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     Table 1. ORAC (Antioxidant) Units of Selected Fruits and Vegetables
     Food Source ORAC units/100 grams (3.5 oz)
     Health Supplements  ORAC Units  Grams to supply RDA
     Clove oil (Syzigium aromaticum)  10,786,875  0.046
     Thyme oil (Thymus vulgaris)  159,590  3.1
     Oregano oil (Origanum compactum)  152,007  3.3
     Aspalathox (rooibos tea extract, 20%)  375,000  1.3
     Vit C  189,000  2.6
     Vit E  135,000  3.7
     ORAC +  74,600  6.7
     Dark Chocolate  13,120  38.1
     Milk Chocolate  6,740  74.2
     Rooibos tea (200ml)  750  133
    Blackstrap molasses (TE/100 g dry solids) 8860
     Fruits
     Chinese Wolfberries  25300  20
     Prunes  5,770  87
     Pomegranates  3,307  151
     Raisins  2,830  177
     Bilberry  4,460  112
     Blueberries  2,400  208
     Blackberries  2,036  246
     Strawberries  1,540  325
     Raspberries  1,220  410
     Black Raspberries  7,700  65
     Red Raspberries  2,400  208
     Plums  949  527
     Oranges  750  667
     Cherries  670  746
     Red grapes  739  677
     Pink grapefruit  495  1010
     White grapefruit  460  1087
     Apples  218  2294
     Banana  210  2381
     Pears  134  3731
     Watermelon  100  5000
     Vegetables
     Garlic  1939
     Spinach  1,770  282
     Steamed spinach  909  550
     Yellow squash  1,150  435
     Brussels sprouts  980  510
     Alfalfa sprouts  930  538
     Broccoli  880  568
     Broccoli flowers  890  562
     Beets  840  595
     Avocado  782  639
     Red bell pepper  710  704
     Baked beans  503  994
     Onions  450  1111
     Corn  400  1250
     Peas, Frozen  375  1333
     Eggplant  390  1282
     Potato  300  1667
     Sweet Potato  295  1695
     Cabbage  295  1695
     Cauliflower  385  1299
     Carrot  210  2381
     Tomato  195  2564
     Cucumber  60  8333

     

    Other essential oils are also strong antioxidants with a high ORAC value:

    Sandalwood (Santalum Album)  1,655
    Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) 2,446
    Juniper (Juniperus osteosperma)  2,517
    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis)  3,309
    Lavender (Lavendula angustifolia)  3,669
    Spearmint (Mentha spicata)  5,398
    Helichrysum (Helichrysum italicum) 17,420 
    Lemongrass (Cymbopogen flexuosus)  17,765
    Orange (Citrus aurantium) 18,898
    Eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) 24,157 
    Rose of Sharon (Cistus ladanifer)  38,648 
    Cinnamon Bark (Cinnamamum verum)  103,448
    Mountain Savory (Satureja montana)  113,071
    Oregano (Origanum compactum) 153,007 
    Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) 159,590 
    Clove (Syzigium aromaticum)  10,786,875 

     

    Essential oils really potent antioxidants. A drop of Clove oil contains 400 times more antioxidant per unit volume than wolfberries, the most powerful of all know fruits.

    Other antioxidant measurement units

    Three assays methods for the determination of total antioxidant capacity are found in published literature: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Randox Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (Randox-TEAC) assay, and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay (Cao & Pior, 2002). The FRAP assay is simple and inexpensive but does not measure the SH-group-containing antioxidants. The ORAC assay has high specificity and responds to numerous antioxidants. The ORAC method is chemically more relevant to chain-breaking antioxidants activity, while the FRAP has some drawbacks such as interference, reaction kinetics, and quantitation methods. On the basis of the ORAC results, green pepper, spinach, purple onion, broccoli, beet, and cauliflower are the leading sources of antioxidant activities against the peroxyl radicals (Ou et al, 2002).ORAC is a standardised test adopted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture to measure the Total Antioxidant Potency of foods and nutritional supplements. This standardised test was developed by Dr. Guohua Cao, a physician and chemist at the National Institute on Ageing in Baltimore, Maryland. It provides a very precise way of establishing the Free Radical destroying or neutralising power of a particular food, supplement or compound. The ORAC unit has become one accepted industry standard for measuring antioxidants. The antioxidant test combines a measure of both the time an antioxidant took to react and also its antioxidant capacity in a given sample. The ORAC unit then combines them into one measure, making it the first in vitro assay method for measuring total antioxidant potential. It is easily expressed as per 100 grams of sample. The recommended daily antioxidant dose should add up to 5000 ORAC units each day. Looking at Table 1 below, it is clear that one has to be quite selective in the foods chosen so as to easily achieve this. If you at bananas alone, you would need to eat 2.4 kilograms of bananas to get your daily ORAC dose! You would however, only need to eat 87 grams of prunes. In a study of 36 older people, boosting fruit and vegetable intake to reach 3,200 ORAC units a day increased the antioxidant potential of the blood by 10 to 15%; enough to have an impact on disease prevention  For anybody who could handle the smell, a drop of clove oil would give the required ORAC dose. There are however doubts as to whether ingesting clove oil (Syzigium aromaticum) is safe~~~– It is safe—always use a carrier oil —honey—syrup—never ever take this straight~~~Wolfberries (Lyceum barbarum) is a fruit from the Ningxia Province, China, where some people have lived to over 120 years. The ORAC is not the ultimate unit, however, as different antioxidants have different effects. Lycopene protects against prostate cancer and is found in tomatoes, strawberries and pink grapefruit. Lycopene is the predominate carotenoid in plasma, and various tissues including the prostate gland (Lucich, 2001). Research (ref.) has shown spinach to be more effective than strawberries (which score higher in the ORAC assay) when measured as blood antioxidant scores. The researchers conjecture that it may be due to specific compounds or a specific combination of them in the greens. Spinach caused the biggest change in a test between spinach, strawberries, and red wine (all high-ORAC foods) and 1,250 milligrams of vitamin C.

    Other antioxidant measurement units

    Three assays metnods for the determination of total antioxidant capacity are found in published literature: the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, the Randox Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (Randox-TEAC) assay, and the ferric reducing ability (FRAP) assay (Cao & Pior, 2002). The FRAP assay is simple and inexpensive but does not measure the SH-group-containing antioxidants. The ORAC assay has high specificity and responds to numerous antioxidants. The ORAC method is chemically more relevant to chain-breaking antioxidants activity, while the FRAP has some drawbacks such as interference, reaction kinetics, and quantitation methods. On the basis of the ORAC results, green pepper, spinach, purple onion, broccoli, beet, and cauliflower are the leading sources of antioxidant activities against the peroxyl radicals (Ou et al, 2002).
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    Dietary Supplement  Health and Education Act of 1994

    1. 784–AN ACT

     
    To amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to establish standards with respect to dietary supplements, and for other purposes 103D CONGRESS 2D SESSION S. 784
    AN ACT
    To amend the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act to establish standards with respect to dietary supplements, and for other purposes.
    1 Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled,  SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE. 4 This Act may be cited as the ‘‘Dietary Supplement  Health and Education Act of 1994’’. 2