicians, has developed new methods of imprinting and injecting slogans. Even when the public is skeptical and critical of the daily advertisements, the repeated slogan still has a psychological effect. A gradual and imperceptible influence emanates from the repeated suggestion, independent of the critical inner barrier we set up against it. A need is created unconsciously, even if we don’t need the advertised things. For our subject of mind control it is not so important whether an advertised item sells better or worse. But it is important to know that the engineers who manipulate public opinion are quite consciously exploiting the unnoticed leakage of repeated suggestions, which sneak through the barrier of our critical defenses and leave behind a ‘memento’. When we later see the article rejected by our critics somewhere in a shop, a kind of internal short circuit occurs – we

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      drool like Pavlov’s dog – and then we buy what we didn’t want to buy originally. The tune played by the radio or television reinforces the influence of the unnoticed memory.

      This unconscious leakage of suggestion and the unnoticed penetration into our system of values ​​and necessities occurs in any free democracy, but is magnified a thousand fold when the persuasion and suggestion are backed by totalitarian political terror. Man’s unconscious need to identify with the stronger power awakens; the imperceptible passive surrender to brute force takes possession of man.

      The collective terror in the totalitarian state becomes the great ideological persuasive, making the people more obedient and enslaved with the help of the secret police and concentration camps. Under such severe circumstances the individual mind may still consider itself critical, but the will has already succumbed in the meantime. What is criticized is usually what can be criticized, ie the scapegoat in the other country and the possible enemy.

      These are the two distressing sides of our problem. On the one hand we see the engineers of public opinion using their best psychological knowledge to improve propaganda and advertising, on the other hand we see political systems using this, not to sell us certain products, but to inculcate ideologies in the public brain, which has become much more susceptible to manipulation.

      The current Chinese program of mind reformation and mind control is a good example of how far this idea of ​​mass mental assimilation and bondage can go.

      The strategy of periodic relaxation – the game of cat and mouse.
      The totalitarian strategy discovered quite early that constant mass intimidation and collective mind control and mental terror are not enough. One can create panic and fear without having an effect on mass thinking, because terror gradually becomes normal and gradually loses its paralyzing effect. It even helps to strengthen the rebellion.

      To better achieve the goal of mass subjugation, must

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      an undulating strategy of mental exhaustion can be designed with peaks of terror alternating with valleys of relative calm and relief. This strategy of political relief and tactical ‘rest’ between periods of fearful oppression means that a political cat-and-mouse game is being played. I pursue you, I release you, I jump on you again, and then you may think again that the danger has passed. But now comes the trick! These political lulls between the waves of terror are much better used for political propaganda and suggestive persuasion than the periods of panic. When there is a passive anticipation of what is to come next, people are easier to influence. It is similar to a patient in hypnosis, who is more easily hypnotized in each session.

      In the Cold War, we can clearly see this strategy of pressure and terror in portions. We can observe a deliberate alternation between the preaching of hatred and the slogan of harmony and peaceful coexistence. The suggestor can take advantage of the confusion which this alternation produces in thousands of souls and gradually exhaust their self-confidence.

      As we can all remember, the Nazis in our country tried to play that same psychological game of cat and mouse. Usually they very systematically used the first of the month to announce a new terror measure. That aroused in many people a silent, expectant panic with the question: ‘What will happen next?’ The totalitarian strategist maintains that well-applied terror tips, with repeated alternations between terror and relief, soften the spirits and weaken the will. It is the latent, silent panic that grows and grows in people and gradually enslaves and subdues them.

      The unobtrusive poem check
      The study of brain cleansing and menticide teaches us how it is possible to destroy one’s mental power, only to rebuild it later in a willed pattern. This process can be explained in simple terms. However, one is there

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      less aware that this same process of influence takes place in a more subtle way, inconspicuously and unnoticed.

      When one lives in a country where one can speak freely, inner defenses are usually built up to keep out the hostile suggestions. But can man continue to do so forever? There is also a leakage of unnoticed suggestions that do something with our thinking. This involuntary mind control and unnoticed manipulation of our brain is important enough to command your attention; perhaps even more important than all the programmatic brainwashing and cold war.

      Psychiatry has long studied how the newborn baby is shaped and conditioned not only by the conscious attitudes and words and manipulations of the parents, but also by peculiar, more hidden emotional attitudes of the environment. I have seen babies refuse to take food from a mother who unconsciously felt enmity for them. The overly frightened parent with the menacing look and warning finger may use the sweetest words, yet the look may repulse the child. Both parents can follow very closely the rules of the book about loving the child in education, and master all the theories about giving affection, but then if they behave like cat and dog among themselves,

      Unexpected events can have a lasting impact, without people being aware of these strange emotional creeps. In recent years I have been able to make a study of various estranged ‘ambulatory muddleheads’. In many cases, a provocative emotional shock could be demonstrated that changed their lives. Some accident or catastrophic occurrence in the family compelled them more than usual to concentrate on inner psychic fantasies and stimuli, and once they had tasted the tranquility of this inner escape, they could not return to the painful reality.

      Such an emotional invasion in our confrontation with the

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      lity occurs repeatedly in daily life. Are we aware of how modern technology is unknowingly distorting our brains? Technology influences our entire philosophical attitude towards life. It teaches us in the motorized age that the shortest and easiest way is the best. It calls for technical efficiency and magical tools that make life easier, but therefore conflicts with the psychological rule that resistance, effort, risk and a steady task are necessary to form a strong personality. Healthy, strong egos are not made by passivity, luxury, and convenience; the inner pilot in man must grow through the challenge of fate.

      How technology has entered homes unnoticed and creeps into the subtle relationship between the child and its parents can be illustrated by a neurosis, which I conveniently call television addiction.will call. The characteristic is that the fascination with the television screen is preferred to any other ‘human’ relationship. I’ve seen children between the ages of 4 and 6 who couldn’t talk to their parents, but they could talk to the television screen. It is true, the parents provoked this problem by sitting too much in front of the screen themselves – without any mutual conversation – because of the hypnotic effect that this fascinating toy emanates. The mother works in a factory during the day, and at lunchtime the children go to the vending machine to drop their dimes into a slot and exchange them for food. Nothing is more personal. A technical, mechanical world has crept between the children and their parents, which keeps them emotionally separated from each other. No wonder these children refuse to learn to read at school,

      Reading, as a complicated action, not only causes a greater distance from the spoken word, but requires extra energy and attention. Reading is a solitary dialectical relationship with a printed sheet of paper, accepted only when the need for spoken communication is fulfilled.

      What is called the “reading block” in the United States, the unconscious unwillingness to have that solitary relationship with the printed symbol

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      to begin with, occurs in 25% of New York elementary school children. Much of it may be blamed on the child’s inner refusal to extend his masticated need for communication with his parents to the relative coldness of the printed word. This neurosis is the result of the changed relationships in the family brought about by the technical pressure of automatic time-fillers. For example, if we could persuade the father to change his attitude and play a daily word game with the child, instead of watching television ourselves, the reading block would soon disappear.

      This is just one of many examples I could give. Technology promotes our infantile magical thinking and our need for dependency. Unnoticed, it takes us back to childish dreams of omnipotence. One press of the button and the car starts to whir and takes us where we want to be faster than fast. All those magical knobs and levers have led us away from our fellow human beings and from human society.

      Another unexpected invasion of people’s emotions and thoughts has been brought about by the almost automatic development of institutions and institutions, by so-called institutionalism. The increasing complexity of our social and technical system has made it impossible for us to gain a universal understanding of everything that happens around us. Modern man needs various institutions as intermediaries between him and his environment. He has created for this purpose a host of social formations that constantly guide and influence him. It starts with the delivery room and ends with the funeral home. An army of nannies, nurses, servants, and officials has crept unnoticed between all sorts of personal relationships, and that whole bureaucratic wedge has changed the relationship between man and fellow man.

      Don’t get me wrong. I am very aware that we need these institutions, but I am also aware that all these labels and stamps threaten our sense of identity. When

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      During the war I was helped by the French underground movement to escape the Nazis, I carried with me a whole collection of such stamps as the modern guise of the Wandering Jew.

       

      Institutionalized civilization with its emphasis on the letter of the law and on the automatic application of the rule has weakened human ties and, above all, eroded belief in variable human values. The members of the SS, who committed the most heinous crimes, could only do so because they imagined themselves to be mechanical cogs in an institutionalized machine. Those whom I got to examine always hid their personal moral responsibility behind the order given by the impersonal organization.

      Institutionalism has become a magical ghost for many without moral responsibility and moral commitment. The technical age has transformed the warm, human relationships into relations between people and things, between people and machines, between people and institutions. The Party, the Company, the Factory, the Hospital, the Asylum, the State, the Corps of Officials have all become impersonal but all-powerful justifiers for whatever takes place. They have introduced a spiritual alignment and spiritual horizontalism, of which we are only gradually becoming aware. The latest American literature is full of perorations against this assimilated man: ‘The man in the gray flannel suit’ – ‘The corporate man’ – ‘The white shirt worker’ – ‘The status seekers’. The protest against the impersonal role of the production machine, against the automated workers, who all ride the same train to work and live in uniform houses, against man as a mass product without individuality. I know several families where the canned diet and television have broken all family fellowship and sitting around the table.

      The pressure of standardization is increasing and unnoticed affects our personality. The urge for uniformity is increasing. Driving the same car with the same automatic gear shifts makes the same careless road users. Therefore becomes

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      the roadside accident something very personal! Bad luck and suffering are elevated to something individual, like an escape from the equation. But the suggestion of disappearing into the anonymity of the masses causes conflicting feelings in the thinking of the ‘organization man’. Precisely because he is forced to fit in with the group and equate himself with others if he wants to be accepted, inner fear and frustration develop. He must look for other ways to regain his lost individuality, together with the lost creative spontaneity of his childhood.

      A new inner question has arisen in our technical world: ‘Who am I with that ready-to-wear suit and my neatly adjusted behavior?’ After the Second World War, the character of subjective complaints changed, which were introduced to the psychologist as neurosis. Many complain of a sense of de-egoing, of a loss of individuality, a shrinking of personality, which gradually leads to greater passivity and lavish self-pity.

      How far this process of technical institutionalism has already gone can be illustrated with a statistical example. The year 1956 was the first time in the United States that the number of people employed in economic production—that is, doing the work—was smaller than all the intermediary and administrative agents around them. (New York Times, April 1, 1957). It is clear that the impersonal wheels in the social machinery are increasing.

      It is not difficult to find other examples of the involuntary curtailment and streamlining of our thinking and feeling caused by our technical civilization. Consider, for example, some social phenomena such as the sports mania, whereby millions of spectators think they become strong and powerful by procuration, but not by their own strength and training. Another example is the speed drunkenness, the motorized frenzy, which claims more victims every year in the United States than the entire Second World War and is twice as large in percentage terms in Holland. Think of the aspirin mania and the belief in miracle tablets, which involuntarily undermine confidence in the

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      undermine the body’s auto-regeneration.

      It is important to our general theme of mind control to recognize that there is an unnoticed and often unintentional thought compulsion and restraint everywhere. The new formative and deforming forces play with our shaky brain and their influence on our emotions and our thinking are significant for the future of mankind.

      Resisting mental coercion
      One cannot enumerate preventive measures when one is only studying a new form of social distortion. Any form of prevention can only be the result of a more intensive study of these social phenomena.

      The American authorities asked the so-called experts what they could do against the devilish overwhelm of their soldiers’ brains. “Can we strengthen their morale against spiritual coercion?” They were unaware, what a dangerous question that is for an army authority. Of course, through special training and instruction, the soldier can be better prepared for the strange treatment that may await him and which, in a sense, will enable him to better resist.

      But the point of the issue is philosophical and ethical and above all political. Can an individual oppose his own conscience to that of the institution for which he works? Against the state? To his commanding officer?

      On the one hand we see in our world the automation of man’s conscience and the question of servitude and conformity, on the other hand a new current is emerging, which wants to give the individual the right of personal ethical verification and the right to accountable to his own conscience.

      The laws against genocide , passed at the United Nations, and the sentencing of international crimes against humanity before an international tribune at Nuremberg, have increasingly drawn attention to the use of individual conscience in the choice is between good and evil. It has become a new, legal principle, line-

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      right against any form of automatic ethics and authoritarian serfdom. Such was also the great psychological importance of the Eichmann case in Israel, to hold the individual responsible for following criminal orders. But that does not solve the difficulties. The existence of genocide, menticide, mental coercion and psychological contagion have created international and national legal dilemmas that will not be resolved for the time being.

       

      Let me go back to practicality and tell you what I could advise the military authorities in the USA for the time being. The fact that the soldier or political prisoner is well versed in what may lie ahead in enemy hands and what the purpose of the brain-clearing strategy is already provides a measure of protection against too easy psychic surrender. The prisoners, who had understood the enemy well, could bear his suggestive “treatment” much better. Their brains were not so easy to play with. A free press in a free country, which affords the right to be well and richly informed, gives man an inner foundation against wild political suggestions. But especially growing a strong, simple faith and trust in one’s own ideas and intentions makes man mentally less vulnerable. A strong conviction, acquired in a harmonious environment, forms the spiritual backbone of man. The psychological concept of the power of the ego, of the strong personality, is of utmost importance. Although there is an extensive literature on ego psychology and man’s capacity to tolerate danger, suggestion and temptation, we currently do not know enough how to strengthen that core, that inner pilot, in man. Particularly in democratic countries, we must become more and more aware of the unnoticed pressures that burden and make the human psyche more vulnerable. Education for conformity does not make the individual morally stronger. The defenders of individualism are having a hard time in our days, especially since many a university threatens to turn into a conveyor belt of technical and historical facts. As the emphasis is placed more and more on greater factual knowledge without the ethos and moral

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      knowledge behind those facts, the school imperceptibly inculcates greater conformity in the student.

      The question of individual and social morals, which strengthen the shaky brain, is an educational question for the family and the school alike. Modern psychology, which believes more in the deep-rooted vertical education, which begins in the family and continues in the school and later more personal relationships, is thus in conflict with the horizontalism, which is preached unnoticed by our technical interference.

      How can we overcome the passivity and laziness that technical civilization suggests to people? The increasing financial dependence on institutions, coupled with greater dependence on luxury items, makes people less willing to express their personal opinions. Material wealth is often misused to reinforce passivity and the need for dependency, especially since modern advertising media propagates this dependence on technical means on a daily basis. The psychological goal in a free democracy is the integration of freedom and discipline, the integration of individual isolation and social adjustment, the integration of natural rebellion with the sense of duty and responsibility. A balance must be struck between tolerance and man’s intolerance, between his struggle for justice and his capacity to endure injustice. Man must learn to tolerate the weaknesses and faults and imperfections of his race without approving them.

      But the urge to understand and explain everything, even what cannot yet be understood, can also have its dangers. Under the illusion that he understands more than he has a clue about, man more easily becomes a victim of so-called universal theories and ideologies. However, if he dares to live with as yet unsolved riddles and with awe of the mystery, he need not indulge in facile, comforting theories that play with his mental capacity.

       

      Mental pressure exerted by brain cleansing and mind control can cause an inner confusion that is easily

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      corpse leads to an atrophy of ego and personality. Many victims, who returned from the concentration camp after undergoing torture and brain cleansing, needed months and sometimes years before they could be themselves again.

      There are subtle forces and influences everywhere that want to creep unnoticed under man’s skull cap to make him more enslaved and subservient to certain ideas. Our brain is weak. It is easy to play with, unless we are acutely aware of it and find new strength in that awareness.

       

       

       

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