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    Vitamin C- The exercise replacement
    Overweight and obese adults are advised to exercise to improve their health, but more than 50 percent do not do so. New research to be presented at the 14th International Conference on Endothelin: Physiology, Pathophysiology and Therapeutics suggests that taking vitamin C supplements daily can have similar cardiovascular benefits as regular exercise in these adults.–The blood vessels of overweight and obese adults have elevated activity of the small vessel-constricting protein endothelin (ET)-1. Because of the high ET-1 activity, these vessels are more prone to constricting, becoming less responsive to blood flow demand and increasing risk of developing vascular disease. Exercise has been shown to reduce ET-1 activity, but incorporating an exercise regimen into a daily routine can be challenging. This study, conducted at the University of Colorado, Boulder, examined whether vitamin C supplements, which have been reported to improve vessel function, can also lower ET-1 activity. The researchers found that daily supplementation of vitamin C (500 mg/day, time-released) reduced ET-1-related vessel constriction as much as walking for exercise did. Vitamin C supplementation represents an effective lifestyle strategy for reducing ET-1-mediated vessel constriction in overweight and obese adults, the researchers wrote.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by American Physiological Society (APS). —American Physiological Society (APS). “Vitamin C: The exercise replacement?.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 4 September 2015. <>.
    Carnosic Acid- Rosemary and Sage
    Protection from cyanide-induced brain injury by the Nrf2 transcriptional activator carnosic acid.
    J Neurochem. 2015 Jun;133(6):898-908
    Authors: Zhang D, Lee B, Nutter A, Song P, Dolatabadi N, Parker J, Sanz-Blasco S, Newmeyer T, Ambasudhan R, McKercher SR, Masliah E, Lipton SA
    Cyanide is a life-threatening, bioterrorist agent, preventing cellular respiration by inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase, resulting in cardiopulmonary failure, hypoxic brain injury, and death within minutes. However, even after treatment with various antidotes to protect cytochrome oxidase, cyanide intoxication in humans can induce a delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Additional mechanisms are thought to underlie cyanide-induced neuronal damage, including generation of reactive oxygen species. This may account for the fact that antioxidants prevent some aspects of cyanide-induced neuronal damage. Here, as a potential preemptive countermeasure against a bioterrorist attack with cyanide, we tested the CNS protective effect of carnosic acid (CA), a pro-electrophilic compound found in the herb rosemary. CA crosses the blood-brain barrier to up-regulate endogenous antioxidant enzymes via activation of the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. We demonstrate that CA exerts neuroprotective effects on cyanide-induced brain damage in cultured rodent and human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons in vitro, and in vivo in various brain areas of a non-Swiss albino mouse model of cyanide poisoning that simulates damage observed in the human brain. Cyanide, a potential bioterrorist agent, can produce a chronic delayed-onset neurological syndrome that includes symptoms of Parkinsonism. Here, cyanide poisoning treated with the proelectrophillic compound carnosic acid, results in reduced neuronal cell death in both in vitro and in vivo models through activation of the Nrf2/ARE transcriptional pathway. Carnosic acid is therefore a potential treatment for the toxic central nervous system (CNS) effects of cyanide poisoning. ARE, antioxidant responsive element; Nrf2 (NFE2L2, Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2).-PMID: 25692407 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    Carnosic acid inhibits the growth of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and synergizes with curcumin.
    Linda Saxe Einbond, Hsan-Au Wu, Ryota Kashiwazaki, Kan He, Marc Roller, Tao Su, Xiaomei Wang, Sarah Goldsberry
    PMID 22828666
    Studies indicate that extracts and purified components, including carnosic acid, from the herb rosemary display significant growth inhibitory activity on a variety of cancers.This paper examines the ability of rosemary/carnosic acid to inhibit the growth of human breast cancer cells and to synergize with curcumin. To do this, we treated human breast cancer cells with rosemary/carnosic acid and assessed effects on cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution, gene expression patterns, activity of the purified Na/K ATPase and combinations with curcumin. Rosemary/carnosic acid potently inhibits proliferation of ER-negative human breast cancer cells and induces G1 cell cycle arrest. Further, carnosic acid is selective for MCF7 cells transfected for Her2, indicating that Her2 may function in its action. To reveal primary effects, we treated ER-negative breast cancer cells with carnosic acid for 6h. At a low dose, 5 μg/ml (15 μM), carnosic acid activated the expression of 3 genes, induced through the presence of antioxidant response elements, including genes involved in glutathione biosynthesis (CYP4F3, GCLC) and transport (SLC7A11). At a higher dose, 20 μg/ml, carnosic acid activated the expression of antioxidant (AKR1C2, TNXRD1, HMOX1) and apoptosis (GDF15, PHLDA1, DDIT3) genes and suppressed the expression of inhibitor of transcription (ID3) and cell cycle (CDKN2C) genes. Carnosic acid exhibits synergy with turmeric/curcumin. [F1]These compounds inhibited the activity of the purified Na-K-ATPase which may contribute to this synergy. Rosemary/carnosic acid, alone or combined with curcumin, may be useful to prevent and treat ER-negative breast cancer.
    Protective effect of carnosic acid, a pro-electrophilic compound, in models of oxidative stress and light-induced retinal degeneration.
    Tayebeh Rezaie, Scott R McKercher, Kunio Kosaka, Masaaki Seki, Larry Wheeler, Veena Viswanath, Teresa Chun, Rabina Joshi, Marcos Valencia, Shunsuke Sasaki, Terumasa Tozawa, Takumi Satoh, Stuart A Lipton
    PMID 23081978
    The herb rosemary has been reported to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. We have previously shown that carnosic acid (CA), present in rosemary extract, crosses the blood-brain barrier to exert neuroprotective effects by upregulating endogenous antioxidant enzymes via the Nrf2 transcriptional pathway. Here we investigated the antioxidant and neuroprotective activity of CA in retinal cell lines exposed to oxidative stress and in a rat model of light-induced retinal degeneration (LIRD).Retina-derived cell lines ARPE-19 and 661W treated with hydrogen peroxide were used as in vitro models for testing the protective activity of CA. For in vivo testing, dark-adapted rats were given intraperitoneal injections of CA prior to exposure to white light to assess protection of the photoreceptor cells. Retinal damage was assessed by measuring outer nuclear layer thickness and by electroretinogram (ERG).In vitro, CA significantly protected retina-derived cell lines (ARPE-19 and 661W) against H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity. CA induced antioxidant phase 2 enzymes and reduced formation of hyperoxidized peroxiredoxin (Prx)2. Similarly, we found that CA protected retinas in vivo from LIRD, producing significant improvement in outer nuclear layer thickness and ERG activity. These findings suggest that CA may potentially have clinical application to diseases affecting the outer retina, including age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa, in which oxidative stress is thought to contribute to disease progression.
    [F1]Rosemary/Sage + Tumeric
    Therapeutics and Pharmacology of Rosemary.[F1]
    Additional Comments: Rosemary was reputedly first grown in England by Philippa of Hainault, wife of Edward III, in the 14th century. Gerard said of the herb, ‘it comforteth the harte and maketh it merie’. Grown in gardens since ancient times, it was considered to have powers of protection against evil spirits and was the emblem of fidelity for lovers. It is said that rosemary grows well in the kitchen gardens of households where the woman reigns supreme. It is an ingredient of many shampoos and hair preparations, and an infusion of the herb with borax is used as a rinse for treating dandruff. The leaves are one of the ingredients of eau de cologne. — Rosmarinus is specifically indicated in depressive states accompanied by general debility and indications of cardiovascular weakness and is of value as a tonic for elderly people with weak circulation[F2], particularly after a debilitating illness such as influenza and pneumonia. The flavonoid diosmin improves the circulation and strengthens fragile blood vessels. Diosmin is reported to be more effective in decreasing capillary fragility than rutin[F3]. The herb is of benefit in palpitations and other signs of nervous tension which affect the circulation. The camphor has a general tonic effect on the circulation and nervous system, especially the vascular nerves, making it an excellent drug for all states of chronic circulatory weakness including hypotension. [F4]– Rosmarinus is beneficial in dyspeptic conditions with flatulence and signs of liver inadequacy. It is of particular value in atonic conditions of the stomach where there is also generally poor circulation[F5]. The herb reduces flatulence and is stimulating to the digestion, liver and gallbladder, increasing the flow of bile; as rosmaricine breaks down in the body it stimulates the smooth muscle of the digestive tract and gallbladder. An infusion makes a good mouthwash for halitosis.
    Externally, Rosmarinus is used to ease muscular pain, sciatica and neuralgia, and the oil is a component of liniments used for rheumatism. A salve made from the oil can be applied to sores, eczema, bruises and wounds. The anti-inflammatory action of the herb is thought to be due to rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid and apigenin. —
    It is an excellent remedy for headache, taken either as an infusion or by applying the oil to the temples. Rosemarinus can also be applied locally as a wash for dandruff and scurf, or added to a bath for a stimulating effect. It has been used since ancient times to improve and strengthen the memory.
    The oil also possesses antibacterial and antifungal properties, and antimicrobial activity has been documented towards moulds and Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Vibrio cholerae and Escherichia coli.[F6] Carnosol and ursolic acid inhibit a range of food spoilage bacteria.
    [F1]Constituents: About 1% volatile oil (containing 2-5% esters, mainly borneol acetate and 10-18% free alcohols including borneol and linalol), camphor, camphene and cineole; flavonoids (diosmin, apigenin, diosmetin, genkwanin, 6-methoxygenkwanin, hispidulin, sinensetin, luteolin and derivatives), phenolic acids (rosmarinic and others); diterpenes such as carnosilic acid, carnosol, and rosmariquinone; triterpenic acids (ursolic acid and oleanic acids and derivatives); carnosic acid (rosmaricine)
    [F3]Ocular Support
    [F5]Digestion and Stomach—been know to protect the liver from poisons
    [F6]Immune Supporting effect
    Magnetic fields provide a new way to communicate wirelessly
    Electrical engineers at the University of California, San Diego demonstrated a new wireless communication technique that works by sending magnetic signals through the human body. The new technology could offer a lower power and more secure way to communicate information between wearable electronic devices, providing an improved alternative to existing wireless communication systems, researchers said. They presented their findings Aug. 26 at the 37th Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society in Milan, Italy.–While this work is still a proof-of-concept demonstration, researchers envision developing it into an ultra low power wireless system that can easily transmit information around the human body. An application of this technology would be a wireless sensor network for full-body health monitoring.– [F1]”In the future, people are going to be wearing more electronics, such as smart watches, fitness trackers and health monitors. All of these devices will need to communicate information with each other. Currently, these devices transmit information using Bluetooth radios, which use a lot of power to communicate. We’re trying to find new ways to communicate information around the human body that use much less power,” said Patrick Mercier, a professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at UC San Diego who led the study. Mercier also serves as the co-director of the UC San Diego Center for Wearable Sensors.
    Communicating magnetic signals through the human body
    The new study presents a solution to some of the main barriers of other wireless communication systems: in order to reduce power consumption when transmitting and receiving information, wireless systems need to send signals that can easily travel from one side of the human body to another. Bluetooth technology uses electromagnetic radiation to transmit data, however these radio signals do not easily pass through the human body and therefore require a power boost to help overcome this signal obstruction, or “path loss.”–In this study, electrical engineers demonstrated a technique called magnetic field human body communication, which uses the body as a vehicle to deliver magnetic energy between electronic devices[F2]. An advantage of this system is that magnetic fields are able to pass freely through biological tissues, so signals are communicated with much lower path losses and potentially, much lower power consumption. In their experiments, researchers demonstrated that the magnetic communication link works well on the body, but they did not test the technique’s power consumption. Researchers showed that the path losses associated with magnetic field human body communication are upwards of 10 million times lower than those associated with Bluetooth radios.[F3]–“This technique, to our knowledge, achieves the lowest path losses out of any wireless human body communication system that’s been demonstrated so far. This technique will allow us to build much lower power wearable devices,” said Mercier.
    Lower power consumption also leads to longer battery life. “A problem with wearable devices like smart watches is that they have short operating times because they are limited to using small batteries. With this magnetic field human body communication system, we hope to significantly reduce power consumption as well as how frequently users need to recharge their devices[F4],” said Jiwoong Park, a Ph.D student in Mercier’s Energy-Efficient Microsystems Lab at the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering and first author of the study.—-The researchers also pointed out that this technique does not pose any serious health risks. Since this technique is intended for applications in ultra low power communication systems, the transmitting power of the magnetic signals sent through the body is expected to be many times lower than that of MRI scanners and wireless implant devices.–Another potential advantage of magnetic field human body communication is that it could offer more security than Bluetooth networks. Because Bluetooth radio communicates data over the air, anyone standing within 30 feet can potentially eavesdrop on that communication link. On the other hand, magnetic field human body communication employs the human body as a communication medium, making the communication link less vulnerable to eavesdropping.[F5] With this technique, researchers demonstrated that magnetic communication is strong on the body but dramatically decreases off the body. To put this in the context of a personal full-body wireless communication network, information would neither be radiated off the body nor be transmitted from one person to another.–“Increased privacy is desirable when you’re using your wearable devices to transmit information about your health,” said Park.
    Demonstrating magnetic communication with a proof-of-concept prototype—The researchers built a prototype to demonstrate the magnetic field human body communication technique. The prototype consists of copper wires insulated with PVC tubes. On one end, the copper wires are hooked up to an external analyzer and on the other end, the wires are wrapped in coils around three areas of the body: the head, arms and legs. These coils serve as sources for magnetic fields and are able to send magnetic signals from one part of the body to another using the body as a guide. With this prototype, researchers were able to demonstrate and measure low path loss communication from arm to arm, from arm to head, and from arm to leg.–Researchers noted that a limitation of this technique is that magnetic fields require circular geometries in order to propagate through the human body. Devices like smart watches, headbands and belts will all work well using magnetic field human body communication, but not a small patch that is stuck on the chest and used to measure heart rate, for example. As long as the wearable application can wrap around a part of the body, it should work just fine with this technique, researchers explained.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by University of California – San Diego.–University of California – San Diego. “Magnetic fields provide a new way to communicate wirelessly: A new technique could pave the way for ultra low power and high-security wireless communication systems.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 1 September 2015. <>.
    [F1]More like a full body spyware completely monitoring everyone and anyone wherever they maybe and the capacity to monitor communication between people~ the nano tech inside makes this doable
    [F2]Do you feel the need to be an antennae?
    [F3]So now we all going to be transmitting with a magnetic field—and the question is now what means is this going to be happening what is involved~ are we talking implants or are we just talking nanotech incorporating into the dna to be constantly in sync with these fields~ and with this Nanobio integration what are the longer term effects with magnetics and the brain waves since they are so much easier to pentrate the tissues and there is a 10 million times lower so that would mean the amplitude of the magnetic foeld would have to be consistant and potent
    [F4]So now the next question is –the human body going to supply power to the magnetic field since batteries are not do able what is now going to be powering the technology and how will that effect the neurol pathways and cellular communication within the body
    [F5]This tech could be picked up and unscrambled with the right tech ~ this would be the equivalent to a floppy disc or a cassette once the magnetic strip has been encoded or recorded then all that would be required is to have a device that can read the magnetic field and you would know exactly what was being done
    Radioactive contaminants found in coal ash
    A new Duke University-led study has revealed the presence of radioactive contaminants in coal ash from all three major U.S. coal-producing basins.–The study found that levels of radioactivity in the ash were up to five times higher than in normal soil, and up to 10 times higher than in the parent coal itself because of the way combustion concentrates radioactivity.–The finding raises concerns about the environmental and human health risks posed by coal ash, which is currently unregulated and is stored in coal-fired power plants’ holding ponds and landfills nationwide.–“Until now, metals and contaminants such as selenium and arsenic have been the major known contaminants of concern in coal ash,” said Avner Vengosh, professor of geochemistry and water quality at Duke’s Nicholas School of the Environment. “This study raises the possibility we should also be looking for radioactive elements, such as radium isotopes and lead-210, and including them in our monitoring efforts.”–Radium isotopes and lead-210 occur naturally in coal as chemical by-products of its uranium and thorium [F1]content. Vengosh’s research team revealed that when the coal is burned, the radium isotopes become concentrated in the coal ash residues, and the lead-210 becomes chemically volatile and reattaches itself to tiny particles of fly ash. This causes additional enrichment of radioactivity in the fly ash.–“Radioactive radium and lead-210 ends up concentrated in these tiny particles of fly ash, which though individually small, collectively comprise the largest volume of coal ash waste going into holding ponds and landfills,” said Nancy Lauer, a Ph.D. student in Vengosh’s lab who was lead author of the study.–Vengosh, Lauer and their colleagues published their peer-reviewed paper Sept. 2 in the journal Environmental Science & Technology.–The study comes as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s first-ever regulations on coal ash disposal are set to go into effect in October.–Currently, coal ash disposal sites are not monitored for radioactivity, Vengosh noted, “so we don’t know how much of these contaminants are released to the environment, and how they might affect human health in areas where coal ash ponds and landfills are leaking. Our study opens the door for future evaluation of this potential risk.”-Smokestack scrubbers installed at U.S. power plants keep these contaminants from escaping into the air when the coal is burned, he stressed. But if the contaminated coal ash is spilled, or if effluents leak from ponds or landfills, it may pose a hazard.–“Because of the tiny size of the fly ash particles, they are much more likely to be suspended in air if they are disposed in a dry form. People breathing this air may face increased risks, particularly since tiny particles tend to be more enriched in radioactivity,” Lauer said.–Vengosh said this study is the first systematic study to compare radioactivity in coal and coal ash from the Illinois, Appalachian and Powder River basins. The researchers collected multiple samples of coal and coal ash from all three coal-producing basins and then measured the radioactive elements in each sample.
    Their tests showed that coal and coal ash from different basins exhibited different levels of radioactivity — the Illinois basin had the most, followed by the Appalachian and then the Powder River, which is in Wyoming and Montana. The tests also showed that the ratio of radium to uranium in the parent coal was consistent with the ratio found in its residual coal ash.–“This means we can predict how much potential radioactivity will occur in coal ash by measuring the uranium content in the parent coal, which is easily discerned,” Vengosh said. “This analysis can be applied to all coal ash worldwide, and is useful information for regulators, industries and scientists alike.”–Because the isotopic ratios of the coal and coal ash varied between basins but were consistent within each individual basin, researchers can also use them to determine the source of environmental contamination. “They allow us to not only distinguish between the three basins, but also to determine whether contaminants are coming from coal ash or some other naturally occurring source in the local environment,” Lauer said.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Duke University. –Journal Reference-Nancy E. Lauer, James C. Hower, Heileen Hsu-Kim, Ross K. Taggart, Avner Vengosh. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States. Environmental Science & Technology, 2015; 150902090028009 DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b01978 –Duke University. “Radioactive contaminants found in coal ash: Landfill, pond storage of coal ash is currently unregulated.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 2 September 2015. <>.
    Remedy–will need STS and saline baths with baking soda and borax to remove the dust and radiation from the body any sulphur used will benefit to assist in the flushing of radiation and any Iodine Lugols-Nascent-PI- will benefit as well-using things like rhodiola may offer protection and rosemary may offset any form of mutation as a result of this exposure
    [F1]Incredible coincidence since these are also found in chemtrails~ so makes one wonder if the coal dust is also being widespread as a result of chemtrailing or coal exhaustion or storage~ with the levels they are finding globally males one wonder if this is another diversion from looking at the possibility that the sky is being loaded with concentrated pollutants on a nano scale
    Black Elderberry inflammation reducer
    The researchers from the University of Connecticut in the US said dietary anthocyanins[F1] had been shown to reduce inflammation in animal models and to improve obesity-
    related complications – and black elderberry (Sambucus nigra) was one of the richest sources
    of these types of flavonoids.“Overall, black elderberry extract appeared to attenuate systemic
    inflammation and insulin resistance that occurs with diet-induced obesity in this mouse model,
    but further research is warranted on black elderberry consumption and effects in humans,” they wrote in the British
    Journal of Nutrition. Mice were fed either a low-fat diet, high-fat lard-based diet, a high-fat diet with 0.25% of the
    extract or a high-fat with 1.25% of the extract for a period of 16 weeks. The black elderberry extracts amounted
    to an anthocyanin dose of 20–40 mg per kg of body weight for the 0.25% group and 100–200 mg for the
    1.25% group.After 16 weeks both extract groups had significantly lower liver weights[F2], serum TAG and
    serum monocyte chemo attractant protein-1 – a serum marker linked to cardiovascular disease and diabetes – compared
    to the group given the high fat diet alone The homeostatic model assessment(HOMA)–a method used to measure insulin
    resistance and beta-cell function – was also improved. Liver weights were about 13% lower in both extract groups compared to
    the group given the high fat diet alone.However, upping the dose to 1.25% did not improve these markers more than 0.25%.The
    researchers even said the higher dose could cause complications in the adipose fat tissue because of fibrogenic effects. Tackling the
    comorbidities According to the World Health Organisation (WHO), estimated worldwide rates of people who are overweight and
    obese are 39 and 13%, respectively. Obese individuals have shortened life expectancies; however, they do not typically
    die of obesity itself but rather obesity-related comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes and certain
    types of cancers,” they said. They said inflammation as a result of adipose fat and excessive accumulation of ectopic lipid in tissues was
    thought to be a key underlying cause of these obesity-related comorbidities, meaning methods that target and lower inflammation could be
    effective at preventing obesity-related conditions. Source: British Journal of NutritionPublished
    (especially Red Wine)
    Blackcurrants Blueberry Bilberry Cherries-Elderberry
    [F2]How one may want to formulate from this base and increase-the current studies show that what ever the animal studies maybe that there would be beeded 5-10 times more of the same ingredient to a kilo of weight per human
    Guided growth of nanowires leads to self-integrated circuits
    Researchers working with tiny components in nanoelectronics face a challenge similar to that of parents of small children: teaching them to manage on their own. The nano-components are so small that arranging them with external tools is impossible. The only solution is to create conditions in which they can be “trusted” [F1]to assemble themselves. Much effort has gone into facilitating the self-assembly of semiconductors, the basic building blocks of electronics, but until recently, success has been limited. Scientists had developed methods for growing semiconductor nanowires vertically on a surface, but the resultant structures were short and disorganized. After growing, such nanowires need to be “harvested” and aligned horizontally; since such placement is random, scientists need to determine their location and only then integrate them into electric circuits.–A team led by Prof. Ernesto Joselevich of the Weizmann Institute’s Materials and Interfaces Department has managed to overcome these limitations. For the first time, the scientists have created self-integrating nanowires whose position, length and direction can be fully controlled[F2]. The achievement, reported this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, was based on a method developed by Joselevich two years ago for growing nanowires horizontally in an orderly manner. In the present study — conducted by Joselevich with Dr. Mark Schvartzman and David Tsivion of his lab, and Olga Raslin and Dr. Diana Mahalu of the Physics of Condensed Matter Department — the scientists went further, creating self-integrated electronic circuits from the nanowires. First, the scientists prepared a surface with tiny, atom-sized grooves and then added to the middle of the grooves catalyst particles that served as nuclei for the growth of nanowires[F3]. This setup defined the position, length and direction of the nanowires. They then succeeded in creating a transistor from each nanowire on the surface, producing hundreds of such transistors simultaneously. The nanowires were also used to create a more complex electronic component — a functioning logic circuit called an Address Decoder, an essential constituent of computers.–“Our method makes it possible, for the first time, to determine the arrangement of the nanowires in advance to suit the desired electronic circuit,” Joselevich explains. The ability to efficiently produce circuits from self-integrating semiconductors opens the door to a variety of technological applications, including the development of improved LED devices, lasers and solar cells.–Prof. Ernesto Joselevich’s research is supported by the Carolito Stiftung and the European Research Council.-Story Source–The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Weizmann Institute of Science. –Weizmann Institute of Science. “Guided growth of nanowires leads to self-integrated circuits.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 31 July 2013. <>.
    [F1]Adding a human concept to a machine that can be easily taken over and have it’s programming re written
    [F2]Would assume that this break through came as a means of exposing the human race to this tech and developing a ways and means to keep this in us
    [F3]This is what is going on inside those who are afflicted with the outbreak of nanopoisoning called morgellons—see show of the month july 25 —–%20some%20no%20larger%20than%20viruses%20–%20constructed%20through%20DNA%20origami
    TOP A
    Show of the Month Sept 12 2015
    A Comprehensive Review of Treatment Options for Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    Copper / Hydrogen Peroxide
    Nanotechnology is the control of matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale
    Nanoparticles – small but unique
    Analysis on the Alpinia katsumadai components of Zingiberaceae plants and their functions on myeloma resistance.
    A Comprehensive Review of Treatment Options for Premenstrual Syndrome and Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
    Collapse Box
    Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome that involves a combination of emotional and physical symptoms that result in significant functional impairment. Because of the debilitating nature of PMDD, multiple treatment options have been considered. This review provides a comprehensive overview of these therapeutic regimens to help health care professionals provide adequate treatment for PMDD and premenstrual syndrome. The treatments that are reviewed are organized into the following categories: psychiatric, anovulatory, supplements, herbal, nonpharmacological, and other. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors have been established as the first-line treatment for PMDD. Although luteal phase or continuous dosing can be used, additional research is needed to more thoroughly compare the efficacies and differential symptom response of continuous, semi-intermittent, luteal phase[F1], and symptoms-onset dosing. The psychiatric medications venlafaxine, duloxetine, alprazolam, and buspirone have also been found to be useful treatments for PMDD. Various anovulatory-related treatments have demonstrated efficacy; however, the use of some of these treatments remains limited due to potential side effects and/or the availability of cheaper alternatives. Although a variety of supplement and herbal-related treatments have been proposed, with some warranting further research, at this time only calcium supplementation has demonstrated a consistent therapeutic benefit. In conclusion, serotoninergic antidepressants have been established as the first-line treatment option for PMDD; however, there are a variety of additional treatment options that should be considered if a patient fails to achieve an adequate therapeutic response with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor.—
    ETIOLOGY–Although the etiology of PMDD is not entirely understood, a contributing factor appears to be the negative impact that changing gonadal hormone levels have on certain neurotransmitters. Estrogen potentiates neurotransmitter excitability, whereas progesterone has an inhibitory effect on most neuronal activity by increasing monoamine oxidase activity and decreasing levels of serotonin, as well as stimulating -aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors.8 Allopregnanolone, the major metabolite of progesterone, binds to GABA-A receptors and increases the sensitivity of these receptors, which results in an anxiolytic effect in response to stressors.8 Women with PMS have been found to have lower levels of allopregnanolone than women without PMS.9 In addition, women with PMS showed decreased production of progesterone and allopregnanolone when stimulated with gonadotropinreleasing hormone (GnRH) during the luteal phase compared with women without PMS, suggesting that decreased production of these anxiolytic agents may play a role in the etiology of PMS.10 The role of serotonin in the etiology of PMDD is supported by the finding of decreased whole blood serotonin levels during the mid to late luteal phase in women with PMS.11 This hypothesis is also supported by the rapid efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in the treatment of PMDD. It has been suggested that the efficacy of SSRIs in PMDD is due to their ability to increase allopregnanolone levels and enhance GABA-A receptor function.12 Furthermore, blood platelet serotonin (5HT) uptake and imipramine binding, which have been shown to share similarities with brain serotinergic mechanisms, have been found to be decreased in women with premenstrual changes.13,14 Women with PMDD also have
    DIAGNOSIS—-According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5), the diagnostic criteria for PMDD require the presence of at least 5 of 11 symptoms.6 One or more of the symptoms must be from the 4 listed in Criterion B (marked affective lability, marked irritability or anger, marked depressed mood, or marked anxiety), combined with 1 or more symptoms from the 7 listed in Criterion C (anhedonia, difficulty concentrating, lack of energy, marked change in appetite, hypersomnia or insomnia, a sense of being overwhelmed or out of control, and physical symptoms, such as breast tenderness or swelling, headaches, joint or muscle pain, bloating, or weight gain). These symptoms must result in a marked disruption in the patient’s life and be confirmed with prospective daily ratings recorded during 2 symptomatic menstrual cycles. Symptoms must be restricted to the luteal phase and start to remit within a few days of the onset of menses. Symptoms must not also be an exacerbation of another disorder, such as major depressive disorder. Table 1 presents the full diagnostic criteria for PMDD from DSM-5.6 Diagnostic criteria for PMS have been proposed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG),7 which are more detailed then the description provided by the tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of
    Potential Solutions
    myo-inositol were both found to be equally effective and superior to placebo, which was indicated by a significant decrease in symptom severity on the Daily Symptoms Records scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and the Clinical Global ImpressionsSeverity of Illness Scale. In terms of safety, no severe side effects were reported, and only 1 patient reported mild gastrointestinal side effects. Although myo-inositol may be helpful in treating PMDD, at this time further large-scale trials are needed to establish the clinical utility of this treatment. Calcium It has been proposed that a change in calcium regulation may be a contributing factor to the pathophysiology of severe PMS. As a result, calcium supplements have been considered as a treatment for PMDD.64,65 A double-blind RCT, conducted in 466 women with moderate-to-severe PMS, found that calcium carbonate supplementation administered at 1200 mg/d resulted in a significant reduction in PMS symptoms compared with placebo.65 Side effects were reportedly mild, with the most common including headache, rhinitis, and pain. Although the use of calcium supplementation appears to be safe and to reduce PMS symptoms, more research is needed to determine the extent of its efficacy. Vitamin E Vitamin E may alleviate PMS symptoms through prostaglandin synthesis and regulation of central neurotransmitters.66 A review of 2 RCTs indicated a potential role for vitamin E in the treatment of PMDD.67,68 In these 2 trials, women treated with vitamin E reported a decrease in the following symptoms: headache, sweet craving, fatigue, fainting, dizziness, heart pounding, increased appetite, depression, forgetfulness, crying, confusion, and insomnia. Although these results are encouraging and support further research, at this time there is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of vitamin E as an effective treatment for PMDD. Magnesium Decreased concentrations of magnesium have been found in the red blood cells and mononuclear blood
    Myo-inositol Myo-inositol is a secondary messenger of serotonin that has demonstrated some degree of efficacy in various psychiatric disorders including PMDD. A 2011, double-blind RCT evaluated the efficacy of 2 different forms of myo-inositol in the treatment of PMDD.63 The 2 forms of myo-inositol included a 1.2 g soft gel capsule and a 4 g powder, which were taken 3 times a day and considered pharmacokinetically equivalent. After placebo responders were excluded, 71 patients were randomized to receive either an active form of myo-inositol (soft gel capsule or powder) or a placebo. The soft gel capsule and powder form of
    cells of women with PMS and, as magnesium is a cofactor in enzymatic reactions, it had been hypothesized that it may relieve PMS symptoms.66,69 However, to date, studies that have evaluated the efficacy of magnesium oxide as a treatment for PMS have provided inconsistent findings.70,71 As a result, further research is needed to establish the therapeutic benefit and/or role of magnesium in the treatment of PMDD.72,73 events in the VAC group. A more recent RCT with 128 women with PMS found that 40 drops of a vitex agnus extract administered daily for 6 days before menses for 6 menstrual cycles was an effective and well-tolerated treatment for mild-to-moderate PMS.77 These participants experienced decreased headache, breast swelling and pain, bloating, nervousness, depression, and restlessness. No adverse effects were noted. In terms of dosage, a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study, which assessed different doses of VAC, concluded that a 20 mg/d dose was effective for treatment of PMS.75
    Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) Vitamin B6, pyridoxine, is a cofactor in neurotransmitter synthesis, and it has been theorized that it might alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms.66 A systemic review evaluating 13 RCTs concluded that vitamin B6 is “possibly effective” in the treatment of PMS mood symptoms.72 Among the RCTs reviewed, 5 found that vitamin B6 was not beneficial, whereas the other 8 found some therapeutic benefit in reducing PMS symptoms. The inconsistency among these results precludes a more definitive conclusion regarding the therapeutic value of vitamin B6 in the treatment of PMDD and demonstrates the need for further research.
    St John’s Wort (SJW) (Hypericum perforatum) SJW, Hypericum perforatum, has been found to be useful in the treatment of mild depression as it inhibits reuptake of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinphrine, as well as interacting with GABA and glutamate receptors.78 A double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover RCT involving 36 women with PMS evaluated a 900 mg/d Hypericum perforatum formulation containing 18% hypericin and 3.38% hyperforin which was administered for 2 menstrual cycles.79 This RCT found that this formulation was statistically significantly superior to placebo in improving physical (food craving and swelling) and behavioral symptoms (insomnia, confusion, headaches, crying, fatigue, poor coordination), but not mood (anxiety, irritability, depression, nervous tension, feeling out of control) and pain-related (aches, cramps, breast tenderness) symptoms. Adverse effects associated with the treatment were reportedly minimal and did not statistically differ from those with placebo.
    Vitex castus (Chaste Tree Extract) Vitex agnus castus (VAC, chaste tree, chasteberry), which is obtained from a shrub native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean, has been found to be effective in the treatment of PMS with minimal adverse effects.66,74 The proposed mechanism of action for this treatment is that it binds to dopamine receptors and inhibits prolactin release.75 In an uncontrolled open study, 93% of 1634 women with PMS who were administered 40 mg/d of VAC reported a decrease or cessation of physical and mood PMS symptoms.74 A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial that evaluated 170 women with PMS who were administered either placebo or a 20 mg VAC tablet daily found that VAC was better than placebo at treating physical and mood-related PMS symptoms.76 Seven women reported adverse events, 4 in the VAC group and 3 in the placebo group; intermenstrual bleeding, urticaria, and multiple abscesses were unique
    Evening Primrose Oil It has been hypothesized that women with PMS experience decreased conversion of linoleic acid to linoleic acid, providing support for research on evening primrose oil, which contains -linolenic acid (an essential fatty acid).78,80 However, studies of evening primrose oil (Oenotera biennis) in the treatment of PMS have not demonstrated efficacy beyond that of placebo.8183 Despite these findings, there is some evidence that supports the use of essential fatty acids for the treatment of PMS. A study published in 2011 that evaluated the
    Saffron (Crocus sativus) A double-blind RCT, which included 50 women with PMS, evaluated the therapeutic effect of saffron 30 mg/ d.85 This study found that, by the third and fourth treatment cycles, patients treated with saffron experienced greater symptom reduction than those who received placebo and that the difference was statistically significant on both the primary and secondary outcome measures. In terms of side effects, appetite changes and headache occurred more frequently in the saffron group than in the placebo group, but this difference in frequency was not significant. Although further research is needed, these initial results indicate a potential role for saffron in the treatment of PMS.
    Gingko biloba The effect of Gingko biloba on PMS symptoms was evaluated in a single-blind RCT, conducted in 90 women with PMS.86 A 40 mg leaf extract of Gingko biloba was administered 3 times a day from day 16 of the menstrual cycle to day 5 of the following cycle. This trial found a significant decrease in the overall severity of physical and psychological symptoms among the Gingko biloba group, which was significantly greater than in the placebo group. One case of nausea and 2 cases of increased desire to sleep were reported in the active treatment group. Additional research is needed to confirm these initial findings.
    [F1]The Luteal Phase is the time period beginning with the day after ovulation and running through the remainder of your menstrual cycle (ends the day before your next period). Typically, the duration of the luteal phase phase lasts between 10 and 16 days – and is generally consistent from cycle to cycle, averaging for most women at 14 days.
    In the Trying to Conceive (TTC) Community, the luteal phase is also referred to as “DPO” – or days past ovulation. At the onset of the luteal phase, women’s body temperature increases (Basal Body Temperature) in order to provide a fertile environment for the ovum.
    Copper / Hydrogen Peroxide
    In the 1980s, the discovery that prions–the infectious agent that causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease as well as human and animal spongiform encephalopathies–could be transmitted between humans came as a shock. This therefore raised the question of how to decontaminate medical equipment. Because of the prion’s powerful physical and chemical resistance, no fully satisfactory solution had been found until now. A new product–the result of research carried out at the Institute of Human Genetics (IGH)1 in Montpellier–has just been marketed under the name Actanios Prion by the firm Anios.2 It is able to destroy prions without damaging fragile medical equipment like endoscopes. –S.Lehmann–Model of the three-dimensional structure of the disease-causing prion protein.
    It was while studying the non-pathogenic form of prions3 that researchers at IGH observed that it could be destroyed by the combined action of copper and an oxidizing agent such as hydrogen peroxide. [F1]Until then, decontamination methods that worked against prions were either extremely aggressive (caustic soda, concentrated bleach, or autoclave), or not very effective (peracetic acid). “Of course, we immediately wondered whether this chemical cocktail would be efficient against pathogenic prions,” says Sylvain Lehmann, group leader at IGH and professor at the university and hospital of Montpellier. The answer wasn’t long coming: The combination of copper and hydrogen peroxide was indeed able to destroy the abnormal protein and its infectious nature. “We knew very well the importance of this finding, so we registered a patent in 2004 and contacted the firm Anios, with the objective of developing a marketable decontamination product.”
    A scientific collaboration with an exclusivity option on the patent began in 2005 between IGH and Anios, and given the importance of this new method, international patent coverage was also sought. This was followed by four years of work in order to adapt the formulation to hospital practice and to medical equipment, which requires specific cleaning precautions, and to validate the effectiveness of the solution against not only prions but also bacteria, viruses, and parasites. With this now out of the way, a license has finally been granted, and Actanios Prion is at last available on the market.
    Caroline Dangléant
    Notes :
    1. Institut de Génétique Humaine (CNRS).
    2. Anios is a subsidiary of Air Liquide, and is the market leader–both in France and the world–in the field of hospital decontamination.
    3. The prion protein exists in two forms: a normal, non-pathogenic form, and an abnormal, pathogenic one.
    [F1]The addition of copper to hydrogen peroxide increases the effectiveness of hydrogen peroxide on bacteria up to 3,000 times.
    Nanotechnology is the control of matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale
    Nanotechnology is the control of matter at the atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale. Nanomaterials, or materials (such as particles, fibers, tubes, grains, etc.) with at least one dimension in the range of 1–100 nm, can be metals, ceramics, polymers, or composites thereof. These materials exhibit unique properties because of their size and significantly greater surface areas, which can influence numerous properties including material conductivity, magnetic properties, surface energy, mechanical properties, catalytic properties, etc.
    An ongoing area of this research includes the interaction between synthetic nanoscale materials and living tissues. Micro- and nanoscale building blocks form the foundation for cells and tissues within the human body. It is thought that the difference in the activity of some cells on nanomodified surfaces is because of the ability of these materials to mimic the natural dimensions of constituents of biological tissues. Another important factor in this interaction is the unique surface energetics of nanomaterials because of their significantly greater surface areas compared with conventional, micron-structured materials. Such changes in surface energy undoubtedly influence initial protein interactions that are important for mediating bacteria and nonbacteria cell adhesion. Specifically, one of the first steps within the process of cell adhesion is the association of proteins adsorbed on implant surfaces to cell membrane receptors. The large surface to volume ratio characteristic of nanomaterials has been shown to affect this association to inhibit bacteria attachment and promote nonbacterial cell (such as osteoblasts, smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells, chondrocytes, etc.) adhesion (1). The type, concentration, conformation, and bioactivity of proteins adsorbed onto a material depend on its topographical (roughness), chemical, physical (charge and hydrophilicity), and mechanical (stiffness) properties, all of which can be easily influenced by nanotechnology (2). Surface properties, including topography, also effect bacterial adhesion and may play an important role in the initial stages of biofilm formation (3,4).
    Because of the above reasons, a vast amount of applications exist for nanomodified implant surfaces in pediatrics including antiinfection, tissue regeneration, drug delivery, and biosensing. Since the tissue growing properties of nanomaterials has been known for quite some time, this review will concentrate on the antimicrobial properties of both nanoparticles and nanomodified surfaces because of their number of applications within pediatric medicine. It will outline the prevalence of device-related infections within the pediatric population, describe improvements that can be attained by nanomodification, and will finish by examining methodologies for evaluating such materials in vitro.
    What are potential harmful effects of nanoparticles?
    6.1 Can nanoparticles interact with living organisms?
    6.2 Which characteristics of nanoparticles are relevant for health effects?
    6.3 How can inhaled nanoparticles affect health?
    6.4 What are the health implications of nanoparticles used as drug carriers?
    6.5 How should harmful effects of nanoparticles be assessed?
    6.6 What are the effects of nanoparticles on the environment?
    6.1 Can nanoparticles interact with living organisms?
    The SCENIHR opinion states:
    3.7 The Potential for Interactions Between Nanoparticles and Living Systems
    3.7.1 Introduction
    The hierarchical self organization of life spans from single molecules around 1 nm in size to large animals and plants (~10 m) and to very large organized populations of a species (~100 m). Nanoparticles may be of the same dimensions as some biological molecules such as proteins and nucleic acids. Many of these biomolecules consist of long macromolecular chains which are folded and shaped by cooperative and weak interaction between side groups, H-bridges and salt bridges. Here, functionalized nanoparticles, such as colloidal gold (Hayatt 1989), may intrude into the complex folded structures (Cheng et al 1999, Hainfeld and Powell 2000). Evidence for such interactions is seen from the experience with immunolabelling (Romano and Romano 1977) and related surface functionalisation techniques to target nanoparticles to biomolecules as markers for high resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy and optical imaging systems. Other nanoparticle systems which are established for research purposes in cell systems include quantum dots (Chan and Nie 1998) and magnetic nanoparticles (Josephson et al 1999). For a recent review see (Penn et al 2003). Surface active agents have been shown to alter the path of nanoparticles (Schurch 1990).
    3.7.2 Nanoparticles in Living Systems – The Surface Effects
    All nanoparticles, on exposure to tissues and fluids of the body, will immediately adsorb onto their surface some of the macromolecules that they encounter at their portal of entry. The specific features of this adsorption process will depend on the surface characteristics of the particles, including surface chemistry and surface energy, and may be modulated by intentional modification or functionalisation of the surfaces (Schellenberger et al 2004). This is well demonstrated through the use of specific biomolecular linkers that are anchored on the surface of nanoparticles or within vesicles and liposomes (Nardin 2000). In this way the affinity of a nanoparticle can be shaped to fit to a particular protein, and thus target a specific biomolecular assembly on a membrane, or within a specific organelle or cell surface.[F1] The specificity of such surface layers is used for analytical purposes (Elghanian et al 1997), for optical labelling of biomolecules in molecular libraries (Han et al 2001) and for drug or gene delivery to cells (Hood et al 2002). Thus, both the existence of passive surface layers and surface active agents compromise the risk evaluation of nanoparticles by mere chemical composition. In agreement with bulk surface chemistry, metallic nanoparticles are of considerable chemical reactivity while ionic crystal nanoparticles have been observed to accumulate protein layers when exposed to the cytoplasm or in the lymphatic fluid. This protein layer is possibly involved in the interaction of the nanoparticle by the cellular system.
    3.7.3 The Effects of Size, Shape, Surface and Bulk Composition
    The interaction of nanoparticles with living systems is also affected by the characteristic dimensions. As noted above, nanoparticles, of a few nm in size, may reach well inside biomolecules, a situation not possible for larger particles. It has been reported that inhaled nanoparticles reach the blood and may reach other target sites such as the liver, heart or blood cells (Oberdörster G et al 2002, MacNee et al 2000, Kreyling et al 2002).
    Nanoparticles may translocate through membranes. There is little evidence for an intact cellular or sub-cellular protection mechanism. For humans, inhalation is the most frequent route of access, and therefore the process of aggregation of the nanoparticles in the inhaled air has to be taken into account.
    In order to understand and categorize the mechanisms for nanoparticle toxicity, information is needed on the response of living systems to the presence of nanoparticles of varying size, shape, surface and bulk chemical composition, as well as the temporal fate of the nanoparticles that are subject to translocation and degradation processes. The typical path within the organ and / or cell, which may be the result of either diffusion or active intracellular transportation, is also of relevance. Very little information on these aspects is presently available and this implies that there is an urgent need for toxicokinetic data for nanoparticles.[F2]
    3.7.4 Solubility and Persistence
    In view of the active functionalisation and the possible interaction of nanoparticles with bio-molecular structures, it is important to consider the dose and dose rate of the particulate agent, its ability to spread within the body and ecosystem, the decay of number concentration and the erosion of individual particles. Many nanoparticles will have considerable solubility. For these materials the interaction with living systems remains close enough to the bulk chemical agent to justify the use of well established toxicological testing procedures and approaches. For biodegradable particles, the particle composition and degradation products will influence their biological effects. On the other hand, materials with very low solubility or degradability, could accumulate within biological systems and persist there for long durations. It is with nanoparticles of this character that the greatest concerns must arise, and attention will have to be paid to the comparison of the persistence of the particles and the time constants of the metabolic and cellular activities within the target host.[F3]
    3.7.5 Conclusions
    The major emerging issue to be discussed in the context of the biological interactions of nanoparticles is related to those particles with little or no solubility, or being non- degradable at the locality where accumulation is observed. There remain many unknown details about the interaction of nanoparticles and biological systems.
    [F1]Shaped to fit to a particular protein and target a specific “assembly on a membrane”orrrrr “within a specific Organelle or cell surface”
    [F2]cell membranes and thereby enter various cell types, whereas larger particles may be excluded. If a nanoparticle can penetrate cell membranes, it may be assumed that nanoparticles have the potential to reach other organs in addition to those which are the portals of entry. Most of the work on this topic is being conducted by the pharmaceutical industry because of the potential to improve drug delivery to target tissues. There is very little information in the published literature on how nanoparticles may be distributed within cells once absorbed. There is some evidence that titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely distributed in cells and are not necessarily membrane bound. In another study on endothelial cells using nanoparticles of poly DL lactide-co-glycolide polymer containing serum albumin, concentration of the nanoparticles was shown in the cytoplasm (Davda and Labhasetwar 2002) Cytoplasm is the fluid substance that fills the space between the cell membrane and the cellular organelles. The extent to which the distribution is substance-specific is unclear. There is evidence that airborne nanoparticles, in contrast to larger particles, are able, via the nose, to pass along the olfactory nerve and enter the brain (Oberdörster G et al, 2004b). Following their ingestion, nanoparticles may be taken up by the Peyers patches in the intestine. It is not known how well absorbed nanoparticles can penetrate the fenestrated capillaries.
    [F3]Within A target Host!!!!!!!???
    Nanoparticles – small but unique
    by Staff Writers
    Goteborg, Sweden (SPX) Sep 08, 2015
    Scientists at Chalmers University of Technology have developed a new way to study nanoparticles one at a time, and have discovered that individual particles that may seem identical in fact can have very different properties.[F1] The results, which may prove to be important when developing new materials or applications such as hydrogen sensors for fuel cell cars, will be published in Nature Materials.–“We were able to show that you gain deeper insights into the physics of how nanomaterials interact with molecules in their environment by looking at the individual nanoparticle as opposed to looking at many of them at the same time, which is what is usually done,” says Associate Professor Christoph Langhammer, who led the project.–By applying a new experimental approach called plasmonic nanospectroscopy, the group studied hydrogen absorption into single palladium nanoparticles. They found that particles with exactly the same shape and size may exhibit differences as great as 40 millibars in the pressure at which hydrogen is absorbed. The development of sensors that can detect hydrogen leaks in fuel cell powered cars is one example of where this new understanding could become valuable in the future.–“One main challenge when working on hydrogen sensors is to design materials whose response to hydrogen is as linear and reversible as possible. In that way, the gained fundamental understanding of the reasons underlying the differences between seemingly identical individual particles and how this makes the response irreversible in a certain hydrogen concentration range can be helpful,” says Christoph Langhammer.–Others have looked at single nanoparticles one at a time, but the new approach introduced by the Chalmers team uses visible light with low intensity to study the particles. This means that the method is non-invasive and does not disturb the system it is investigating by, for example, heating it up.–“When studying individual nanoparticles you have to send some kind of probe to ask the particle ‘what are you doing?[F2]’. This usually means focusing a beam of high-energy electrons or photons or a mechanical probe onto a very tiny volume. You then quickly get very high energy densities, which might perturb the process you want to look at. This effect is minimized in our new approach, which is also compatible with ambient conditions, meaning that we can study nanoparticles one at a time in as close to a realistic environment as possible”, says Christoph Langhammer.—Even though they have now reached the level where their results are ready to be published, Christoph Langhammer believes they have just scratched the surface of what their discovery and developed experimental methodology will lead to in relation to further research. He hopes that they have helped to establish a new experimental paradigm, where looking at nanoparticles individually will become standard in the scientific world.
    “It is not good enough to look at, and thus obtain an average of, hundreds or millions of particles if you want to understand the details of how nanoparticles behave in different environments and applications. You have to look at individual ones, and we have found a new way to do that.”–“My own long-term vision is to apply our method to more complex processes and materials, and to push the limits in terms of how small nanoparticles can be for us to be able to measure them. Hopefully, along the way, we will gain even deeper insights into the fascinating world of nanomaterials.”
    [F1]Another reason why a lot of “devices on freq” will not work
    [F2]Indicating either a program making this some kind of operating system or an AI
    Analysis on the Alpinia katsumadai components of Zingiberaceae plants and their functions on myeloma resistance.
    Pak J Pharm Sci. 2015 May;28(3 Suppl):1065-8
    Authors: Wang J, Qiu R, Yuan L, Meng F, Tang Q
    Generally speaking, zingiberaceae plants with sweet fragrance are commonly seen as perennial herbs that contains numerous well-known crude drugs and fragrant plants like Amomum villosum, Amomumtsao-ko, Ginger, Alpinia katsumadai and Radix curcumae, which are widely used in daily life. This paper analyzed chemical components of Alpinia katsumadai of zingiberaceae and applied several laminar analysis to further develop its active ingredients, aiming to make sure its function on tumor assistance. Actually, cardamomin contained in Alpinia katsumadai has been recorded to act notably in myeloma resistance, which was verified by cholecystokinin-octopeptide (CCK-8) in this paper. Cardamom in is proved to have multiple anti-myeloma effects, including myeloma cell activity and proliferation control, cell cycle retardant and apoptosis induction, which indicates its value in the field of medical pharmacy. –PMID: 26051719 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
    TOP A
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    Show of the Month Sept 26 2015
    Nanotoxicology– Toxicological and Biological Activities of Nanomaterials
    Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
    Cellular nanomachine revealed- Learning how any molecule passes through any membrane
    NANOPATCH Technology
    Risk assessment on the use of herbal medicinal products containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids.
    Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Sep 20;
    Authors: Allgaier C, Franz S
    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) are common plantal toxins directed against insect herbivores. Unsaturated PAs are known to be hepatotoxic. Many of the PAs are in addition mutagenic and some may possibly be carcinogenic for humans. The risk of an exposure to PAs associated with their occurrence in herbal medicinal products and in foodstuff is under current discussion. The present risk assessment for herbal medicinal products containing PAs is based on a margin of safety derivation for foodstuff indicating that a life-long exposure to maximally 0.007 μg/kg bw/day is not expected to be associated with safety concerns. This approach offers a possibility to estimate the potential risk of PA-containing herbal medicinal products irrespective of the route of administration. It assumes PA levels in the final herbal medicinal product below 0.01 ppm and considers for dermal administration a 100% skin penetration of the PAs reflecting a worst-case scenario. As a result, the calculated margins of safety show a potential exposure using herbal medicinal products 70-, 45.5-, and 19.3-fold lower on a one-day base and 608-, 396-, and 168- fold lower on a one-year base for adults, children aged 12 years, and children aged 4 years, respectively, than the thresholds considered acceptable for foodstuff.–PMID: 26399164 [PubMed – as supplied by publisher]
    Cellular nanomachine revealed- Learning how any molecule passes through any membrane
    Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of our cells, because they generate chemical energy similar to that obtained from a battery. Whether it’s a brain, muscle or plant cell, nano-sized gateways control the activity of the mitochondrial battery, by carefully allowing certain proteins and other molecules to enter into our mitochondria. Some of these proteins are large and complex molecules, yet they are essentially “spirited” into from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, while the mitochondrial membrane remains water-tight and intact. How this happens has confounded science for decades.–Monash researchers, working with colleagues in Japan, have shown how molecules manage this sub-cellular voyage and have visualized the process with new, atomic-resolution imaging — in real time. The discovery reveals what has been an essential mystery in biology and is published on 25 September in the journal, Science.–According to the lead researcher, Professor Trevor Lithgow, from the newly launched Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, the discovery means that scientists can now use the technology to determine how any molecule passes through any membrane. “How large molecules like proteins get in and out of membranes has long been a mystery. We have shown that this technology can be applied to solve the atomic scale details for all sorts of fundamental pathways going on in cells, opening the way to direct applications for medical research” he said.–Professor Lithgow and his team used a novel technology that enables the systematic expansion of the genetic codes of living organisms to include unnatural amino acids beyond the common twenty. The technology had been used in a handful of labs outside of Australia. Professor Lithgow and lead researcher Dr. Takuya Shiota from the BDI focused on the TOM protein complex, a large, complicated set of molecules embedded in the mitochondrial membrane in ways that have long confounded researchers. According to Professor Lithgow TOM 40 has resisted all attempts, using x-ray crystallography and other standard techniques in structural biology to unlock its transport secrets.–The Lithgow lab, working with colleagues from Nagoya, Kyoto and Tokyo, ramped up scale of the technology making literally hundreds of re-coded TOM 40 complexes, each one with a novel additional 21st amino acid. What they ended up with was a Rubik’s Cube of three dimensional data, which in the end had a unique solution that explained the structure of the TOM 40 protein complex and precisely how it operates as the gateway for entry into mitochondria.–Having shown the technology works — Professor Lithgow believes other labs working on diverse processes in human cell biology will mimic these experiments to determine how their chosen nanomachines operate. This includes processes from DNA damage and repair, to regulation events in metabolic disorders and cancer. “This new technology has revealed what has been a major unknown in biology, and other cellular mysteries are now ripe for the picking” he said. The research is the culmination of more than 15 years work by Professor Lithgow, from the newly launched Biomedicine Discovery Institute (BDI) at Monash University. He started working on the process of how proteins and other molecules enter into mitochondria as a post-doctoral researcher for the Human Frontiers Science Program in Basel, and after returning to Australia continued to seek TOM 40’s secret. “With this discovery I’ll focus for a couple more years to transfer this technology across to other labs in Australia, but I will then bow out: we will have by then answered all the questions that have driven me since my time in Switzerland,” he said. The research paper is the first from Monash’s new BDI which announces its presence with research published in Science. According to Professor John Carroll, Director of the BDI, the research is a great example of the interdisciplinary approach that will be the hallmark of the Institute. “We bring scientists from across all the biomedical disciplines together with mathematicians, chemists and others to make important discoveries that provide critical new information about how our bodies function. The international effort needed to unlock this problem is a great example of the global nature of modern biomedical research. It is essential to work with the best and most talented scientists irrespective of where they are based in the world,” he said.–Story Source-The above post is reprinted from materials provided by Monash University-Cite This Page-Monash University. “Secrets of a cellular nanomachine revealed: Learning how any molecule passes through any membrane: Mitochondria are often referred to as the powerhouses of our cells, because they generate chemical energy similar to that obtained from a battery.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 25 September 2015. <>.
    NANOPATCH Technology
    The Nanopatch™ approach consists of an array of thousands of vaccine-coated microprojections that perforate into the outer layers of the skin when applied with an applicator device. The tips of Nanopatch’s microprojections are coated with a vaccine material and release this material directly to the large numbers of key immune cells immediately below the skin surface.–The central element of this technology is the Nanopatch™ array itself which consists of a 1 cm2 square of silicon with ~20,000 microprojections on its surface – invisible to the naked eye. The Nanopatch™ array penetrates through the protective outer skin layer (stratum corneum) and targets immune-activating material to the immune-cell rich layers just beneath the outermost skin layer utilising the microprojections with optimised spacing and length. The result, demonstrated in a mouse model, is an effective increase in immunogenicity, which can be leveraged for two different purposes: either reducing the dose required to achieve efficacy (100-fold reduction has been achieved in the mouse model when delivering Fluvax®), and for amplifying the vaccine efficacy. Pre-clinical experiments have also shown the ability of the Nanopatch™ to remove or significantly reduce the amount of adjuvant required for effective vaccination.–Traditionally, microneedle delivery systems have been held back from commercialisation due in part to challenges in manufacture scaling. Even in early research programs within Professor Kendall’s laboratory, this consideration was always at the forefront of new process developments. At Vaxxas today personnel in both our technical and commercial camps – and those spanning both – are confident that we have a technology which is inherently simple and feasible for high throughput, cost effective manufacture.
    Formulation and coating
    To ensure that the Nanopatch™ device delivers an effective volume of vaccine to the desired targets, it is essential that microprojection arrays are not only fabricated to the correct geometry, but also coated uniformly and consistently. The manufactured patches are coated with a formulation containing the vaccine. Coating methods have been optimised to be scalable and efficiently apply coating formulations rapidly with minimal wastage. The coatings are stable at ambient temperature (avoiding refrigeration requirements) and strong so they remain intact when inserted through the outer skin layer, but release quickly (often seconds) once in contact with moisture within the skin.
    The outer layer of the skin varies its properties considerably depending on age, gender, health and even environmental humidity. This introduces variability which must be overcome to achieve consistent and repeatable vaccine delivery. The Nanopatch™ approach achieves this by combining the coated Nanopatch™ arrays with a carefully considered applicator. The applicator addresses variations in the skin by exploiting our knowledge of the skin’s mechanical properties to achieve uniform penetration and delivery across the natural variation in a patient population. The applicator design overcomes the inconsistency that plagues other transdermal vaccine delivery approaches.