De Arte Venandi cum Avibus, literally On The Art of Hunting with Birds, is a Latin treatise on ornithology and falconry written in the 1240s by the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II. One of the surviving manuscripts is dedicated to his son Manfred. Manuscripts of De arte venandi cum avibus exist in a two-book version (Manuscripts at Rome, Vienna, Paris (2x), Geneva and Stuttgart) and in a six-book version (Manuscripts at Bologna, Paris, Nantes, Valencia, Rennes, and Oxford).
A 14th century CE manuscript illustration depicting Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (r. 1220-1250 CE), and the Sultan of Egypt and Syria al-Kamil (r. 1218-1238 CE) who negotiated the handing over of Jerusalem to Christian rule during the Sixth Crusade (1227-1229 CE). (Vatican Libraries, Rome)
A study of the behavior, flight, migration, and role of many birds of prey